The latest medical research on Cardiothoracic Intensive Care

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cardiothoracic intensive care gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Economic evaluation of Restrictive Vs. Liberal Transfusion Strategy Following Acute Myocardial Infarction (REALITY): trial-based cost effectiveness and cost utility analyses.

European Heart Journal

To estimate the cost effectiveness and cost utility ratios of a restrictive vs liberal transfusion strategy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with anemia.

Patients (n = 666) with AMI and hemoglobin between 7-8 and 10 g/dL recruited in 35 hospitals in France and Spain were randomly assigned to a restrictive (n = 342) or a liberal (n = 324) transfusion strategy with 1-year prospective collection of resource utilization and quality of life using the EQ5D3L questionnaire. The economic evaluation was based upon 648 patients from the per-protocol population. The outcomes were 30-day and 1-year cost-effectiveness, with major adverse cardiovascular event averted (MACE) as the effectiveness outcome; and 1-year cost utility ratio.The 30-day incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €33,065€ saved per additional MACE averted with the restrictive versus the liberal strategy, with an 84% probability for the restrictive strategy to be cost-saving and MACE reducing (i.e.dominant). At 1-year, the point estimate of the cost-utility ratio was 191,500 € saved per QALY gained; however cumulated MACE were outside the pre-specified non-inferiority margin, resulting in a decremental cost effectiveness ratio with a point estimate of €72,000 saved per additional MACE with the restrictive strategy.

In patients with acute myocardial infarction and anemia, the restrictive transfusion strategy was dominant (cost-saving and outcome-improving) at 30 days. At 1 year, the restrictive strategy remained cost-saving but clinical noninferiority on MACE was no longer maintained. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02648113.

The Clinical Approach to Diagnosing Peri-procedural Myocardial Infarction after Percutaneous Coronary Interventions according to the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction - from the Study Group on Biomarkers of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute CardioVascular Care (ACVC).

European Heart Journal

This review intends to illustrate basic principles on how to apply the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (UDMI) for the diagnosis of peri-procedural myocardial infarction (MI) after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in clinical practice.

Review of routine case-based events. Increases in cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations are common after elective PCI in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). Peri-procedural PCI-related MI (type 4a MI) in CCS patients should be diagnosed in cases of major peri-procedural acute myocardial injury indicated by an increase in cTn concentrations of >5-times the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) together with evidence of new peri-procedural myocardial ischemia as demonstrated by electrocardiography (ECG), imaging, or flow-limiting peri-procedural complications in coronary angiography. Measurement of cTn baseline concentrations before elective PCI is useful. In patients presenting with acute MI undergoing PCI, peri-procedural increases in cTn concentrations are usually due to their index presentation and not PCI-related, apart from obvious major peri-procedural complications, such as persistent occlusion of a large side branch or no-reflow after stent implantation.

The distinction between type 4a MI, PCI-related acute myocardial injury, and chronic myocardial injury can be challenging in individuals undergoing PCI. Careful integration of all available clinical data is essential for correct classification.

Uncommon output-dependent paced QRS morphology transition during left bundle branch pacing.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

We report a patient who underwent left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) because of intermittent complete heart block. During unipolar pacing at a deep s...

Reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: the European Society of Cardiology EurObservational programme acute cardiovascular care-European association of PCI ST-elevation myocardial infarction registry.

European Heart Journal

To determine the current state of the use of reperfusion and adjunctive therapies and in-hospital outcomes in European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member and affiliated countries for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS).

ESC EurObservational Research Programme prospective international cohort study of admissions with STEMI within 24 h of symptom onset (196 centres; 26 ESC member and 3 affiliated countries). Of 11 462 patients enrolled, 448 (3.9%) had CS. Patients with compared to patients without CS, less frequently received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (65.5% vs. 72.2%) and fibrinolysis (15.9% vs. 19.0), and more often had no reperfusion therapy (19.0% vs. 8.5%). Mechanical support devices (intraaortic ballon pump 11.2%, extracoporeal membrane oxygenation 0.7%, other 1.1%) were used infrequently in CS. Bleeding definition academic research consortium 2-5 bleeding complications (10.1% vs. 3.0%, P < 0.01) and stroke (4.2% vs. 0.9%, P < 0.01) occurred more frequently in patients with CS. In-hospital mortality was 10-fold higher (35.5% vs. 3.1%) in patients with CS. Mortality in patients with CS in the groups with PCI, fibrinolysis, and no reperfusion therapy were 27.4%, 36.6%, and 62.4%, respectively.

In this multi-national registry, patients with STEMI complicated by CS less frequently receive reperfusion therapy than patients with STEMI without CS. Early mortality in patients with CS not treated with primary PCI is very high. Therefore, strategies to improve clinical outcome in STEMI with CS are needed.

Implantable loop recorder as a strategy following cardiovascular implantable electronic device extraction without reimplantation.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Limited data exists for outcomes in patients undergoing cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) transvenous lead extraction (TLE) without clear indications for device reimplantation. The implantable loop recorder (ILR) may be an effective strategy for continuous monitoring in select individuals.

This retrospective analysis aims to investigate patients who have undergone ILR implant following TLE without CIED reimplantation.

Clinical data from consecutive patients who have undergone TLE with ILR implant and without CIED reimplantation from October 2016 to May 2020 at a single center were collected.

Among 380 patients undergoing TLE, 28 (7.7%) underwent ILR placement without CIED reimplantation. TLE indications were systemic infection (n = 13, 46.4%), pain at the site (n = 8, 28.6%), device/lead malfunction (n = 4, 14.2%), and other. Devices extracted included: dual-chamber and single-chamber pacemaker (n = 14, 50%; n = 4, 14.2%), dual-chamber implantable cardiac defibrillator (n = 10; 35.7%), and cardiac-resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (n = 1, 3.5%). Reasons for no reimplantation included no longer meeting CIED criteria (n = 14, 50%), patient preference (n = 9, 32.1%), and no clear or inappropriate indication for initial CIED implantation (n = 5, 18%). During an average of 12.3 ± 13.1 months of follow-up, there were no lethal arrhythmias, and 4 (13.3%) patients underwent permanent pacemaker reimplantation due to symptomatic sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block with syncope as discovered on ILR. Three patients died due to unknown causes (n = 1), non-cardiac (n = 1), and acute coronary syndrome (n = 1).

In patients undergoing TLE without reimplantation, an ILR may be an effective monitoring strategy in patients at low risk for cardiac arrhythmia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Conduction system pacing vs biventricular pacing in patients with ventricular dysfunction and AV block.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

It is unknown whether His-Purkinje conduction system pacing (HPCSP), as either His bundle or left bundle branch pacing, could be an alternative to cardiac resynchronization therapy (BiVCRT) for patients with left ventricular dysfunction needing ventricular pacing due to atrioventricular block. The aim of the study is to compare the echocardiographic response and clinical improvement between HPCSP and BiVCRT.

Consecutive patients who successfully received HPCSP were compared with a historical cohort of BiVCRT patients. Patients were 1:1 matched by age, LVEF, atrial fibrillation, renal function and cardiomyopathy type. Responders were defined as patients who survived, did not require heart transplantation and increased LVEF≥5 points at 6-month follow-up.

HPCSP was successfully achieved in 92.5% (25/27) of patients. During follow-up, 8% (2/25) of HPCSP patients died and 4% (1/25) received a heart transplant, whereas 4% (1/25) of those in the BiVCRT cohort died. LVEF improvement was 10±8% HPCSP vs. 7±5% BiVCRT (p = 0.24), and the percentage of responders was 76% (19/25) HPCSP vs. 64% (16/25) BiVCRT (p = 0.33). Among survivors, the percentage of patients who improved from baseline II-IV mitral regurgitation (MR) to 0-I MR was 9/11 (82%) vs. 2/8 (25%)(p = 0.02). Compared to those with BiVCRT, patients with HPCSP achieved better NYHA improvement: 1 point vs. 0.5 (OR 0.34; p = 0.02).

HPCSP in patients with LVEF≤45% and atrioventricular block improved the LVEF and induced a response similar to that of BiVCRT. HPCSP significantly improved MR and NYHA functional class. HPCSP may be an alternative to BiVCRT in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

A rare cause of syncope in patients with situs inversus totalis and corrected transposition of the great arteries: Very late lead perforation.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Situs inversus c-TGA refers to a complex anatomical malformation. The risk of developing AV block increases by 2% per year. Pacemaker lead perforat...

Adverse events of subcutaneous loop recorders: Insights from the MAUDE database.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Complications using internal cardiac monitors have been reported at a low rate. Targeted analyses of complications have not been well described in the literature.

To investigate and describe complications associated with internal cardiac monitor (ICM) events reported to the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database.

Our team reviewed all reported events for the Reveal LINQ loop recorder submitted to the MAUDE database over seven years (1/1/2013-12/31/2019). A 5% random selection of reports was audited by two researchers to ensure report validity. Two cardiologists manually reviewed death and incongruent events for final interpretation.

12,652 records were obtained during the observed time period. A total of 15,587 device complications were reported. Of this, undersensing (n = 4509, 28.93%), premature discharge of battery (n = 3262, 20.93%), oversensing (n = 2788, 17.89%), and other sensing issues (n = 1532, 9.83%) were most commonly reported. Patient adverse events were reported 1,030 times. Pain or discomfort (n = 275, 26.70%), site infection (n = 213, 20.68%), erosion (n = 138, 13.40%), and impaired healing (n = 49, 4.76%) were most commonly reported to affect patients. Death was reported four times; after expert review, no reports justified the device or procedure as a reasonable cause.

Several non-life-threatening ICM complications were commonly noted from the analysis. This study supports the safe use of ICMs. A better understanding of the complication profile will help providers select patients, provide informed consent, and expected management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Different venous approaches for implantation of cardiac electronic devices. A network meta-analysis.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

Many of the complications arising from cardiac device implantation are associated to the venous access used for lead placement. Previous analyses reported that cephalic vein cutdown (CVC) is safer but less effective than subclavian vein puncture (SVP). However, comparisons between these techniques and axillary vein puncture (AVP) -guided either by ultrasound or fluoroscopy- are lacking. Thus, we aimed to compare safety and efficacy of these approaches.

We searched for articles assessing at least two different approaches regarding the incidence of pneumothorax and/ or lead failure (LF). When available, bleeding and infectious complications as well as procedural success were analyzed. A frequentist random effects network meta-analysis model was adopted.

36 studies were analyzed. Most articles assessed SVP versus CVC. Compared to SVP, both CVC and AVP were associated with reduced odds of pneumothorax (OR: 0.193, 95%CI: 0.136-0.275 and OR: 0.128, 95%CI: 0.050- 0.329; respectively) and LF (OR: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.406-0.976 and OR: 0.425, 95%CI: 0.286-0.632; respectively). No significant differences between AVP and CVC were demonstrated. Limited data suggest no major impact of different approaches on infectious and bleeding complications. Initial CVC approach required significantly more often an alternate/ additional venous access for lead placement, compared to both AVP and SVP. No differences between these two were identified.

Both AVP and CVC seem to decrease incident pneumothorax and LF, compared to SVP. Initial AVP approach seems to decrease the need of alternate venous access, compared to CVC. These results suggest that AVP should be further clinically tested. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Eligibility of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation on in-hospital cardiac arrests in Sweden: a national registry study.

European Heart Journal

Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for refractory cardiac arrest (CA) is used in selected cases. The incidence of ECPR-eligible patients is not known. The aim of this study was to identify the ECPR-eligible patients among in-hospital CAs (IHCA) in Sweden and to estimate the potential gain in survival and neurological outcome, if ECPR was to be used.

Data between 1 January 2015 and 30 August 2019 were extracted from the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register (SCAR). Two arbitrary groups were defined, based on restrictive or liberal inclusion criteria. In both groups, logistic regression was used to determine survival and cerebral performance category (CPC) for conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cCPR). When ECPR was assumed to be possible, it was considered equivalent to return of spontaneous circulation, and the previous logistic regression model was applied to define outcome for comparison of conventional CPR and ECPR. The assumption in the model was a minimum of 15 min of refractory CA and 5 min of cannulation. A total of 9209 witnessed IHCA was extracted from SCAR. Depending on strictness of inclusion, an average of 32-64 patients/year remains in refractory after 20 min of cCPR, theoretically eligible for ECPR. If optimal conditions for ECPR are assumed and potential negative side effects disregarded of, the estimated potential benefit of survival of ECPR in Sweden would be 10-19 (0.09-0.19/100 000) patients/year, when a 30% success rate is expected. The benefit of ECPR on survival and CPC scoring was found to be detrimental over time and minimal at 60 min of cCPR.

The number of ECPR-eligible patients among IHCA in Sweden is dependent on selection criteria and predicted to be low. There is an estimated potential benefit of ECPR, on survival and neurological outcome if initiated within 60 min of the IHCA.

A comparison of postoperative complications following cardiac implantable electronic device procedures in patients treated with antithrombotic drugs.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol

The incidence of postoperative complications following cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures in patients treated with antithrombotic drugs has not been studied sufficiently. Here we present a comparison of complications after CIED implantations.

Using an observational study design, the study included 1807 patients with a taking antiplatelet drugs (n:1601), nonvitamin K anticoagulants (NOAC) (n:136) and warfarin (n:70) undergoing CIED surgery. Primary endpoint was accepted as cumulative events including composite of clinically significant hematoma (CSH), pericardial effusion or tamponade, pneumothorax and infection related to device system. Secondary outcomes included each compenent of cumulative events. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of cumulative events.

The overall cumulative event rate was 3.7% (67 of 1807). Cumulative events occured 3.1% (50 of 1601) in the antiplatelet, 5.1% (7 of 136) NOAC and 14.3% (10 of 70) warfarin groups (p < 0.001). CSH occurred in 2 of 70 patients (2.9%) in the warfarin group, as compared with 5 of 1601 (0.3%) in the antiplatelet group (p:0.032). However, no significant difference were found between NOAC and warfarin groups in terms of CSH (0.7% vs. 2.9% respectively, p:0.267). Warfarin treatment was an independent predictor of cumulative events and increased 2.9-fold the risk of cumulative events. Major surgical complications were rare and did not differ significantly between the study groups.

The incidence and severity of complications may be lower in patients treated with periprocedurally antiplatelet or NOAC therapy when compared with warfarin therapy. Further randomized control studies are required to confirm our findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Effect of glutamate infusion on NT-proBNP after coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk patients (GLUTAMICS II): A randomized controlled trial.

European Heart Journal

ClinicalTrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02592824. European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database (Eudra CT number 2011-006241-15).

A prospective, randomized, double-blind study enrolled patients from November 15, 2015 to September 30, 2020, with a 30-day follow-up at 4 academic cardiac surgery centers in Sweden. Patients underwent CABG ± valve procedure and had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.30 or EuroSCORE II ≥3.0. Intravenous infusion of 0.125 M L-glutamic acid or saline at 1.65 mL/kg/h started 10 to 20 minutes before releasing the aortic cross-clamp, then continued for another 150 minutes. Patients, staff, and investigators were blinded to the treatment. The primary endpoint was the difference between preoperative and day-3 postoperative NT-proBNP levels. Analysis was intention to treat. We studied 303 patients (age 74 ± 7 years; females 26%, diabetes 47%), 148 receiving glutamate group and 155 controls. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint associated with glutamate administration (5,390 ± 5,396 ng/L versus 6,452 ± 5,215 ng/L; p = 0.086). One patient died ≤30 days in the glutamate group compared to 6 controls (0.7% versus 3.9%; p = 0.12). No adverse events linked to glutamate were observed. A significant interaction between glutamate and diabetes was found (p = 0.03). Among patients without diabetes the primary endpoint (mean 4,503 ± 4,846 ng/L versus 6,824 ± 5,671 ng/L; p = 0.007), and the incidence of acute kidney injury (11% versus 29%; p = 0.005) was reduced in the glutamate group. These associations remained significant after adjusting for differences in baseline data. The main limitations of the study are: (i) it relies on a surrogate marker for heart failure; and (ii) the proportion of patients with diabetes had almost doubled compared to the cohort used for the sample size estimation.

Infusion of glutamate did not significantly reduce postoperative rises of NT-proBNP. Diverging results in patients with and without diabetes agree with previous observations and suggest that the concept of enhancing postischemic myocardial recovery with glutamate merits further evaluation.