The latest medical research on Anesthesiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about anesthesiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Development and Validation of an Electronic Postoperative Morbidity Score.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Electronic health records are being adopted due to numerous potential benefits. This requires the development of objective metrics to characterize morbidity, comparable to studies performed in centers without an electronic health record. We outline the development of an electronic version of the postoperative morbidity score for integration into our electronic health record.

Two hundred and three frail patients who underwent elective surgery were reviewed. We retrospectively defined postoperative morbidity score on postoperative day 3. We also recorded potential electronic surrogates for morbidities that could not be easily extracted in an objective format. We compared discriminative capability (area under the receiver operator curve) for patients having prolonged length of stay or complex discharge requirements.

One hundred thirty-nine patients (68%) had morbidity in ≥1 postoperative morbidity score domain. Initial electronic surrogates were overly sensitive, identifying 173 patients (84%) as having morbidity. We refined our definitions using backward logistic regression against "gold-standard" postoperative morbidity score. The final electronic postoperative morbidity score differed from the initial version in its definition of cardiac and neurological morbidity. There was no significant difference in the discriminative capability between electronic postoperative morbidity score and postoperative morbidity score for either outcome (area under the receiver operator curve: 0.66 vs 0.66 for complex discharge requirement, area under the receiver operator curve: 0.66 vs 0.67 for a prolonged length of stay; P> .05 for both). Patients with postoperative morbidity score or electronic postoperative morbidity score-defined morbidity on day 3 had increased risk of prolonged length of stay (P < .001 for both).

We present a variant of postoperative morbidity score based on objective electronic metrics. Discriminative performance appeared comparable to gold-standard definitions for discharge outcomes. Electronic postoperative morbidity score may allow characterization of morbidity within our electronic health record, but further study is required to assess external validity.

Impact of Anesthetics on Human Neutrophil Function.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Anesthetics are widely used drugs administered in a multitude of clinical settings. Their impacts on various functions of the immune system have be...

Ryanodine Receptor to Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Pathway Plays an Important Role in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120MN-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Chronic pain is one of the most common complaints in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and mitochondrial oxidative stress are involved in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. Here, we investigated the role of RyR and mitochondrial superoxide in neuropathic pain induced by repeated intrathecal HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) injection.

Recombinant HIV glycoprotein gp120MN was intrathecally administered to induce neuropathic pain. Mechanical threshold was tested using von Frey filaments. Peripheral nerve fiber was assessed by the quantification of the intraepidermal nerve fiber density in the skin of the hindpaw. The expression of spinal RyR was examined using Western blots. Colocalization of RyR with neuronal nuclei (NeuN; neuron marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; astrocyte marker), or ionizing calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1; microglia marker) in the spinal cord was examined using immunohistochemistry. MitoSox-positive profiles (a mitochondrial-targeted fluorescent superoxide indicator) were examined. The antiallodynic effects of intrathecal administration of RyR antagonist, dantrolene (a clinical drug for malignant hyperthermia management), or selective mitochondrial superoxide scavenger, Mito-Tempol, were evaluated in the model.

We found that repeated but not single intrathecal injection of recombinant protein gp120 induced persistent mechanical allodynia. Intraepidermal nerve fibers in repeated gp120 group was lower than that in sham at 2 weeks, and the difference in means (95% confidence interval) was 8.495 (4.79-12.20), P = .0014. Repeated gp120 increased expression of RyR, and the difference in means (95% confidence interval) was 1.50 (0.504-2.495), P = .007. Repeated gp120 also increased mitochondrial superoxide cell number in the spinal cord, and the difference in means (95% confidence interval) was 6.99 (5.99-8.00), P < .0001. Inhibition of spinal RyR or selective mitochondrial superoxide scavenger dose dependently reduced mechanical allodynia induced by repeated gp120 injection. RyR and mitochondrial superoxide were colocalized in the neuron, but not glia. Intrathecal injection of RyR inhibitor lowered mitochondrial superoxide in the spinal cord dorsal horn in the gp120 neuropathic pain model.

These data suggest that repeated intrathecal HIV gp120 injection induced an acute to chronic pain translation in rats, and that neuronal RyR and mitochondrial superoxide in the spinal cord dorsal horn played an important role in the HIV neuropathic pain model. The current results provide evidence for a novel approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms of HIV chronic pain and treating chronic pain in patients with HIV.

Endovascular treatment of cephalic arch stenosis in brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The journal of vascular access

The aim of this study is to appraise the current literature on the endovascular management options and their outcomes of cephalic arch stenosis in the setting of a failing brachiocephalic fistula for hemodialysis.

A systematic search of the literature was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar from January 2000 to December 2017 in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines to investigate the outcomes of endovascular management of cephalic arch stenosis. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies, published in the English language, were extracted to determine pooled proportion of primary and secondary patency, using a random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses of stent grafts, bare metal stents, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty outcomes were performed.

Of the 125 total studies, 11 were included for analysis by consensus. Overall, 457 patients were reviewed and analyzed for primary and secondary patency rates at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. There was significantly higher primary patency at both 6 and 12 months in the stent graft group compared to those who received bare metal stents or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (relative risk = 0.30-0.31, relative risk = 0.34-0.59, respectively; p < 0.01). Higher secondary patency rates were noted in the bare metal stents cohort compared to the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty cohort at 12 months (relative risk = 0.17, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-0.26; p < 0.01).

This study demonstrated a significant benefit in using stent grafts in cephalic arch stenosis compared to bare metal stents or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with higher primary and secondary patency rates.

Peripherally inserted central catheter, midline, and "short" midline in palliative care: Patient-reported outcome measures to assess impact on quality of care.

The journal of vascular access

A prospective, observational study was conducted in our palliative care unit to assess the impact of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), midline, and "short" midline catheters on the quality of care in cancer and non-cancer patients. The secondary objective was to assess pain and distress during vascular access device insertion.

Patients were recruited if they underwent insertion of a PICC, midline, or "short" midline catheter as part of their standard care. The Palliative care Outcome Scale was used to assess changes in quality of care after vascular access device positioning. A numerical rating scale was used to measure pain intensity during catheter insertion.

Of the 90 patients enrolled, 52.2% were male with a mean age of 73.0 ± 13 years. Among these patients, 64.4% patients underwent "short" midline insertion, 26.7% PICC, and 8.9% midline catheter. The patients' mean baseline Palliative care Outcome Scale score was 15.7 ± 5.6. Three days after vascular access device positioning, the patients' mean Palliative care Outcome Scale score was 11.5 ± 5.5 (p < 0.0001). Mean pain score during vascular access device insertion was 1.26 ± 1.63, and mean procedural distress score was 1.78 ± 1.93.

These findings suggest that medium-term intravenous catheters can have a favorable impact on quality of care and the procedures for these vascular access device insertions are well tolerated. Further research on the performance of different vascular access devices and their appropriateness in palliative care should be encouraged.

The impact of functioning hemodialysis arteriovenous accesses on renal graft perfusion: Results of a pilot study.

The journal of vascular access

After a kidney transplant, it is unknown whether the maintenance of a functioning hemodialysis arteriovenous access could have deleterious effects on renal grafts. We hypothesize that maintaining an arteriovenous access can deviate a significant proportion of the cardiac output from the renal graft. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a temporary closure of the arteriovenous access could lead to an increase in graft perfusion.

We conducted a study in 17 kidney-transplanted patients with a functioning arteriovenous access. We evaluated, at baseline and 30 s after compression of the arteriovenous access (access flow occlusion), the hemodynamic parameters and the renal resistive index of the graft by Doppler ultrasound.

After arteriovenous access occlusion 82.4% (n = 14) of the patients had a decrease in resistive index. All patients had a decrease in heart rate (67 vs 58 bpm, p < 0.001) and 14 (82.4%) had an increase in mean blood pressure (98.3 vs 101.7 mm Hg, p = 0.044). There was a significant decrease in the resistive index (ΔRI) after the access occlusion (0.68 vs 0.64, p = 0.030). We found a negative correlation in Qa (r2 = -0.55, p = 0.022) with the ΔRI, and Qa was an independent predictor of ΔRI in a model adjusted to pre-occlusion resistive index.

Our results showed that temporary occlusion of an arteriovenous access causes a significant decline in renal graft resistive index and this decline is higher with the occlusion of accesses with higher Qa. These results suggest that the maintenance of arteriovenous accesses, mainly those with higher Qa, can decrease renal graft perfusion.

Transjugular percutaneous endovascular treatment of dysfunctional hemodialysis access.

The journal of vascular access

To evaluate the feasibility and the outcomes of transjugular percutaneous endovascular treatment of dysfunctional hemodialysis access in patients with chronic kidney disease.

A total of 50 transjugular treatments in 38 patients with arteriovenous fistulas or arteriovenous grafts from September 2011 to May 2015 were included in this study. Medical records and angiographies were retrospectively reviewed. Success rate, patency rate, procedure time, and complications including internal jugular vein stenosis were evaluated.

A total of 50 sessions of transjugular treatments were performed in 38 patients. There were 31 native arteriovenous fistulas including 10 immature cases and 19 arteriovenous grafts. Among the 50 cases, technical success was achieved in 45 and clinical success was achieved in 44; 37 cases (74%) with multiple stenotic sites were treated by the transjugular approach without placement of cross-sheaths. The mean time from puncture of the internal jugular vein to first fistulography was 10 min, and the mean total procedure time was 64 min. The primary patency rate at 6 months was 77%, while the secondary patency rate at 6 months was 97%. Perforation occurred in two cases during conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after failure of the transjugular approach. One dissection occurred during the transjugular approach. There was no newly developed internal jugular vein stenosis during a mean follow-up period of 19.3 months.

For the treatment of dysfunctional or immature hemodialysis access, the transjugular approach is a feasible and effective option that avoids injury to the graft or draining vein, especially in immature fistulas.

Emergency brachial artery ligation for ruptured infected pseudoaneurysm of haemodialysis access is a possible option.

The journal of vascular access

For patients with end-stage renal disease, a good vascular access is essential for chronic haemodialysis. Surgically created access arteriovenous fistula for haemodialysis is associated with multiple complications, and ruptured pseudoaneurysm being the most life threatening and dreaded of all. The management of this complication warrants emergency procedure, although timely diagnosis and arteriovenous fistula salvage has been emphasised. In this study, we describe the surgical technique and outcomes of ligation of the proximal arteriovenous fistula as a plausible alternative and life-saving procedure.

This is a retrospective study performed between January 2011 and December 2016. A total of 588 native arteriovenous fistula-related surgeries were performed, of which 18 patients (3.06%) developed delayed complication of infected pseudoaneurysm and rupture. All presented to the emergency care with life-threatening bleeding. We describe the surgical technique as a life-saving measure to this fatal complication.

Proximal arteriovenous fistula has higher incidence of aneurysmal complications than distal ones. Ligation of the brachial artery which was a 'grey zone' of unpredictable prognosis has yielded good results and can be safely performed in desperate situations with low complication rates.

Long-term outcomes of the 'primary extension technique' in the prevention of Steal syndrome.

The journal of vascular access

To report our 13 years of experience with the 'primary extension technique' for the prevention of dialysis-associated steal syndrome.

All diabetic patients undergoing upper arm autogenous elbow fistula formation using the primary extension technique between September 2001 and September 2014 at a single centre were included. At follow-up all patients were evaluated for patency, adequacy of needling and the presence or absence of steal symptoms. In primary extension technique, the fistula is formed by anastomosing the median cubital vein with the proximal radial or ulnar artery just below the brachial artery bifurcation.

In total, 64 operations of the primary extension technique were included in this study. All patients were diabetic. Primary failure was 5%, follow-up 23-84 months. Nine patients (14%) developed cephalic vein thrombosis. In these cases, the basilic vein was successfully transposed to the existing fistula. In eight patients (12.5%), the cephalic vein required superficialisation. In three patients, the flow was preferentially into the basilic vein with poor maturation of cephalic vein. Of these three patients, there was a small proximal cephalic vein in one patient and stenosis in the other two patients. One patient who developed dialysis-associated steal syndrome is included in the results as they were listed for primary extension technique fistula formation but in fact did not have their fistula formed using primary extension technique. Instead, the anastomosis was formed proximal to the bifurcation of the brachial artery. Symptoms improved with revision of the fistula.

Our 13-year experience demonstrates that the primary extension technique is a safe and effective procedure for fistula formation. Patency rates are comparable to brachio-cephalic and brachio-basilic fistulas and primary extension technique is effective in the prevention of dialysis-associated steal syndrome.

A Comparison of Spinal Anesthesia Versus Monitored Anesthesia Care With Local Anesthesia in Minimally Invasive Fetal Surgery.

Anesthesia and analgesia

Minimally invasive fetal surgery is commonly performed to treat twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome with selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation and twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence using radiofrequency ablation. Although an increasing number of centers worldwide are performing these procedures, anesthetic management varies. Both neuraxial anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care with local anesthesia are used at different institutions. We sought to determine the efficacy and outcomes of these 2 anesthetic techniques for fetal procedures at our institution.

All patients undergoing minimally invasive fetal surgery for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome or twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence over a 6-year time period (2011-2016) were reviewed. Patients receiving monitored anesthesia care with local anesthesia were compared with those receiving spinal anesthesia in both selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation and radiofrequency ablation fetal procedures. The primary outcome examined between the monitored anesthesia care and spinal anesthesia groups was the difference in conversion to general anesthesia using a noninferiority design with a noninferiority margin of 5%. Secondary outcome measures included use of vasopressors, procedure times, intraoperative fluids administered, maternal complications, and unexpected fetal demise within 24 hours of surgery.

The difference in failure rate between monitored anesthesia care and spinal was -0.5% (95% CI, -4.8% to 3.7%). Patients receiving monitored anesthesia care plus local anesthesia were significantly less likely to need vasopressors, had a shorter presurgical operating room time, and received less fluid (P < .001). Operative time did not differ significantly.

Monitored anesthesia care plus local anesthesia is a reliable and safe anesthetic choice for minimally invasive fetal surgery. Furthermore, it decreases maternal hemodynamic instability and reduces preincision operating room time.

Speaker Gender Representation at the American Society of Anesthesiology Annual Meeting: 2011-2016.

Anesthesia and analgesia

The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Annual Meeting is the primary venue for anesthesiologists to present research, share innovations, a...

The Impact of Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Admission on Postoperative Hospital Length of Stay and Costs: A Prespecified Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

Anesthesia and analgesia

In this prespecified cohort study, we investigated the influence of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit versus surgical ward on health care utilization among patients undergoing intermediate-risk surgery.

Of adult surgical patients who underwent general anesthesia without an absolute indication for postoperative intensive care unit admission, 3530 patients admitted postoperatively to an intensive care unit were matched to 3530 patients admitted postoperatively to a surgical ward using a propensity score based on 23 important preoperative and intraoperative predictor variables. Postoperative hospital length of stay and hospital costs were defined as primary and secondary end points, respectively.

Among patients with low propensity for postoperative intensive care unit admission, initial triage to an intensive care unit was associated with increased postoperative length of stay (incidence rate ratio, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.59-1.79]; P < .001) and hospital costs (incidence rate ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.81-2.03]; P < .001). By contrast, postoperative intensive care unit admission of patients with high propensity was associated with decreased postoperative length of stay (incidence rate ratio, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85-0.95]; P < .001) and costs (incidence rate ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88-0.97]; P = .001). Decisions regarding postoperative intensive care unit resource utilization were influenced by individual preferences of anesthesiologists and surgeons.

In patients with an unclear indication for postoperative critical care, intensive care unit admission may negatively impact postoperative hospital length of stay and costs. Postoperative discharge disposition varies substantially based on anesthesia and surgical provider preferences but should optimally be driven by an objective assessment of a patient's status at the end of surgery.