The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Laser treatment of pilonidal disease: a systematic review.

Lasers in Medical Science

Pilonidal disease (PD) is a common condition, and there is still an ongoing debate on ideal management that should be minimally invasive, safe, and...

Metamorphopsia and Morphological Changes in the Macula after Scleral Buckling Surgery for Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

J Ophthalmol

To observe the changes in metamorphopsia after scleral buckling (SB) surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and its association with morphological changes in the macula.

This prospective study included 20 eyes of 20 patients. Before surgery and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, metamorphopsia measured by M-charts and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and macular microstructures assessed using optical coherence tomography were recorded.

Both the vertical and horizontal M-scores improved significantly after SB surgery. BCVA also improved gradually. The mean M-score in the eyes with a continuous external limiting membrane (ELM) was smaller than that in the eyes with a disrupted ELM (P=0.008). Preoperative and postoperative BCVA did not correlate with the mean M-score at any time point. The other studied parameters, namely, the duration of RRD, the height of retinal detachment, central foveal thickness, inner nuclear layer thickness, and continuation of the ellipsoid zone, were also not relevant.

The continuation of the ELM may be a critical factor in determining the severity of metamorphopsia after SB surgery for macula-off RRD.

Incorporating Differential Gene Expression Analysis with Predictive Biomarkers to Identify Novel Therapeutic Drugs for Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

J Ophthalmol

Based on the differential gene expression analysis for predictive biomarkers with RNA-Sequencing data from Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) patients, we are aiming to evaluate the efficacy of Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) perturbagen prediction software to identify novel pharmacotherapeutic targets that can revert the pathogenic gene expression signatures and reverse disease phenotype in FECD.

A publicly available RNA-seq dataset was used to compare corneal endothelial specimens from controls and patients with FECD. Based on the differential gene expression analysis for predictive biomarkers, we evaluated the efficacy of LINCS perturbagen prediction software to identify novel therapeutic targets that can revert the pathogenic gene expression signatures and reverse disease phenotypes in FECD.

The RNA-seq dataset of the corneal endothelial cells from FECD patients revealed the differential gene expression signatures of FECD. Many of the differential expressed genes are related to canonical pathways of the FECD pathogenesis, such as extracellular matrix reorganization and immunological response. The expression levels of genes VSIG2, IL18, and ITGB8 were significantly increased in FECD compared with control. Meanwhile, the expression levels of CNGA3, SMOX, and CERS1 were significantly lower in the FECD than in control. We employed LINCS L1000 Characteristic Direction Signature Search Engine (L1000-CDS2) to investigate pathway-based molecular treatment. L1000-CDS2 predicted that small molecule drugs such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors might be a potential candidate to reverse the pathological gene expression signature in FECD.

Based on differential gene expression signatures, several candidate drugs have been identified to reverse the disease phenotypes in FECD. Gene expression signature with LINCS small molecule prediction software can discover novel preclinical drug candidates for FECD.

Early Age of the First Myopic Spectacle Prescription, as an Indicator of Early Onset of Myopia, Is a Risk Factor for High Myopia in Adulthood.

J Ophthalmol

The present study investigated the risk factors for high myopia in adulthood, with a focus on the age at which children wore their first spectacles.

Adults aged between 20 and 45 years were invited to complete a questionnaire about age, sex, current refractive error, high myopia in parents, early onset of myopia presented by the age of the first myopic spectacle prescription, refractive power of the first spectacles, and life habits at different educational stages. The associations between these factors and high myopia in adulthood were then evaluated and analyzed.

In total, 331 participants were enrolled. Their average refractive error was -4.03 diopters, and high myopia was noted in 27.5% of the study participants. Only 3.3% of participants had fathers with high myopia, while 6.0% had mothers with high myopia. The participants received their first myopic spectacle prescription at a mean age of 13.35 years, with a mean refractive error of -1.63 diopters. The significant risk factors for developing high myopia in adult life were earlier age of the first spectacles prescribed (p < 0.001), higher refractive power of the first spectacles (p < 0.001), mother with high myopia (p=0.015), and after-school class attendance in senior high school (p=0.018). Those who wore their first spectacles at <9 years of age were more predisposed to high myopia than those who did so at ≧13 years, with an odds ratio of 24.9.

The present study shows that earlier onset of myopia, which is presented by the age of the first myopic spectacle prescription, higher myopic refraction of the first spectacles, mothers with high myopia, and after-school class attendance in senior high school are risk factors for high myopia in adulthood. It suggests that delaying the onset of myopia in children is important for the prevention of high myopia in later life.

Immunogenetics of the Ocular Anterior Segment: Lessons from Inherited Disorders.

J Ophthalmol

Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases cause morbidity in multiple organ systems including the ocular anterior segment. Genetic disorders of the ...

One-Year Visual and Refractive Outcomes following LASIK for Myopia and Myopic Astigmatism with MEL 90 versus Schwind Amaris 750S Excimer Laser: A Comparative Study.

J Ophthalmol

To compare clinical outcomes following LASIK for myopia performed with MEL 90 vs. Schwind Amaris 750S excimer laser.

Data were collected retrospectively for patients who underwent Femto-LASIK, using the MEL 90 and Schwind Amaris 750S excimer laser for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism within the range of -1.00 to -10.00 D SE from January 2013 till June 2018. Outcomes were analysed at 12 months for safety, efficacy, enhancement rate, and long-term complications.

A total of 328 eyes of 328 patients were analysed. One hundred and sixty-three eyes were treated with Schwind Amaris and the remaining 165 eyes with the MEL 90 laser. Twelve months postoperatively, the mean UDVA, CDVA, residual SE, and cylinder in the Amaris group were -0.10 ± 0.09 logMAR, -0.14 ± 0.06 logMAR, -0.21 ± 0.22 D, -0.13 ± 0.18 D versus -0.05 ± 0.07 logMAR, -0.09 ± 0.08 logMAR, -0.23 ± 0.23 D, and -0.14 ± 0.21 D for the MEL 90 group (p values >0.05). For the Amaris group, safety and efficacy indices were 1.12 and 1.02, whereas for the MEL 90 group, these indices were 1.08 and 1.00, respectively. No eye in either group had any postop flap-related complications, infectious keratitis, diffuse lamellar keratitis, or keratectasia. Two eyes in the Amaris and 4 eyes in MEL 90 group required enhancement for the progression of myopia.

At 12 months, both Schwind Amaris 750S and MEL 90 lasers demonstrated comparable clinical outcomes for myopic LASIK in a single surgeon setting.

Short-Term Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Patients with a History of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

J Ophthalmol

This study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes of cataract surgery in patients with a history of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

This retrospective study included 26 patients with a history of CSC who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) measured before the surgery were compared with those obtained at mean 3.6 months after the surgery. BCVA outcome was also analyzed in eyes with and without subretinal fluid (SRF).

The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution BCVA significantly improved from 0.52 ± 0.40 before the surgery to 0.21 ± 0.30 one month after the surgery and 0.20 ± 0.31 at 3.6 months after the surgery (P < 0.001). The mean CFT was 281.2 ± 84.2 μm before the surgery, 301.5 ± 90.7 μm one month after the surgery, and 279.9 ± 83.6 μm at 3.6 months after the surgery. The CFT before surgery was not different from those measured at 3 months (P=0.253). Significant improvement in BCVA at 3.6 months was noted in the SRF group (N = 12, P=0.003) and the non-SRF group (N = 14, P=0.001). CSC recurrence was noted in 2 patients in the non-SRF group.

Significant improvement in visual acuity was noted after cataract surgery in patients with a history of idiopathic CSC, without a risk of aggravation of CSC in most patients.

The use of LED therapy to treat synovial joints disorders: scoping review.

Lasers in Medical Science

The aim of this scoping review was to assess the extent of the literature on the use of LED therapy to treat synovial joint disorders. The JBI meth...

Q-switch nanosecond laser as innovative and instant management for bruises discoloration, a case report.

J Cosmet Laser

Bruises is one of the most common side effects of injectable cosmetic procedures, which leads to stress to clients and health care providers. Conve...

The influence of photobiomodulation on the temperature of the brachial biceps during muscle fatigue protocol.

Lasers in Medical Science

Physical activity raises body temperature. However, the literature does not contain studies about whether the employment of hotobiomodulation (PMB)...

Combination of cisplatin treatment and photodynamic therapy attenuates cisplatin-induced cell toxicity in A2780 and A2780-CP cervical cancer cell lines.

Lasers in Medical Science

Cervical cancer is recognized as a serious worldwide health problem. Despite various achievements for cervical cancer treatment, there are still sh...

Effect of Amplifier Gain on Photoacoustic SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) in an LED-based Photoacoustic Imaging System.

Laser Therapy

The possibility of using photoacoustic imaging for functional diagnosis has attracted much attention especially in the clinical field. Among such i...