The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Inverted ILM Flap for the Treatment of Myopic Macular Holes: Healing Processes and Morphological Changes in Comparison with Complete ILM Removal.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the microstructural changes after successful myopic macular hole (MMH) surgery, comparing inverted ILM flap and complete ILM removal techniques, and their association with visual function.

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to evaluate both external limiting membrane (ELM) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) recovery in 40 eyes of 39 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with either inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique (n=27) or complete ILM removal (n=13) to achieve MH closure. The association between ELM and EZ recovery and visual acuity was also investigated. The patients were followed up at 1 year.

ELM and EZ was recovered in 72% and 62% of cases, respectively, regardless of the surgical techniques 1 year after surgery. A strong positive association between the ELM and EZ recovery and the mean BCVA was found: regardless of the surgical technique, this was statistically significant at each time point (p < 0.05). None of the baseline variables were found to act as predictive factors for either ELM or EZ.

The inverted ILM flap technique did not affect the MMH healing processes compared to complete ILM removal. Thus, the presence of the ILM plug did not interfere with the restoration of both ELM and EZ, which correlated with functional recovery.

Classification and Statistical Trend Analysis in Detecting Glaucomatous Visual Field Progression.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate the agreement between different methods in detection of glaucomatous visual field progression using two classification-based methods and four statistical approaches based on trend analysis.

This is a retrospective and longitudinal study. Twenty Caucasian patients (mean age 73.8 ± 13.43 years) with open-angle glaucoma were recruited in the study. Each visual field was assessed by Humphrey Field Analyzer, program SITA standard 30-2 or 24-2 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). Full threshold strategy was also accepted for baseline tests. Progression was analyzed by using Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification and the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study visual field defect score. For the statistical analysis, linear regression (r2) was calculated for mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and visual field index (VFI), and when it was significant, each series of visual field was considered progressive. We also used Progressor to look for a significant progression of each visual field series. The agreement between methods, based on statistical analysis and classification, was evaluated using a weighted kappa statistic.

Thirty-eight visual field series were analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 6.2 ± 1.53 years (mean ± standard deviation). At baseline, the mean MD was -7.34 ± 7.18 dB; at the end of the follow-up, the mean MD was -9.25 ± 8.65 dB; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The agreement to detect progression was fair between all methods based on statistical analysis and classification except for PSD r2. A substantial agreement (κ = 0.698 ± 0.126) was found between MD r2 and VFI r2. With the use of all the statistical analysis, there was a better time-saving.

The best agreement to detect progression was found between MD r2 and VFI r2. VFI r2 showed the best agreement with all the other methods. GPA2 can help ophthalmologists to detect glaucoma progression and to help in treatment decisions. PSD r2 was the worse method to detect progression.

Noncontact Meibography in Patients with Keratoconus.

J Ophthalmol

To examine the morphological changes in the meibomian glands of patients with keratoconus as well as to study the relationship between these changes in the morphology and several tear film parameters.

Examination of the meibomian gland (MG) of 300 keratoconus patients presenting to the center using infrared noncontact meibography system (Sirius, CSO, Italy) between January 2017-January 2019. 100 eyes of healthy individuals were also enrolled as a control group. Tear breakup time (TBUT) test and Schirmer test II were evaluated. Subjective symptoms were also assessed using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI).

Mean age of keratoconus patients was 19 ± 12 years and 21 ± 14 years in control group. Average TBUT was 4.9 ± 2.1 sec. and average Schirmer test was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm which was significantly lower than control group (p=0.05). Meibomian gland dropout in the lower eyelid of the keratoconus group was as follows: grade 0 (no loss of meibomian glands): 100 eyes; grade 1 (gland dropout area <1/3 of the total meibomian glands): 85 eyes; grade 2 (gland dropout area 1/3 to 2/3): 68 eyes; and grade 3 (gland dropout >2/3): 47 eyes.

Keratoconus shows significant meibomian gland dropout and distortion that can be recorded by noncontact meibography. Sirius meibography is a simple, cost-effective method of evaluating meibomian gland dropout as a part of the routine refractive examination.

Evaluation of Corneal Higher-Order Aberrations by Scheimpflug-Placido Topography in Patients with Different Refractive Errors: A Retrospective Observational Study.

J Ophthalmol

To report the characteristics of anterior and posterior corneal high-order aberrations in patients with different refractive errors.

This study was conducted at Sohag Refractive Center, Sohag, Egypt.

This is a retrospective observational study.

This study evaluated 750 patients (750 eyes) who were seeking refractive surgery. The eyes were stratified into five groups (150 eyes/group) based on refractive error: mild-to-moderate myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, simple myopic astigmatism, and simple hypermetropic astigmatism. All patients were subjected to comprehensive ophthalmological examination including corneal topography and corneal aberrometry using the Scheimpflug-Placido topography (Sirius, CSO, Italy).

Coma aberration was statistically significant when compared in all five groups (P=0.01). It was highest in the hypermetropia group (0.26 ± 0.12 μm) but lower in the moderate myopia, high myopia, myopic astigmatism, and hypermetropic astigmatism groups. Spherical aberration was lowest in the hypermetropia group and significantly different from that in the other groups. Trefoil was statistically insignificant when all groups were compared (P=0.062) but was highest in the myopic astigmatism group (0.24 ± 0.25 μm). Total RMS peaked in the hypermetropia group (0.99 ± 0.70).

In normal corneas and regular refractive errors, the cornea-induced high-order aberration was minimal, and all types of refractive errors were associated with certain types of high-order aberrations, with a significant increase in spherical aberration in the hypermetropia group.

The Role of Single-Layered Flap in Temporal Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Macular Holes: Pros and Cons.

J Ophthalmol

To assess the safety and effectiveness of the single-layered inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for treating chronic, large, or highly myopic macular holes (MHs).

The medical records of 20 eyes of 20 consecutive Japanese patients with large MHs (n=6) (minimal diameter, >400 μm), chronic MHs (n=2) (symptom duration, >24 months), MHs in high myopia (n=11) (axial length, >26 mm), and MHs in a patient unable to maintain prone positioning postoperatively (n=1) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and the temporal inverted ILM flap technique. A semicircular ILM notch was made temporally two disc diameters from the MH using a 25-gauge knife, and the ILM was peeled temporally to create a semicircular ILM flap using a 25-gauge forceps. The single-layered ILM flap was inverted in a nasal direction to cover the MH. When an epiretinal membrane (ERM) was present, it was peeled before the ILM flap was inverted.

The MHs closed successfully in all (100%) eyes postoperatively. In the MHs associated with an ERM, after hole closure, gradual foveal deformation occurred in both the area from which the ILM was not peeled and the ILM flap inverted side.

The single-layered inverted ILM flap technique, a simple surgery to treat MHs, provides scaffolding for retinal gliosis and may facilitate bridge formation between the walls of the MH under the flap. Considering the 100% success rate of MH closure, this technique seems to be effective and safe for treating chronic, large, or highly myopic MHs and MHs in patients unable to maintain postoperative prone positioning. In the MHs associated with ERMs, gradual foveal deformation was observed after ERM peeling. Further studies are needed to minimize surgical complications and understand the mechanism of this technique. This trial is registered with UMIN000035091.

The Association between Preoperative Dry Eye Symptoms and Postoperative Discomfort in Patients Underwent Photorefractive Keratectomy.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the association between preoperative dry eye symptoms on postoperative pain and discomfort after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).

A retrospective case series of 151 consecutive patients, who underwent myopic PRK in both eyes between 5/2016 and 5/2017. Patients with positive dry eye disease (DED) signs on clinical examination or with known DED were excluded. Patients underwent a subjective evaluation for dry eye symptoms using ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and modified standard patient evaluation of eye dryness (SPEED) questionnaires. One day postoperatively, the patients were evaluated again by a questionnaire of pain, discomfort, photophobia, foreign body sensation, satisfaction with vision, and frequency of usage of anesthetic drops.

Fifty-two patients had any preoperative dry eye symptoms (OSDI score > 0) compared to 99 nonsymptomatic patients (OSDI score of 0). Postoperatively, the symptomatic dry eye patients suffered significantly more pain than the nondry eye patients (p=0.02). Thirteen patients had a cumulated modified SPEED score >4 (moderate to severe) in comparison to 138 patients with score of 0-4 (non to mild). Patients with moderate to severe preoperative symptoms suffered more pain (p=0.006), photophobia (p=0.005), and epiphora (p=0.03). No statistically significant difference was seen in postoperative subjective visual quality (p=0.82) between the two groups.

Preoperative dry eye symptoms may be associated with postoperative pain, epiphora, and photophobia and thus influence negatively on patient satisfaction with this procedure.

An Update on Corneal Biomechanics and Architecture in Diabetes.

J Ophthalmol

In the last decade, we have witnessed substantial progress in our understanding of corneal biomechanics and architecture. It is well known that dia...

Factors That Influence Refractive Changes in the First Year of Myopia Development in Premature Infants.

J Ophthalmol

To study the development of refractive status from 36 weeks to one year of postmenstrual age and to identify factors that contribute to development of myopia, including gender, birth weight, gestational age, and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

Premature infants underwent full cycloplegic retinoscopy at 36 weeks, 38 weeks, 40 weeks, 42 weeks, 44 weeks, 46 weeks, 48 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months of postmenstrual age. The infants were grouped by gender, birth weight, gestational age, and the severity of ROP to evaluate the correlation with refractive status at each postmenstrual age.

A total of 942 infants were recruited in this study. A total of 2716 readings were obtained. Refractive state had a hyperopic shift until 46 weeks of postmenstrual age (r = 0.42, P < 0.0001). After that, the mean spherical equivalent (SE) gradually declined (r = -0.30, P < 0.0001). Boys had lower hyperopia than girls at nine months (t = 3.10, P=0.003) and one year (t = 3.34, P=0.001) of postmenstrual age. Premature infants with ROP had a lower average SE at most of the postmenstrual ages; however, this value did not vary significantly (P > 0.05). Premature infants with severe ROP were less hyperopic than those without it at every postmenstrual age, and the average SE differed significantly at one year of postmenstrual age (t = 2.60, P=0.011). There was no significant difference between each birth weight and gestational age (P > 0.05).

The dioptric value of premature infants within one year was generally hyperopic. Different gender, birth weight, gestational age, and ROP did not affect the overall development of refractive status. Females may have higher hyperopia at nine months of postmenstrual age. Birth weight and gestational age had little effect on change of refractive status. Severe ROP was an important contributing factor in myopia progression, which may be related to the treatment required. Further study may be carried out to understand the mechanism behind myopia progression in premature infants, including changes in refractive system parameters and emmetropization process.

Novel Method of Remotely Monitoring the Face-Device Distance and Face Illuminance Using Mobile Devices: A Pilot Study.

J Ophthalmol

Specially developed software (app) was written for handheld electronic devices that uses the device camera and light detector for real-time monitor...

The Improvement of Dry Eye Symptoms after Pinguecula Excision and Conjunctival Autograft with Fibrin Glue.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate the association between pinguecula excision and subsequent improvement in dry eye syndrome.

We included 30 consecutive patients with primary nasal pinguecula and dry eye symptoms undergoing ocular surgery for the first time. Criteria for pinguecula excision surgery were nasal location, yellowish color, and protrusion of conjunctiva at least 2 times thicker than adjacent normal conjunctiva as measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Our primary outcomes were 3-month postoperative changes in tear film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and a dry eye symptom score.

30 eyes from 30 different patients (12 men and 18 women) underwent pinguecula excision and conjunctival autografting using fibrin glue. The mean age was 42.5 ± 8.35 (range 28-63) years. The preoperative protrusion ratio of pinguecula was 2.33 ± 0.28 (range 2.00-2.90). Mean preoperative TBUT, Schirmer test, and dry eye symptom scores were 5.10 ± 1.27 seconds, 6.07 ± 2.27 mm, and 2.80 ± 0.76 points. Mean postoperative 3-month TBUT, Schirmer test, and dry eye symptom scores were 7.80 ± 1.13 seconds, 7.27 ± 2.02 mm, and 0.30 ± 0.47 points, respectively. The median pre- and postoperative changes were found to be statistically significant by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for TBUT, Schirmer test score, and dry eye symptom score.

Surgical excision of pinguecula and conjunctival autograft using fibrin glue is an effective and safe method to improve symptoms of dry eye syndrome.

CAPTCHA as a Visual Performance Metric in Active Macular Disease.

J Ophthalmol

CAPTCHA (completely automated public turing test to tell computers and humans apart) was designed as a spam prevention test. In patients with visual impairment, completion of this task has been assumed to be difficult; but to date, no study has proven this to be true. As visual function is not well measured by Snellen visual acuity (VA) alone, we theorized that CAPTCHA performance may provide additional information on macular disease-related visual dysfunction.

This was designed as a pilot study. Active disease was defined as the presence of either intraretinal fluid (IRF) or subretinal fluid (SRF) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. CAPTCHA performance was tested using 10 prompts. In addition, near and distance VA, contrast sensitivity, and reading speed were measured. Visual acuity matched pseudophakic patients were used as controls. Primary outcome measures were average edit distance and percent of correct responses.

70 patients were recruited: 33 with active macular disease and 37 control subjects. Contrast sensitivity was found to be significantly different in both the IRF (p < 0.01) and SRF groups (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found comparing the odds ratio of average edit distance of active disease (IRF, SRF) vs. control (OR 1.09 (0.62, 1.90), 1.10 (0.58, 2.05), p=0.77,  0.77) or percent correct responses of active disease vs. control (OR 0.98 (0.96, 1.01), 1.09 (0.58, 2.05), p=0.22, 0.51) in CAPTCHA testing. The goodness of fit using logistic regression analysis for the dependent variables of either IRF or SRF did not improve accounting for average edit distance (p=0.49,  p=0.27) or percent correct (p=0.89,  p=0.61).

Distance VA and contrast sensitivity are positively correlated with the presence of IRF and SRF in active macular disease. CAPTCHA performance did not appear to be a significant predictor of either IRF or SRF in our pilot study.

Comparison of Solar Radiation and Myopia Occurrence in South Korean Children.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the association between regional solar radiation and myopia occurrence in South Korean children.

A population-based cross-sectional study using data of 1218 children aged 7-9 years from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012. Myopia prevalence and the mean spherical equivalent were estimated; myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction <-1.5 D. Data regarding solar radiation and sunshine duration were collected from 21 national monitoring stations in South Korea. Multiple logistic regression analyses and multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. However, the most important covariate, the time spent outdoors, was not measured and could not be used.

In the entire cohort of 1218 participants, solar radiation and sunshine duration were significantly associated with the mean spherical equivalent (P=0.001 and P=0.014, B = 0.088 and B = 0.069, respectively) and solar radiation was significantly associated with myopia prevalence (P=0.008). And, a negative but not statistically significant association between sunshine duration and myopia prevalence was observed (P=0.064, respectively).

Solar radiation and sunshine duration are associated with the mean spherical equivalent and myopia prevalence in South Korean children.