The latest medical research on MedicalDirector software

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medicaldirector software gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The use of antibiotics in acute oral health patients presenting at public dental clinics in the Western Sydney region.

Family Practice

There is a limited need for antibiotics when treating oral health problems, yet they are often prescribed, increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). With AMR a threat to public health, the objectives of this study were to assess the frequency, suitability, and factors associated with antibiotic prescriptions for acute dental problems across Greater Western Sydney public dental clinics.

Patients' reason for attending, details of any antibiotics use, and the treating dental practitioner's clinical examination and diagnosis were compared to current prescribing guidelines, and logistic regression was used to identify predictors of antibiotic prescription.

In all, 1,071 patients participated in the study, and 15.9% reported to using antibiotics for their dental problem. Over three-quarters obtained the antibiotics from their general medical practitioner (GMP). A high prevalence of antibiotics were not indicated for the patient's complaint (71.8%) including for those with a history of extraction, pain, or intraoral swelling, who had significantly higher odds of antibiotic prescription (OR > 9). The antibiotic type prescribed was generally suitable.

In summary, the data suggest that the majority of antibiotics were inappropriately prescribed for the patient's dental complaints and there is a need for interventions to improve compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines.

Introducing genetic testing with case finding for familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care: qualitative study of patient and health professional experience.

Br J Gen

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common inherited condition causing elevated cholesterol, premature heart disease, and early death. Although FH can be effectively treated, over 80% of people with FH remain undetected.

To explore patient and health professional experiences of introducing genetic testing with case finding for FH in primary care.

Semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of 41 participants (24 patients and 17 health professionals) from eight practices, using an electronic case-finding tool (FAMCAT) to identify patients with higher likelihood of having FH and who were then offered diagnostic genetic testing in primary care. Data were analysed thematically.

While prior awareness of FH was low, patients were unsurprised to be identified as being at risk, and positive about being offered genetic testing by their practice. Patients not found to have FH were relieved, although some felt frustrated that their high cholesterol lacked a clear cause. Those confirmed to have FH largely expected and accepted this outcome. Practitioners saw detection of FH as an important new opportunity for preventive care. They found the case-finding tool easy to apply and noted patients' high uptake of genetic testing. While they were comfortable referring appropriate patients for further specialist management, GPs sought clearer definition about responsibility for identification and long- term care of FH in future care pathways.

Introducing genetic testing with electronic case finding for FH in primary care was positively experienced by patients and practitioners. Further development of this approach could help improve detection of FH in the general population.

Effectiveness of brief interventions in primary care for cannabis users aged from 12 to 25 years old: a systematic review.

Family Practice

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions realized in primary care in reducing cannabis use for adolescents and emerging adults.

PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Central (Cochrane Library) were searched until December 2020. Randomized controlled trials conducted in primary care, concerning in-person brief interventions for non-medical cannabis users aged from 12 to 25 years old were eligible for inclusion. Brief interventions had to last 30 min or less. Patients with comorbid mental health disorder or very specific populations were not included.

One thousand eighty hundred and fifty-five studies were identified through database searching; only 8 studies involving 2,199 patients were included for qualitative synthesis after double reading and data extraction. Randomized controlled trials selected were heterogeneous regarding screening tools, initial levels of cannabis use and cannabis outcomes measures. Brief interventions were all based on motivational interviewing techniques or personalized feedback. Seven studies consisted in a single session of brief intervention. Six studies involved also other substance users. No significant reduction of cannabis use after brief intervention was found for most studies, especially in the long term. A trend of decreased cannabis consequences, such as negative psychosocial repercussions, perception of cannabis use by peers, or driving under the influence of cannabis, was reported.

The current state of knowledge does not allow us to say that the brief intervention is effective in reducing cannabis use among adolescents in primary care. We found a mild positive effect on cannabis consequences after brief intervention. Mixed qualitative and quantitative studies are need to better evaluate the impact of brief intervention and his faisability. PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews): n° CRD42016033080.

Disease and economic burden of infections in hospitalised children in New South Wales, Australia.

Aust Health Rev

ObjectivesTo describe the burden of disease and hospitalisation costs in children with common infections using statewide administrative data.Method...

Clinical decision support methods for children and youths with mental health disorders in primary care.

Family Practice

Mental health disorders among children and youths are common and often have negative consequences for children, youths, and families if unrecognized and untreated. With the goal of early recognition, primary care physicians (PCPs) play a significant role in the detection and referral of mental disorders. However, PCPs report several barriers related to confidence, knowledge, and interdisciplinary collaboration. Therefore, initiatives have been taken to assist PCPs in their clinical decision-making through clinical decision support methods (CDSMs).

This review aimed to identify CDSMs in the literature and describe their functionalities and quality.

In this review, a search strategy was performed to access all available studies in PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science, and COCHRANE using keywords. Studies that involved CDSMs for PCP clinical decision-making regarding psychosocial or psychiatric problems among children and youths (0-24 years old) were included. The search was conducted according to PRISMA-Protocols.

Of 1,294 studies identified, 25 were eligible for inclusion and varied in quality. Eighteen CDSMs were described. Fourteen studies described computer-based methods with decision support, focusing on self-help, probable diagnosis, and treatment suggestions. Nine studies described telecommunication methods, which offered support through interdisciplinary (video) calls. Two studies described CDSMs with a combination of components related to the two CDSM categories.

Easy-to-use CDSMs of good quality are valuable for advising PCPs on the detection and referral of children and youths with mental health disorders. However, valid multicentre research on a combination of computer-based methods and telecommunication is still needed.

Pre-diagnostic clinical features and blood tests in patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective linked-data study.

Br J Gen

The majority of colorectal cancer is diagnosed in patients following symptomatic presentation in the UK.

To identify windows of opportunity for timely investigations or referrals in patients presenting with colon and rectal cancer-relevant symptoms or abnormal blood tests.

Monthly consultation rates for relevant clinical features (change in bowel habit, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, abdominal mass, constitutional symptoms, and other bowel symptoms) and abnormal blood test results (low haemoglobin, high platelets, and high inflammatory markers) up to 24 months pre-diagnosis were calculated. Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, and relevant comorbidities was used to estimate the most likely month when consultation rates increased above baseline.

In total, 5033 patients with colon cancer and 2516 with rectal cancer were included. Consultations for all examined clinical features and abnormal blood tests increased in the year pre-diagnosis. Rectal bleeding was the earliest clinical feature to increase from the baseline rate: at 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3 to 11.7) pre-diagnosis for colon cancer and at 8 months (95% CI = 6.1 to 9.9) pre-diagnosis for rectal cancer. Low haemoglobin, high platelets, and high inflammatory markers increased from as early as 9 months pre-diagnosis.

This study found evidence for an early increase in rates of consultation for relevant clinical features and abnormal blood tests in patients with colorectal cancer, suggesting that earlier instigation of cancer-specific investigations or referrals may be warranted in some patients who were symptomatic.

Impact of COVID-19 on primary care contacts with children and young people in England: longitudinal trends study 2015-2020.

Br J Gen

The NHS response to COVID-19 altered provision and access to primary care.

To examine the impact of COVID-19 on GP contacts with children and young people (CYP) in England.

All CYP aged <25 years registered with a GP in the CPRD Aurum database were included. The number of total, remote, and face-to-face contacts during the first UK lockdown (March to June 2020) were compared with the mean contacts for comparable weeks from 2015 to 2019.

In total, 47 607 765 GP contacts with 4 307 120 CYP were included. GP contacts fell 41% during the first lockdown compared with previous years. Children aged 1-14 years had greater falls in total contacts (≥50%) compared with infants and those aged 15-24 years. Face-to-face contacts fell by 88%, with the greatest falls occurring among children aged 1-14 years (>90%). Remote contacts more than doubled, increasing most in infants (over 2.5-fold). Total contacts for respiratory illnesses fell by 74% whereas contacts for common non-transmissible conditions shifted largely to remote contacts, mitigating the total fall (31%).

During the COVID-19 pandemic, CYP's contact with GPs fell, particularly for face-to-face assessments. This may be explained by a lower incidence of respiratory illnesses because of fewer social contacts and changing health-seeking behaviour. The large shift to remote contacts mitigated total falls in contacts for some age groups and for common non-transmissible conditions.

Non-speculum clinician-taken samples for human papillomavirus testing: a cross-sectional study in older women.

Br J Gen

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality are high in women aged ≥65 years, despite the disease being preventable by screening. Speculum-based screening can become more uncomfortable after the menopause.

To examine test performance and acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing on clinician-collected vaginal samples without a speculum (non-speculum).

Non-speculum and conventional (speculum) samples were collected from women aged ≥50 years attending for a colposcopy (following a speculum HPV-positive screening result) or women aged ≥35 years (with confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+), and women aged 50-64 years attending routine screening. Sensitivity to CIN2+ was assessed among women with confirmed CIN2+ (colposcopy). Specificity to HPV relative to speculum sampling and overall concordance was assessed among women with negative cytology (routine screening).

The sensitivity of non-speculum sampling for detecting CIN2+ was 83.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.8 to 94.2) (n = 15/18). There was complete concordance among women with positive CIN2+ who had a speculum sample ≤91 days prior to the non-speculum sample (n = 12). Among 204 women with negative cytology, the specificity to HPV was 96.4% (95% CI = 92.7 to 98.5), with 96.6% concordant results (κ 72.4%). Seventy-one percent (n = 120/170) of women preferred a non-speculum sample for their next screen.

HPV testing on non-speculum clinician-taken samples is a viable approach that warrants further exploration in larger studies. Overall test performance was broadly comparable with that of self-sampling.

Leading through a pandemic.

Aust Health Rev

sion="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> AH Australian Health Review Aust. Health Rev. 0156-5788 1449-8944 CSIRO Publishing 36 Gardiner Road Clayton 3168 Melb...

Recommending COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents in primary care.

Family Practice

COVID-19 vaccines are available for adolescents in the United States, but many parents are hesitant to have their children vaccinated. The advice of primary care professionals strongly influences vaccine uptake.

We examined the willingness of primary care professionals (PCPs) to recommend COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents.

Participants were a national sample of 1,047 US adolescent primary care professionals. They participated in an online survey in early 2021, after a COVID-19 vaccine had been approved for adults but before approval for adolescents. Respondents included physicians (71%), advanced practice providers (17%), and nurses (12%). We identified correlates of willingness to recommend COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents using logistic regression.

The majority (89%) of respondents were willing to recommend COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents, with advanced practice providers and nurses being less likely than paediatricians to recommend vaccination (84% vs. 94%, aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.92). Respondents who had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine were more likely to recommend adolescent vaccination (92% vs. 69%, aOR 4.20, 95% CI 2.56-6.87) as were those with more years in practice (94% vs. 88%, aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.79-4.99). Most respondents (96%) said they would need some measure of support in order to provide COVID-19 vaccination to adolescents, with vaccine safety and efficacy information being the most commonly cited need (80%).

Adolescent primary care professionals were generally willing to recommend COVID-19 vaccination. However, most indicated a need for additional resources to be able to administer COVID-19 vaccines at their clinic.

Best methods for urine sample collection for diagnostic accuracy in women with urinary tract infection symptoms: a systematic review.

Family Practice

Most guidelines recommend a midstream urine (MSU) or a midstream clean-catch (MSCC) sample for urinalysis. However, whether this sample is better than others is still controversial.

To assess the most adequate non-invasive method to collect a urine specimen for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTI) in symptomatic non-pregnant women.

This review was conducted according to the Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42021241758). PubMed was searched paired sample studies and controlled trials. Studies comparing MSCC, MSU without cleaning, first-void urine, and random voiding samples were considered. Studies evaluating invasive methods were excluded. The main outcome was diagnostic accuracy of urine cultures. Contamination rates were evaluated. The risk of bias tool for systematic reviews on diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS-2) was assessed.

Six studies including 1,010 patients were evaluated. Only two studies used paired samples. No study was considered as having low risk of bias. There was no difference in contamination for MSU specimens collected with or without cleansing and between random void urine collection and MSCC. In one study comparing first-void urine with MSU samples, the contamination rate was lower in the latter, but the gold standard of urine culture was only used for one sampling collection.

To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review is the first to assess the evidence available from different exclusively non-invasive urine sampling. Despite being widely recommended, our review did not find consistent evidence that asking women to provide midstream samples with or without cleansing is better.

Patients' acceptance of less blood pressure measurement in consultation: a cross-sectional study in general practice.

Family Practice

Blood pressure (BP) is measured at almost every general practitioner (GP) consultation in the region of Auvergne, France. A 2018 qualitative study shows that GPs measure BP to satisfy patients, whereas patients declare themselves indifferent to the absence of the measurement. The objective was to validate the results of a qualitative study, to quantitatively assess patient satisfaction when BP is not measured, and to study the factors associated with the degree of patient satisfaction.

This was a quantitative observational study conducted using self-questionnaires among patients in medical practices in Auvergne.

Four hundred and ninety-two questionnaires were evaluated in 20 medical practices. Sixty percent of patients had indifferent or favorable feelings in the absence of BP measurement. In bivariate analysis, young age, male sex, absence of pathology, and low frequency of visits were associated with indifferent or favorable feelings in the absence of BP measurement. In multivariable analysis, a history of hypertension and psychiatric history were associated with unfavorable feelings. The intraclass correlation coefficient for practice-related variability was 5.6%. Patients' susceptibility to having particularly favorable or unfavorable feelings could be related to their GP (physician effect).

The hypothesis put forward in the qualitative study is confirmed: the majority of patients are in favor of or indifferent to the absence of BP measurement in general practice. General practice could be more efficient by measuring BP less frequently and better.