The latest medical research on Cardiothoracic Intensive Care

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cardiothoracic intensive care gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The jugular approach for leadless pacing. A novel and safe alternative.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

To evaluate safety of leadless pacemaker implantation through the internal jugular vein in a larger cohort with longer follow-up. Moreover, feasibility of non-apical pacing as well as relation between pacing site and QRS duration were assessed.

82 consecutive patients, who received a leadless pacemaker though the internal jugular vein were included. Electrical parameters were measured at regular follow-up and any complications were registered. Paced QRS interval was compared for three pacing sites, RVOT, RV mid septum and RV apical septum.

In all patients the leadless pacemaker was implanted successfully. In 69 patients the device was implanted in a non-apical position. In 71% of cases, the device could be deployed at first attempt. The median fluoroscopy time was 4.4minutes (range 0.9-51-) The paced QRS interval was significantly narrower for non-apical pacing compared to apical pacing 156ms. vs 179 ms. P = 0.04 respectively. During mean follow-up of 16 months (range 0-43 months) electrical parameters remained stable. Two complications occurred which could be resolved during the implant procedure. There were no access site related complications.

The jugular approach for leadless pacemaker implantation is feasibly and may avoid vascular complications. It facilitates non-apical positioning of leadless pacemakers leading to a narrower paced QRS interval. The jugular approach allows for immediate post procedural ambulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Evaluation of the HEFESTOS scale to predict outcomes in emergency department acute heart failure patients.

European Heart Journal

The HEFESTOS scale was developed in 14 Spanish primary care centres and validated in 9 primary care centres of other European countries. It showed ...

Contemporary management of atrial fibrillation in primary and secondary care in the UK: the prospective long-term AF-GEN-UK Registry.

European Heart Journal

This study established a prospective registry of contemporary management of UK patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by cardiologists, general practitioners, stroke, acute, and emergency medicine physicians at baseline and 1-year follow-up.

Data on patients with recently diagnosed AF (≤12 months) were collected from medical records from 101 UK sites to permit comparison of patient characteristics and treatments between specialities. The impact of guideline-adherent oral anticoagulation (OAC) use on outcomes was assessed using Cox regression analysis. One thousand five hundred and ninety-five AF patients [mean (standard deviation) age 70.5 (11.2) years; 60.1% male; 97.4% white] were recruited on June 2017-June 2018 and followed-up for 1 year. Overall OAC prescription rates were 84.2% at baseline and 87.1% at 1 year, with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) predominating (74.9 and 79.2% at baseline and 1 year, respectively). Vitamin K antagonist prescription was significantly higher in primary care with NOAC prescription higher among stroke physicians. Guideline-adherent OAC (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2) at baseline significantly reduced risk of death and stroke at 1 year [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.48 (0.27-0.84) and 0.11 (0.02-0.48), respectively]. Rhythm control is evident in ∼25%, only 1.6% received catheter ablation.

High OAC use (>80%, mainly NOACs), rates varied by speciality, with VKA prescription higher in primary care. Guideline-adherent OAC therapy at baseline was associated with significant reduction in death and stroke at 1 year, regardless of speciality. Rhythm-control management is evident in only one-quarter despite AF symptoms reported in 56.6%. This registry extends the knowledge of contemporary AF management outside cardiology and demonstrates good implementation of clinical guidelines for the management of AF, particularly for stroke prevention.

Pulsed Electrical Field in Arrhythmia Treatment: Current Status and Future Directions.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Pulsed electrical field (PEF) ablation is a promising novel ablation modality for the treatment of arrhythmia, especially for atrial fibrillation(A...

High-sensitivity troponin I with or without ultra-sensitive copeptin for the instant rule-out of acute myocardial infarction.

European Heart Journal

The instant, single-sampling rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still an unmet clinical need. We aimed at testing and comparing diagnostic performance and prognostic value of two different single-sampling biomarker strategies for the instant rule-out of AMI.

From the Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care (BACC) cohort, we recruited consecutive patients with acute chest pain and suspected AMI presenting to the Emergency Department of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. We compared safety, effectiveness and 12-month incidence of the composite endpoint of all-cause death and myocardial infarction between (i) a single-sampling, dual-marker pathway combining high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and ultra-sensitive copeptin (us-Cop) at presentation (hs-cTnI ≤ 27 ng/L, us-Cop < 10 pmol/L and low-risk ECG) and (ii) a single-sampling pathway based on one-off hs-cTnI determination at presentation (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L and low-risk ECG). As a comparator, we used the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1-h dual-sampling algorithm.

We enrolled 1,136 patients (male gender 65%) with median age of 64 years (interquartile range, 51-75). Overall, 228 (20%) patients received a final diagnosis of AMI. The two single-sampling instant rule-out pathways yielded similar negative predictive value (NPV): 97.4% (95%CI: 95.4-98.7) and 98.7% (95%CI: 96.9-99.6) for dual-marker and single hs-cTnI algorithms, respectively (P = 0.11). Both strategies were comparably safe as the ESC 0/1-h dual-sampling algorithm and this was consistent across subgroups of early-comers, low-intermediate risk (GRACE-score < 140) and renal dysfunction. Despite a numerically higher rate of false-negative results, the dual-marker strategy ruled-out a slightly but significantly higher percentage of patients compared with single hs-cTnI determination (37.4% versus 32.9%; P < 0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in 12-month composite outcome.

Instant rule-out pathways based on one-off determination of hs-cTnI alone or in combination with us-Cop are comparably safe as the ESC 0/1 h algorithm for the instant rule-out of AMI, yielding similar prognostic information. Instant rule-out strategies are safe alternatives to the ESC 0/1 h algorithm and allow the rapid and effective triage of suspected AMI in patients with low-risk ECG. However, adding copeptin to hs-cTn does not improve the safety of instant rule-out compared with the single rule-out hs-cTn at very low cut-off concentrations.

Short-term outcomes by chronic betablocker treatment in patients presenting to emergency departments with acute heart failure: BB-EAHFE.

European Heart Journal

To evaluate the association between chronic treatment with betablockers (BB) and the severity of decompensation and short-term outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF).

We consecutively included all patients presenting with AHF to 45 Spanish emergency departments (ED) during six different time-periods between 2007 and 2018. Patients were stratified according to whether they were on chronic treatment with BB at the time of ED consultation. Those receiving BB were compared (adjusted odds ratio-OR-with 95% confidence interval-CI-) with those not receiving BB group in terms of in-hospital and 7-day all-cause mortality, need for hospitalization, and prolonged length of stay (≥7 days). Among the 17 923 recruited patients (median age: 80 years; 56% women), 7795 (43%) were on chronic treatment with BB. Based on the MEESSI-AHF risk score, those on BB were at lower risk. In-hospital mortality was observed in 1310 patients (7.4%), 7-day mortality in 765 (4.3%), need for hospitalization in 13 428 (75.0%), and prolonged length of stay (43.3%). After adjustment for confounding, those on chronic BB were at lower risk for in-hospital all-cause mortality (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79-0.92, P < 0.001); 7-day all-cause mortality (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.70-0.85, P < 0.001); need for hospitalization (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85-0.94, P < 0.001); prolonged length of stay (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.94, P < 0.001). A propensity matching approach yielded consistent findings.

In patients presenting to ED with AHF, those on BB had better short-term outcomes than those not receiving BB.

De-frailing intervention for hospitalized cardiovascular patients in the TARGET-EFT randomized clinical trial.

European Heart Journal

Frailty is disproportionately prevalent in cardiovascular disease patients and exacerbated during hospital admissions, heightening the risk for adverse events and functional decline. Using the Essential Frailty Toolset (EFT) to target physical weakness, cognitive impairment, malnourishment, and anemia, we tested a multicomponent intervention to de-frail older adults with acute cardiovascular conditions during their hospital admission.

The TARGET-EFT trial was a single-center randomized clinical trial at the Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada. We compared a multicomponent de-frailing intervention with usual clinical care. Intervention group patients received exercise, cognitive stimulation, protein supplementation, and iron replacement, as required. In this study, the primary outcome was frailty, as assessed by the SPPB score (Short Physical Performance Battery) at discharge, and the secondary outcome was the SARC-F score (Strength, Assistance walking, Rising from chair, Climbing, Falls) 30 days later. The analysis consisted of 135 patient (mean age of 79.3 years; 54% female) who survived and completed the frailty assessments.Compared to control patients, intervention group patients had a 1.52-point superior SPPB score and a 0.74-point superior SARC-F score. Subgroup analysis suggested that patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction may have attenuated benefits, and that patients who underwent invasive cardiac procedures had the greatest benefits from the intervention.

We achieved our objective of de-frailing older cardiac inpatients on a short-term basis by improving their physical performance and functioning using a pragmatic multicomponent intervention. This could have positive impacts on their clinical outcomes and ability to maintain independent living in the future.

Current Understanding of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence After Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: From Pulmonary Vein to Epicardium.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation is common, with pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection considered the most likely cause. H...

Impact of high frequency stimulation to confirm a complete box isolation in catheter ablation of non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVI) including the left atrial posterior wall (LAPW) (Box-PVI) is proposed as an additional strategy for non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (NPAF), however, the efficacy remains controversial. The more reliable and durable the Box-PVI we can create, the better the rhythm outcomes might be than with a conventional PVI alone. This study focused on the potential exit conduction of the box lesion and investigated whether the conventional Box-PVI would be sufficient.

We enrolled 350 consecutive patients with NPAF that underwent a conventional encircling Box-PVI and examined whether latent exit conduction and dormant "exit" conduction independently remained on the LAPW and in the PVs using high frequency stimulation (HFS) and an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) injection. All electrograms inside the box lesion were eliminated in all cases, however, HFS inside the box propagated outward in 23 cases (6.6%) without any exit conduction by conventional burst stimulation, and 24 cases (6.9%) exhibited only dormant "exit" conduction of the LAPW. Additional ablation where positive HFSs were observed created a complete bidirectional Box-PVI in 43 (41.3%) of the cases without a first pass Box-PVI. The recurrence rates depended on the groups classified according to the HFS response.

HFS delivered with an ATP injection on the LAPW and in the PVs following a Box-PVI could not only elucidate true exit block but also identified possible incomplete lesions or connections outside the ablation line, whose elimination could achieve a complete Box-PVI leading to a better rhythm outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Is Narrowest QRS the Best? A Case of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in a Patient with Left Anterior Fascicular Block.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with a narrow QRS duration has not been established. We present a patient with a na...

Inappropriate shocks due to air entrapment in patients with subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: a meta-summary of case reports.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Air entrapment has been recently described as a cause of inappropriate shock (IAS) among patients who underwent subcutaneous implantable cardiovert...

An unexpected route of temporary pacing lead.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Congenital anomalies of venous system including superior (SVC) and inferior vena cava are not uncommon. Failure of certain vessels embryogenesis re...