The latest medical research on Addiction Medicine
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about addiction medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Heated tobacco products use in Chinese adults in Hong Kong: a population-based cross-sectional study.Tobacco Control
We investigated heated tobacco products (HTPs) use and associated factors in Chinese adults in Hong Kong where HTPs are not formally marketed yet, and cigarette smoking prevalence was the lowest in the developed world.
A population-based landline telephone survey in 2017 interviewed 5131 (45.2% male; 26.7% aged ≥60) adults to collect information on awareness, intention to use, ever use of HTPs, cigarette smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were weighted by the age, sex and smoking status of the Hong Kong adult population. Sociodemographics were mutually adjusted in logistic regression to yield adjusted ORs (AORs) for awareness of HTPs, controlling for smoking status.
Overall, 11.3% (95% CI 10.0% to 12.7%) were aware of HTPs and 1.0 % (0.8%-1.2%) had ever used it. Awareness was associated with aged 40-49 years (AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.87) or 30-39 years (2.03, 1.41-2.91) (vs ≥60 years), born in Hong Kong (1.37, 1.11-1.68) and higher monthly household income (p for trend 0.001). Ever HTP users had higher educational attainment and monthly household income, and more were aged 30-39 and economically active (all p<0.003). In never HTP users, intention to use HTPs (7.3%, 4.9%-10.8%) were more prevalent in respondents with similar characteristics (all p<0.008). More current (vs never) smokers were aware of HTPs, intent to use HTPs and had ever used HTPs (all p<0.001).
Higher socioeconomic status was associated with HTP use and intention to use. Public health education on HTPs is needed especially for this high-risk group.
Cigarette smoking quit ratios among adults in the USA with cannabis use and cannabis use disorders, 2002-2016.Tobacco Control
The prevalence of cigarette smoking is nearly three times higher among persons who use cannabis and have cannabis use disorders (CUDs), relative to those who do not. The current study examined cigarette quit ratios from 2002 to 2016 among US adults with and without cannabis use and CUDs.
The current study analysed US adults aged 18 years and older from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional study. Quit ratios (ie, proportion of former smokers among ever-smokers) were calculated annually from 2002 to 2016. Time trends in quit ratios by cannabis use/CUDs were tested using logistic regression.
In 2016, the quit ratios for people with any cannabis use (23%) and CUDs (15%) were less than half the quit ratios of those without cannabis use and CUDs (51% and 48%, respectively). After controlling for demographics and substance use disorders, the quit ratio did not change from 2002 to 2016 among persons with CUD, though it non-linearly increased among persons with cannabis use, without cannabis use and without CUDs. Quit ratios increased more rapidly among those who reported past-month cannabis use compared with those without past-month cannabis use.
Cigarette smoking quit ratios remain dramatically lower among people who use cannabis and have CUDs and quit ratios did not change significantly from 2002 to 2016 among those with CUDs. Public health and clinical attention are needed to increase quit ratios and reduce harmful cigarette smoking consequences for persons with cannabis use and CUDs.
Impact of the NHS Stop Smoking Services on smoking prevalence in England: a simulation modelling evaluation.Tobacco Control
The English National Health Service NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS), established in 2001, were the first such services in the world. An appropriate evaluation of the SSS has national and international significance. This modelling study sought to evaluate the impact of the SSS on changes in smoking prevalence in England.
A discrete time state-transition model was developed to simulate changes in smoking status among the adult population in England during 2001-2016. Input parameters were based on data from national statistics, population representative surveys and published literature. The main outcome was the percentage point reduction in smoking prevalence attributable to the SSS.
Smoking prevalence was reduced by 10.8 % in absolute terms during 2001-2016 in England, and 15.3 % of the reduction could be attributable to the SSS. The percentage point reduction in smoking prevalence each year was on average 0.72%, and 0.11 % could be attributable to the SSS. The proportion of SSS supported quit attempts increased from 5.5 % in 2001, to as high as 18.9 % in 2011, and then reduced to 8.2 % in 2016. Quit attempts with SSS support had a higher success rate than those without SSS support (15.1% vs 11.3%). Smoking prevalence in England continued to decline after the SSS was much reduced from 2013 onwards.
Approximately 15% of the percentage point reduction in smoking prevalence during 2001-2016 in England may be attributable to the NHS SSS, although uncertainty remains regarding the actual impact of the formal smoking cessation services.
Have e-cigarettes renormalised or displaced youth smoking? Results of a segmented regression analysis of repeated cross sectional survey data in England, Scotland and Wales.Tobacco Control
To examine whether during a period of limited e-cigarette regulation and rapid growth in their use, smoking began to become renormalised among young people.
Primary outcomes were prevalence of self-reported ever smoking and regular smoking. Secondary outcomes were attitudes towards smoking. Tertiary outcomes were ever use of cannabis and alcohol.
In final models, no significant change was detected in the pre-existing trend for ever smoking (OR 1.01, CI 0.99 to 1.03). There was a marginally significant slowing in the rate of decline for regular smoking (OR 1.04, CI 1.00 to 1.08), accompanied by a larger slowing in the rate of decline of cannabis use (OR 1.21, CI 1.18 to 1.25) and alcohol use (OR 1.17, CI 1.14 to 1.19). In all models and subgroup analyses for smoking attitudes, an increased rate of decline was observed after 2010 (OR 0.88, CI 0.86 to 0.90). Models were robust to sensitivity analyses.
There was a marginal slowing in the decline in regular smoking during the period following 2010, when e-cigarettes were emerging but relatively unregulated. However, these patterns were not unique to tobacco use and the decline in the acceptability of smoking behaviour among youth accelerated during this time. These analyses provide little evidence that renormalisation of youth smoking was occurring during a period of rapid growth and limited regulation of e-cigarettes from 2011 to 2015.
Research registry number: researchregistry4336.
Impact of flavoured tobacco restriction policies on flavoured product availability in Massachusetts.Tobacco Control
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of flavoured tobacco product restriction policies in reducing availability of flavoured products in Massachusetts communities.
Data were obtained from surveys of tobacco retailers conducted from July 2015 to March 2017. On a community level, flavoured product availability was defined as the per cent of retailers during a given 3-month quarter that sold flavoured cigars/cigarillos, electronic cigarettes and/or e-liquids. Communities that implemented the policy during the study period were grouped into wave 1 (n=18; 1481 retail surveys) and wave 2 (n=20; 483 retail surveys) by date of policy implementation; communities without a flavoured product restriction served as the control group (n=234; 4932 retail surveys). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to compare the change in flavoured product availability in wave 1 and wave 2 communities 3 months pre-policy and post-policy implementation to the change over the same time periods in the control group.
From pre-policy to post-policy implementation period, communities in both waves experienced significant reductions in flavoured product availability (ranging from 27.2% to 50.9%), even after adjusting for community-level characteristics. In both waves 1 and 2, reductions in flavoured product availability were significantly greater compared with comparison communities during the same time frame, adjusting for community-level characteristics.
Compliance with flavoured product restriction policies is high among tobacco retailers throughout Massachusetts, regardless of community demographic and retail characteristics. Reduced availability of flavoured tobacco in the retail environment has the potential to reduce youth exposure, access and use of these products.
Adolescent males' responses to blu's fake warnings.Tobacco Control
Blu's 'Something Better' advertising campaign ran in popular print magazines in 2017. The campaign included advertisements with fake warnings conveying positive messages, which mimicked the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s warning requirements for electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements that took effect in 2018. We report adolescent males' recall of these fake warnings and how exposure to fake warnings affected recall of other advertisement components, including the actual warning or health risks, brand and product.
Ohio males ages 12-19 years (N = 775; 73.8 % white non-Hispanic) were randomly assigned to view an e-cigarette advertisement with or without a fake warning. Afterward, they were asked what they remembered most about the advertisement. Responses were qualitatively coded. Statistical analyses included survey-weighted descriptive statistics and logistic regression.
Of participants who viewed an e-cigarette advertisement with a fake warning, 27.0 % reported the fake warning was what they remembered most, and 18.8 % repeated the fake warning message. Participants viewing advertisements with a fake warning had lower odds of recalling the actual warning or health risks (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.77) or brand (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.85), compared with participants viewing other e-cigarette advertisements.
Adolescents viewing an advertisement with a fake warning were less likely to recall the advertisement's actual warning or health risks. Although e-cigarette advertisements now carry large FDA-mandated warnings, this tactic could be used for cigarette advertisements that continue to carry small warnings in the USA. Findings underscore the necessity of tobacco advertisement surveillance and study of advertisements' effects on adolescents.
Assessment of tobacco imagery and compliance with tobacco-free rules in popular Indian films.Tobacco Control
Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India.
We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016. We also assessed compliance with tobacco-free film rules in India.
A total of 47 films, in English, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu languages were coded. Any tobacco imagery was observed in 72% of films, and actual tobacco use in 50%. Tobacco imagery was equally prevalent in films classified as suitable for universal viewing (U category) or at age 12 or more (U/A category) films; and significantly more common in films made in regional than national language (Hindi). None of the films were fully compliant with legal requirements on health spots, audiovisual disclaimers and health warnings.
Tobacco content was common in films classified as suitable for viewing by children, more among regional than national languages. Compliance with tobacco control laws was low. Stricter enforcement of tobacco-free film rules will protect children and adolescents from exposure to tobacco use on screen.
Categorising characteristics of counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes: a systematic review of tobacco industry documents.Tobacco Control
There is scant research on methods used to identify counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes.
Systematic analysis of internal tobacco industry documents characteristics of counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes.
In the industry documents we identified as relevant, there were 42 characteristics of counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes. Overall, physical characteristics (88.1%) were the most commonly identified features across all locations, with the pack blank, cardboard shell of the cigarette pack, as the dominant site (30.9%). Some of the physical characteristics included offset lithography printing, incorrect font and colour. Overall, light microscopy was identified as the main method of forensic analysis for detecting counterfeits.
Independent researchers employing litter pack and pack swap surveys are encouraged to use the characteristics identified in the study to gauge the prevalence of counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes and compare against industry estimates.
Randomised controlled trial of real-time feedback and brief coaching to reduce indoor smoking.Tobacco Control
The primary outcome was 'particle events' (PEs) which were patterns of air particle concentrations indicative of the occurrence of particle-generating behaviours such as smoking cigarettes or burning candles. Other measures included indoor air nicotine concentrations and participant reports of particle-generating behaviour.
PEs were significantly correlated with air nicotine levels (r=0.60) and reported indoor cigarette smoking (r=0.51). Interrupted time-series analyses showed an immediate intervention effect, with reduced PEs the day following intervention initiation. The trajectory of daily PEs over the intervention period declined significantly faster in intervention homes than in control homes. Pretest to post-test, air nicotine levels, cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use decreased more in intervention homes than in control homes.
Results suggest that real-time particle feedback and coaching contingencies reduced PEs generated by cigarette smoking and other sources.
Cigarette pricing 1 year after new restrictions on tobacco industry retailer programmes in Quebec, Canada.Tobacco Control
Over the past 15 years, tobacco companies operating in Canada abandoned their long-standing unitary price model in favour of price differentiation. Concerns about low cigarette prices were identified by the Quebec government in 2015 when it introduced restrictions on the types of incentives that tobacco manufacturers may offer to retailers. This study sought to explore cigarette prices in Quebec 1 year after these restrictions came into effect.
Details on cigarette trading terms and programmes were obtained from websites maintained by retailer groups. Visits were made to tobacco retailers in four Quebec municipalities in the autumn of 2017. The price displayed for cigarettes was observed and recorded in 273 convenience stores.
Two forms of price differentiation were observed. The first was price-segmentation between brands, reflected in a difference of $3 or more in the average displayed price between premium and discount brands of each manufacturer (ie, $10.48 vs $7.43 for a package of 20 cigarettes of the most and least expensive brands sold by Philip Morris International). Price localisation was also observed, reflected in a $2 range of prices between retail outlets for the same package of cigarettes. Even among outlets of a given chain of convenience stores, the price of the least expensive brands varied by more than $1 per package. The size of the variance in prices rivals or exceeds the size of tobacco tax increases in Quebec over the past decade.
Recent restrictions on tobacco industry incentive programmes for retailers have not ended price differentiation. Tobacco manufacturers' and retailers' pricing policies continue to provide price-sensitive smokers with ways to avoid the impact of tobacco tax increases.
'Both Sides of the Argument'? A critical review of existing evidence on the illicit trade in tobacco products in Canada.Tobacco Control
The illicit trade in tobacco products (ITTP) is widely recognised as a substantial and complex problem in Canada. However, the independence of available data and quality of analyses remains unknown. Reliable and accurate data on the scale and causes of the problem are needed to inform effective policy responses.
We searched the scholarly and grey literature using keywords related to ITTP in Canada. We identified 26 studies published in English since 2008 that present original research drawing on primary data. We analysed these studies for their independence from the tobacco industry, methodology, findings and gaps in knowledge.
The study finds 42% of the literature reviewed has links to the tobacco industry. These studies provide insufficient methodological detail, present higher estimates of the volume of ITTP and attribute the causes to higher rates of tobacco taxation. The classification of all indigenous tobacco sales as illicit, by both industry linked and independent studies, contributes to overestimates and serves the interests of transnational tobacco companies. There is need for independent and comprehensive data on the ITTP in Canada over time, across population groups and geographies.
While there is evidence that the ITTP in Canada is a major and complex issue that requires effective tobacco control policies, there is a limited evidence base on which to develop such responses. This review finds industry-linked studies lack independence, employ biased methodologies and serve tobacco industry interests. Independent studies present more rigorous approaches, but primarily focus on youth and the province of Ontario.
Characteristics and toxicant emissions of JUUL electronic cigarettes.Tobacco Control
JUUL is an electronic cigarette (ECIG) with a compact form factor. It is prefilled with a liquid that is advertised to contain a high concentration of nicotine salt. JUUL commands 50% of the US ECIG market share, and its wide popularity with underage users has triggered unprecedented actions by the US FDA. Apart from its nicotine salt-containing liquid and compact form, a salient advertised design feature is a control circuit that limits the heating coil temperature, presumably reducing unwanted toxicants. In this study, several tobacco-flavoured JUUL devices were reverse engineered, and their aerosol emissions were studied.
Total nicotine and its partitioning (freebase and protonated), propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) ratio, and carbonyls were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The temperature control functionality of JUUL was investigated using a temperature-controlled bath in which the coil was submerged.
The liquid nicotine concentration was found to be 69 mg/mL, and the liquid and aerosol PG/VG ratio was found to be 30/70. In 15 puffs, JUUL emitted 2.05 (0.08) mg of nicotine, overwhelmingly in the protonated form. Carbonyl yields were significantly lower than those reported for combustible cigarettes, but similar to other closed-system ECIG devices. The heating coil resistance was 1.6 (0.66) Ohm, while the maximum power delivered by the JUUL device was 8.1 W. The control circuit limited the peak operating temperature to approximately 215C.
JUUL emits a high-nicotine concentration aerosol predominantly in the protonated form. JUUL's nicotine-normalised formaldehyde and total aldehyde yields are lower than other previously studied ECIGs and combustible cigarettes.