The latest medical research on Addiction Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about addiction medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Sources of flavoured e-cigarettes among California youth and young adults: associations with local flavoured tobacco sales restrictions.

Tobacco Control

This study compares access to flavoured JUUL and other e-cigarettes from retail, online and social sources among underage and young adult e-cigarette users who live in California jurisdictions that restrict sales of flavoured tobacco with the rest of the state.

An online survey used social media advertisements to recruit participants (n=3075, ages 15-29) who lived in one of nine jurisdictions that restrict sales (n=1539) or in the rest of state, and oversampled flavoured tobacco users. Focusing on past-month e-cigarette users (n=908), multilevel models tested whether access to flavoured JUUL and other e-cigarettes from retail, online and social sources differed by local law (yes/no) and age group (15-20 or older), controlling for other individual characteristics.

The percent of underage users who obtained flavoured JUUL and other e-cigarettes in the past month was 33.6% and 31.2% from retail, 11.6% and 12.7% online, and 76.0% and 70.9% from social sources, respectively. Compared with underage and young adult users in the rest of California, those in localities that restrict the sales of flavoured tobacco were less likely to obtain flavoured JUUL from retail sources (Adjusted OR=0.54, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.80), but more likely to obtain it from social sources (Adjusted OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.35). The same pattern was observed for other brands of flavoured e-cigarettes.

Although local laws may reduce access to flavoured e-cigarettes from retail sources, more comprehensive state or federal restrictions are recommended to close the loopholes for online sources. Dedicated efforts to curtail access from social sources are needed.

Web-based cognitive behavior therapy for chronic pain patients with aberrant drug-related behavior: How did it work and for whom?

Behavioral Medicine

This study explored mediating pathways, moderating factors, and moderated mediation effects of a web-based, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) inte...

Analysis of wedding appeals on cigarette packs in China.

Tobacco Control

Exchanging or gifting cigarettes is a common practice in Chinese culture, often occurring during weddings to connote celebrations and happiness. We examined Chinese cigarette packs for wedding terminology and imagery to assess the extent to which packs are marketed for such occasions.

Cigarette packs were collected from Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Kunming and Chengdu in February 2017 using a systematic protocol designed to capture unique packs. Packs were coded by two independent coders for text and imagery of traditional Chinese wedding symbols, such as double happiness, dragon and phoenix, and other culturally specific phrases and images associated with weddings in China.

From the sample of 738 unique cigarette packs, 68 (9.2%) contained either lexical and/or imagery appeals for wedding gifting. Of these 68 packs, 65 contained both lexical and imagery appeals, 1 pack had only a lexical appeal and 2 packs only included an imagery appeal. The most common appeal was 'double happiness' found on 56 packs (82.4%) for both lexical and imagery, followed by 'dragon and phoenix' found lexically on 12 packs (17.6%), and through imagery on 15 packs (22.1%).

Chinese tobacco manufacturers take full advantage of the cigarette gifting and sharing culture demonstrated by packs with imagery and terminology specific to weddings. With only a 35% text health warning label, manufacturers have much real estate to make packs attractive for gifting on such occasions. Implementing plain packaging policies may be effective in decreasing gifting attractiveness for cigarette packs.

Sexual incentive delay in the scanner: Sexual cue and reward processing, and links to problematic porn consumption and sexual motivation.

Behavioral Addiction

The use of pornography, while unproblematic for the majority, can grow into addiction-like behavior which in its extreme form is labeled as compulsive sexual behavioral disorder in the ICD-11 (WHO, 2018). The aim of this study was to investigate the addiction-specific reactivity to cues in order to better understand underlying mechanisms in the development of this disorder.

We have used an optimized Sexual Incentive Delay Task to study brain activity in reward associated brain areas during an anticipation phase (with cues predicting pornographic videos, control videos or no videos) and a corresponding delivery phase in healthy men. Correlations to indicators of problematic pornography use, the time spent on pornography use, and trait sexual motivation were analyzed.

The results of 74 men showed that reward-related brain areas (amygdala, dorsal cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and insula) were significantly more activated by both the pornographic videos and the pornographic cues than by control videos and control cues, respectively. However, we found no relationship between these activations and indicators of problematic pornography use, time spent on pornography use, or with trait sexual motivation.

The activity in reward-related brain areas to both visual sexual stimuli as well as cues indicates that optimization of the Sexual Incentive Delay Task was successful. Presumably, associations between reward-related brain activity and indicators for problematic or pathological pornography use might only occur in samples with increased levels and not in a rather healthy sample used in the present study.

Theoretical conceptualisations of problematic exercise in psychometric assessment instruments: A systematic review.

Behavioral Addiction

The aim of the present systematic review was to identify psychometric tools developed to assess problematic exercise in order to identify and compare their theoretical conceptualisations on which they are based.

A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases Web of Science, Scielo, PsychINFO, PsycTEST and SCOPUS from their inception to January 2020.

Seventeen assessment instruments met the eligibility criteria to be included in the present review. The instruments were classified according to their conceptualisation into five groups: (i) problematic exercise as an end of an exercise continuum, (ii) problematic exercise as a means of regulating body size and weight, (iii) problematic exercise as dependence, (iv) problematic exercise as a behavioural addiction and (v) no clear conceptualisation.

Given the interest in understanding the complexity surrounding the problematic exercise, future research should develop more comprehensive definitions of this construct. This would allow a greater conceptual consensus to be reached that would allow progress to be made in the study of the problematic exercise.

Structural characteristics of fixed-odds sports betting products.

Behavioral Addiction

A literature exists on the structural characteristics of electronic gambling machines (EGMs), which are design innovations that can promote spending excessive time and money on these games. Fixed-odds sports betting products, where bettors place sports bets against a bookmaker, have also seen significant innovations in recent years. Despite some differences between these gambling products, similar structural characteristics could also be relevant to sports betting. The aim was to review previous research on contemporary fixed-odds sports betting products, and to identify whether structural characteristics from the EGM literature are also relevant to sports betting.

Structural characteristics uncovered by two influential reviews of EGMs were identified, and their relevance to fixed-odds sports betting products discussed via a narrative review.

Structural characteristics of payout interval and potential betting frequency (in-play betting), multiplier potential (accumulators, complex bets, multis), win probability and payout ratio (all bets), bettor involvement (custom sports betting products, cash out), skill required (all bets), and near-misses (accumulators, complex bets, multis) were all identified in modern fixed-odds sports betting products.

Fixed-odds sports betting products have increasingly incorporated structural characteristics previously found in EGMs. Future research could further assess the extent to which these structural characteristics contribute to fixed-odds sports bettors spending excessive amounts of time and money while betting. These findings can help guide further sports betting research, contribute to an improved understanding of the potential universality of gambling product design, and inform policy.

Tobacco mythbusting-tobacco is not a major driver of foot traffic in low socio-economic small retail stores.

Tobacco Control

One of the opposing arguments to restricting or banning the sale of tobacco products stem from a perception that this would adversely impact on small retail stores that rely on tobacco sales for viability. It has also been argued that purchases of tobacco leads to unplanned purchasing of other items that yield income for small store owners. This study tested the veracity of these arguments in the Australian context.

Consumer intercept surveys (n=1487) were conducted outside a comprehensive sample of small stores (n=136) selling tobacco in lower socioeconomic suburbs. Data were collected over a 2-hour period outside each store using the same methodology (36% consumer response rate). Descriptive statistics examined the proportion of tobacco and non-tobacco purchases and most common products purchased.

Purchasing tobacco was the primary motivation for store visits for only 3% of consumers. The vast majority of products purchased (92%) were not tobacco, with hot food, groceries and lottery tickets most frequent. Only 8% of consumers purchased tobacco. When unplanned purchasing patterns were compared, consumers' who purchased tobacco were no more likely to buy other products.

Tobacco purchasing was rarely the reason for store visits, indicating that it is not a key driver of consumer foot traffic for small retailers. There was also no evidence that tobacco contributes to spontaneous purchases of other products that might bring retailers profit. Findings suggest that restricting the retail availability of tobacco would be unlikely to have a pronounced negative impact on small retail stores.

Illicit tobacco trade: empty pack survey in eight Argentinean cities.

Tobacco Control

To estimate the prevalence of illicit tobacco trade (ITT) and different ITT modes-tax stamp counterfeiting and smuggling-in Argentina.

Cities of Buenos Aires, La Matanza, Cordoba, Rosario, Mendoza, Neuquen, Posadas, Salta; January-June 2019.

Of a total sample of 15 658 packs, 83.2% were manufactured in Argentina and 16.8% were foreign packs. Overall ITT prevalence-weighted by district population size-was estimated at 13.7%, where 6.1% was attributable to stamp counterfeiting-that is, a forged stamp not issued by the national tax authority-and 7.6% to contraband smuggling of foreign cigarette packs-that is, illicit trade of packs across national borders.

The ITT problem in Argentina seems to be equally represented by counterfeiting of tobacco tax stamps on packs with domestic features and smuggling of foreign cigarette packs. Foreign cigarettes represent a minor component of the pack sampled in most of the country, except in Salta and Posadas, which are located close to the border with Paraguay. It is essential to implement an effective track-and-trace system including the monitoring of tax stamp authenticity and increase border control to block the entry of smuggled products, particularly from Paraguay. Reducing ITT is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of tobacco taxation measures.

Charity-based incentives motivate young adult cancer survivors to increase physical activity: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

Behavioral Medicine

To determine the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an eHealth intervention with charity-based incentives to increase physical ...

Evaluating the impact of menthol cigarette bans on cessation and smoking behaviours in Canada: longitudinal findings from the Canadian arm of the 2016-2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys.

Tobacco Control

To evaluate the impact of menthol cigarette bans in seven Canadian provinces between 2016 and 2018.

Longitudinal data from the Canadian arm of the 2016 and 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. 1098 non-menthol and 138 menthol smokers were surveyed pre-menthol and post-menthol cigarette bans. Multivariate logistic regression models examined associations between pre-post ban changes in smoking behaviour, including differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers in quit attempts and quitting.

At follow-up, 59.1% of pre-ban menthol smokers switched to non-menthol cigarettes; 21.5% quit smoking and 19.5% still smoked menthols, primarily purchased from First Nations reserves. Menthol smokers were more likely than non-menthol smokers to make a quit attempt (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.61, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.51), and to remain quit (aOR=2.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.01). Menthol smokers did not differ significantly from non-menthol smokers in quit success (aOR=1.72, 95% CI 0.98 to 3.01); however, daily menthol smokers were more likely than daily non-menthol smokers to quit (aOR=2.21, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.24), and daily menthol smokers who quit before the ban were more likely than daily non-menthol smokers to remain quit (aOR=2.81, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.85).

Although menthol smokers were most likely to switch to non-menthol cigarettes, the menthol ban was also significantly associated with higher rates of quit attempts and quit success among menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers, and may have helped to prevent relapse among menthol smokers who had quit smoking before the ban. Results confirm and extend evaluation of Ontario's menthol ban across provinces covering 83% of the Canadian population.

Past-year discrimination and cigarette smoking among sexual minority women: investigating racial/ethnic and sexual identity differences.

Behavioral Medicine

Although findings are mixed, discrimination has been identified as a risk factor for smoking in sexual minority women (SMW; e.g., lesbian and bisex...

Demand for tobacco products in Bangladesh.

Tobacco Control

Tobacco tax increase is considered as one of the most effective means to reduce tobacco consumption and its consequences. An increase in taxes, which results in an increase in the price of tobacco products, reduces consumption. Historically, a number of studies estimated the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in price-the price elasticity of demand-of tobacco products in Bangladesh. However, the government's stronger commitment to reducing tobacco use, rising standard of living, rapidly changing cultural norms due to globalisation, and the substantial fall in tobacco use seen in GATS 2017 necessitate an updated measure of price elasticity of tobacco use, which will allow for more accurate answers to questions of tobacco tax policy in the country. This study endeavours to fill this gap in the literature on demand for tobacco products in Bangladesh.

To estimate the price elasticity of demand for tobacco products, namely cigarettes, biris and smokeless tobacco (SLT) products with the 2016 household income and expenditure survey data in Bangladesh.

We used the Deaton model (1997) to estimate the price elasticities of demand for tobacco products using the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2016 dataset of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. The HIES 2016 surveyed 46 076 households spread over 2304 primary sampling units across the country. We have calculated own price elasticities of demand for tobacco products by expenditure groups and by regions (rural and urban).

The estimates of own-price elasticity of demand for cigarette, biri and SLT products are -1.03, -1.34 and -0.30, respectively. The results show that rural households are more responsive to changes in the prices of cigarettes than urban households. Households with low expenditure are found to be more responsive to changes in the price of cigarettes than the households with high expenditure. This suggests that increases in cigarette prices at the lower end would effectively reduce cigarette consumption among the people having low expenditure and improve health equity.

Our results suggest that the demand for smoking tobacco products is responsive to price changes. Therefore, substantial increase in the prices of tobacco products through taxation will result in significant reduction in tobacco use, particularly among the low expenditure households, while increasing government revenue.