The latest medical research on Addiction Medicine
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about addiction medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Making smoking history: temporal changes in support for a future smoking ban and increasing taxes in the general population of Denmark.Tobacco Control
An end date for smoking has been adopted in several countries and is now being discussed by governments all over the world. However, little is known about temporal changes in citizens' support for a future smoking ban.
To examine temporal changes in support for a future smoking ban and for increasing taxes on tobacco in Denmark, and to explore whether these changes differ across sex, age, educational attainment, smoking status and between smokers with/without intention to quit.
The study was based on two waves of 'The Danish Capital Region Health Survey' conducted in 2013 and 2017. The pooled study sample included 96 521 citizens aged ≥16 years old.
Public support for a future smoking ban increased from 30.6% in 2013 to 50.3% in 2017, whereas support for increasing tobacco taxes remained unchanged at 59%. Support for a future smoking ban increased significantly in almost all subgroups from 2013 to 2017: Support among daily smokers increased by 27% between 2013 and 2017. Support among never smokers was almost 2.63 times higher than among smokers in 2013 and increased further in 2017 (OR: 2013=2.63; 2017=5.13).
This study indicates a readiness to support a future smoking ban and increasing tobacco taxes. Support for a future smoking ban has increased from 2013 to 2017 among both young people and adults. By 2017, about half of the population supported a future smoking ban and increasing tobacco taxes. Findings may help inform policy-making related to endgame strategies.
Quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's pictorial health warnings versus Zambia's single text-only warning: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project.Tobacco Control
Population studies in mostly high-income countries have shown that pictorial health warnings (PHWs) are much more effective than text-only warnings. This is the first quasi-experimental evaluation of the introduction of PHWs in Africa, comparing the change from text-only to PHWs in Kenya to the unchanged text-only health warning in Zambia.
Data were from International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Kenya (n=1495), and Zambia (n=1628), cohort surveys of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in each country. The ITC Kenya Survey was conducted in 2012 and 2018 (2 years after the 2016 introduction of three PHWs). The ITC Zambia Survey was conducted in 2012 and 2014 with no change to the single text-only warning. Validated indicators of health warning effectiveness (HWIs) (salience: noticing, reading; cognitive reactions: thinking about health risks, thinking about quitting; and behavioural reactions: avoiding warnings; forgoing a cigarette because of the warnings), and a summary measure-the Labels Impact Index (LII)-measured changes in warning impact between the two countries.
PHWs implemented in Kenya led to a significant increase in all HWIs and the LII, compared with the text-only warning in Zambia. The failure to implement PHWs in Zambia led to a substantial missed opportunity to increase warning effectiveness (eg, an estimated additional 168 392 smokers in Zambia would have noticed the warnings).
The introduction of PHWs in Kenya substantially increased the effectiveness of warnings. These results provide strong empirical support for 34 African countries that still have text-only warnings, of which 31 are Parties of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and are thus obligated to implement PHWs.
Evidence of cushioning of tobacco tax increases in large retailers in Australia.Tobacco Control
Tobacco companies may attempt to minimise the impact of tobacco tax increases on consumers by gradually passing on the price rise over several months. This study examined whether there was evidence of large Australian tobacco retailers engaging in this practice (known as cushioning) over a period including both routine indexation and large annual tobacco excise increases.
Advertised prices of nine factory-made cigarette (FMC) and nine roll-your-own tobacco (RYO) products were recorded from two stores monthly from December 2016 to December 2019. Per cent change in price from the previous month was analysed for FMC and RYO products, controlling for year, month, tobacco company and supermarket chain.
Significant main effects of month were observed for FMC and RYO products (both p<0.001). Large, significant average increases in per cent change in price were observed in September for FMC (6.51%) and RYO (11.45%) products, the month of the annual excise increase and prices also significantly increased in October (FMC: 3.01%; RYO: 1.91%). Significant increases were also observed in the months after the March annual routine indexation: by 1.10% in May for FMC products and by 1.09% in April for RYO products.
This study has demonstrated evidence of cushioning of tax increases of FMC and RYO products in large Australian supermarkets. The monthly per cent change in price significantly increased several months after routine excise indexation and in the 2 months following a large annual excise increase. Further research with a larger sample of products and stores is needed to confirm these findings.
Analysis of the illicit tobacco market in Georgia in response to fiscal and non-fiscal tobacco control measures.Tobacco Control
Georgian illicit cigarette consumption was 1.5% in 2017. In 2018, a new tobacco control law took effect followed by a substantial cigarette excise tax increase in 2019. Research shows these policies reduce tobacco consumption, but the tobacco industry argues they increase illicit trade. There is limited evidence on this, particularly from developing countries.
A panel household survey in Georgia obtained data over three waves: 2017 baseline, 2018 after the tobacco control law took effect and 2019 after taxes increased. A sample of 1578 smokers (and quitters in later waves) from five regions reported their tobacco use and were asked to present a cigarette pack in their possession. These were examined for tax stamps and health warnings to establish legality.
There was no evidence of an increase in illicit cigarette consumption in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Akhaltsikhe or Gori in any wave. In Zugdidi, near the Russian-occupied Abkhazia, illicit cigarette consumption was increasing even prior to the tax increase, reaching 30.9% by wave 3. A country-wide shift occurred from manufactured cigarettes to roll-your-own tobacco (whose tax remained unchanged) between waves 2 and 3.
No evidence of a country-wide increase in illicit cigarette trade was found after non-fiscal tobacco measures took effect and cigarette taxes increased. Relatively high illicit cigarette consumption in Zugdidi highlights the role of disputed territories and border administration in illicit cigarette supply. Substitution towards roll-your-own tobacco after manufactured cigarette taxes increased demonstrates the importance of equalising taxes on tobacco products to maximise public health benefits.
Hypothetical flavour ban and intention to vape among vape shop customers: the role of flavour preference and e-cigarette dependence.Tobacco Control
E-cigarette users typically initiate vaping with flavoured e-liquids. People who vape flavours tend to underestimate the harm of vaping. We examined the inter-relationship between flavour preference, vaping for cessation purposes, e-cigarette dependence, e-cigarette harm perception and purchase/use intention, given a hypothetical flavour ban. We hypothesised that non-tobacco flavour preference and vaping for cessation would be negatively associated with harm perception of e-cigarettes and intention to continue vaping if a flavour ban occurred and that these effects would be mediated by e-cigarette dependence.
From July 2019 to March 2020, we conducted intercept interviews with 276 customers at 44 vape shops in California. The predictor variables were flavour preference and vaping for cessation. The outcome variables were harm perception of e-cigarettes and intention to purchase/use, given a hypothetical flavour ban. Multilevel structural equation modelling tested whether e-cigarette dependence mediates the effects of flavour preference on hypothetical continued vaping and purchase.
Those who preferred flavours showed significantly lower intention to purchase e-liquids (β=-0.28, p<0.001) and to continue vaping (β=-0.17, p=0.001), given a hypothetical flavour ban. Those who vaped for smoking cessation indicated greater intention to purchase e-liquid (β=0.10, p=0.016) and to continue vaping (β=0.17, p=0.001), given a hypothetical flavour ban. E-cigarette dependence significantly mediated these effects (ps<0.04).
Flavour preference was negatively related to intention to continue to vape within a hypothetical flavour ban. Our results also highlight the importance of e-cigarette dependence and use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation methods. Implications for future flavour bans are discussed.
Sleep and neighborhood socioeconomic status: a micro longitudinal study of chronic low-back pain and pain-free individuals.Behavioral Medicine
Individuals with chronic low back pain (cLBP) frequently report sleep disturbances. Living in a neighborhood characterized by low-socioeconomic sta...
Support for cigarette filter waste policies among US adults.Tobacco Control
Little is known on whether cigarette filter-related knowledge or beliefs are associated with support for policies to reduce their environmental impact.
A cross-sectional, population-based sample of US adults aged 18-64 years (n=2979) was used to evaluate filter-related knowledge and beliefs by smoking status using data collected between 24 October 2018 and 17 December 2018. Multivariate logistic regression models explored whether these knowledge and belief items were associated with support for two policies, a US$0.75 litter fee and a ban on sales of filtered cigarettes, controlling for demographic characteristics and smoking status.
Regardless of smoking status, 71% did not know plastic was a cigarette filter component and 20% believed filters were biodegradable. Overall, 23% believed filters reduce health harms and 60% believed filters make it easier to smoke; 90% believed cigarette butts are harmful to the environment. Individuals believing cigarette butts harmed the environment were more likely to support a litter fee (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.33, 95% CI: 1.71 to 3.17). Individuals believing that filters are not biodegradable had higher odds of supporting a litter fee (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.88). Respondents believing that filters do not make cigarettes less harmful were more likely to support a litter fee (aOR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.88) and filter ban (aOR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.64 to 2.50). Belief that filters make it easier to smoke was associated with decreased support for a filter ban (aOR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.83).
Comprehensive efforts are needed to educate the public about the impact of cigarette filters in order to build support for effective tobacco product waste policy.
Underutilisation of no-tobacco-sale orders against retailers that repeatedly sell to minors, 2015-2019, USA.Tobacco Control
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts compliance checks, issues fines, and can order retailers to stop selling tobacco products (ie, no-tobacco-sale orders (NTSOs)) to enforce the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We sought to assess FDA's utilisation of NTSOs.
We conducted a quantitative content analysis of FDA's enforcement actions for inspections decided between 1 October 2015 and 29 March 2019. From the 536 134 inspection records we identified 148 NTSOs and 249 720 unique retailer locations, of which 2095 had three or more violations. We randomly sampled NTSOs (n=76) and retail locations (n=152) with frequent violations. We calculated the proportion of NTSOs that could have been issued earlier by FDA. We then calculated the proportion of retailers that could have been issued an NTSO, and the proportion actually issued an NTSO using FDA's approach and a more stringent approach.
Among NTSOs, 94.7% (95% CI: 89.8% to 97.4%) of NTSOs could have been issued earlier under a more stringent approach. On average, when an NTSO could have been issued earlier, it could have been issued 453 days earlier (95% CI: 418 to 489; range: 89-1159). Among frequently violating retail locations, 73.6% (95% CI: 66.0% to 80.0%) were eligible for an NTSO. Of those, 1.9% (95% CI: 0.5% to 7.0%) had received an NTSO.
The FDA's failure to fully leverage its powers to address retailers' underage sales of tobacco products has weakened efforts to curb the youth e-cigarette epidemic.
Trends in e-cigarette brands, devices and the nicotine profile of products used by youth in England, Canada and the USA: 2017-2019.Tobacco Control
The e-cigarette market has rapidly evolved, with a shift towards higher nicotine concentration and salt-based products, such as JUUL; however, the implications for youth vaping remain unclear.
Repeat cross-sectional online surveys were conducted in 2017, 2018 and 2019, with national samples of youth aged 16-19 years recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n=12 018), England (n=11 362) and the USA (n=12 110). Regression models examined differences between countries and over time in the types of e-cigarette products used (design and nicotine content), reasons for using brands and differences in patterns of use, sociodemographics and dependence symptoms by brand/nicotine content.
In 2019, the use of pod- or cartridge-style e-cigarettes was greater in Canada and the USA than England, with Smok and JUUL the leading brands in all countries. In 2019, youth vapers in England were less likely to report using e-cigarettes with ≥2% nicotine (12.8%) compared with Canada (40.5%; adjusted OR (AOR)=4.96; 95% CI 3.51 to 7.01) and the USA (37.0%; AOR=3.99, 95% CI 2.79 to 5.71) and less likely to report using nicotine salt-based products (12.3%) compared with Canada (27.1%; AOR=2.77, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.99) and the USA (21.9%; AOR=2.00, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.95). In 2019, self-reported use of products with higher nicotine concentration was associated with significantly greater frequency of vaping, urges to vape and perceived vaping addiction (p<0.05 for all).
The use of high-nicotine salt-based products is associated with greater symptoms of dependence, including JUUL and other higher-nicotine brands. Greater use of high-nicotine salt-based products may account for recent increases in the frequency of vaping among youth in Canada and the USA.
Implementation of a comprehensive flavoured tobacco product sales restriction and retail tobacco sales.Tobacco Control
San Francisco's comprehensive restriction on flavoured tobacco sales applies to all flavours (including menthol), all products and all retailers (without exemptions). This study evaluates associations of policy implementation with changes in tobacco sales in San Francisco and in two California cities without any sales restriction.
Using weekly retail sales data (July 2015 through December 2019), we computed sales volume in equivalent units within product categories and the proportion of flavoured tobacco. An interrupted time series analysis estimated within-city changes associated with the policy's effective and enforcement dates, separately by product category for San Francisco and comparison cities, San Jose and San Diego.
Predicted average weekly flavoured tobacco sales decreased by 96% from before the policy to after enforcement (p<0.05), and to very low levels across all products, including cigars with concept-flavour names (eg, Jazz). Average weekly flavoured tobacco sales did not change in San Jose and decreased by 10% in San Diego (p<0.05). Total tobacco sales decreased by 25% in San Francisco, 8% in San Jose and 17% in San Diego (each, p<0.05).
San Francisco's comprehensive restriction virtually eliminated flavoured tobacco sales and decreased total tobacco sales in mainstream retailers. Unlike other US flavoured tobacco policy evaluations, there was no evidence of substitution to concept-flavour named products. Results may be attributed to San Francisco Department of Health's self-education and rigorous retailer education, as well as the law's rebuttable presumption of a product as flavoured based on manufacturer communication.
Primary care-based smoking cessation treatment and subsequent healthcare service utilisation: a matched cohort study of smokers using linked administrative healthcare data.Tobacco Control
No research has assessed the individual-level impact of smoking cessation treatment delivered within a general primary care patient population on multiple forms of subsequent healthcare service use.
We aimed to compare the rate of outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations during a 5-year follow-up period among smokers who had and had not accessed a smoking cessation treatment programme.
The study was a retrospective matched cohort study using linked demographic and administrative healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. 9951 patients who accessed smoking cessation services between July 2011 and December 2012 were matched to a smoker who did not access services, obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey, using a combination of hard matching and propensity score matching. Outcomes were rates of healthcare service use from index date (programme enrolment or survey response) to March 2017.
After controlling for potential confounders, patients in the overall treatment cohort had modestly greater rates of the outcomes: outpatient visits (rate ratio (RR) 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.14), ED visits (RR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.13) and hospitalisations (RR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.18). Effect modification of the association between smoking cessation treatment and healthcare service use by prevalent comorbidity was found for outpatient visits (p=0.006), and hospitalisations (p=0.050), but not ED visits.
Patients who enrolled in smoking cessation treatment offered through primary care clinics in Ontario displayed a modest but significantly greater rate of outpatient visits, ED visits and hospitalisations over a 5-year follow-up period.
Non-fatal gun violence and community health behaviors: A neighborhood analysis in Philadelphia.Behavioral Medicine
Research shows that community violence is associated with an array of negative health outcomes, yet no study has examined the specific association ...