The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effectiveness of photobiomodulation in reducing pain and producing dental analgesia: a systematic review.

Lasers in Medical Science

Photobiomodulation (PBM) is reported in many studies to produce dental analgesia without producing thermal damage to tissues. This systematic review aims to assess in vivo studies to support the statement that PBM can produce dental analgesia.

A systematic search strategy was constructed, and PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched. Subsequently, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, reference lists were scanned, and hand searched to identify other suitable studies.

Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to the heterogenous nature of the studies and data. Positive analgesia outcome was obtained in four out of five studies, and one study with no significant results was criticized for poor reporting of laser parameters, small sample size (six).

In general, all studies were criticized for poor discussion of all covariates that could have modified the results, consequently resulting in poor quality of evidence, moderate risk of bias, and poor internal validity, as well as external validity. The systematic review also discussed the potential implications of all variables to be considered for future trials, including pulsing mode, contact modes, and tooth characteristics.

Knowledge and Awareness of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy among Patients Seeking Eye Care Services in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea.

J Ophthalmol

To assess the knowledge and awareness of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among ophthalmic patients in Madang.

This was a hospital-based study conducted at Madang Provincial Hospital Eye Clinic in Papua New Guinea. The study included all patients who visited the facility during the period of the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the patients' demographics and their knowledge and awareness about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

A total of 203 (97.6%) patients consented and participated in the study out of 208 patients who were approached. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 78 years with a median (IQR) of 41 (53-29) years. 107 (52.7%) were female participants. A majority of the participants (62.6%) had at least secondary education. A few of the participants (3.9%) had known diabetes, and 134 (66%) had no relatives or friends with diabetes. A total of 145 (71.4%) participants knew that diabetes can affect the eye. Most of the participants (93.6%) checked their eyes only when their vision was affected, 161 (79.3%) agreed that regular eye checks are necessary, and more than half (54.2%) knew that diabetes can lead to blindness. Age, gender, level of education, and whether a participant or participant's friends and relatives had been diagnosed with diabetes were significantly associated with the knowledge and awareness of participants about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

A majority of the participants had good knowledge of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. Health education and promotion will also help increase the awareness of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in the country.

Crosslinking vs. Observation in Fellow Eyes of Keratoconus Patients.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate whether unilateral crosslinking (CXL) and conservative follow-up of the fellow eye is an acceptable management strategy in patients with keratoconus (KC).

Seventy-nine fellow eyes of KC subjects that initially underwent unilateral CXL were included. Thirty fellow eyes ultimately received CXL (group 1) whereas 49 fellow eyes were followed (group 2). Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and corneal tomographic parameters were collected in all eyes preoperatively and at the last follow-up.

Subjects who received CXL in the fellow eye (group 1) were younger than subjects who did not (group 2, p=0.026). Group 1 eyes had higher baseline K1 (p=0.026), K2 (p=0.006), Km (p=0.01), and Kmax (p=0.002) compared to group 2 eyes. Amongst the 49 naïve fellow eyes (group 2), 19 eyes showed evidence of progression. Progressing naïve eyes had higher baseline K1, K2, Km, and Kmax (p < 0.01); progressors also had thinner pachymetry at the pupil, apex, and thinnest point (p < 0.01). Baseline values of K1 ≥ 43.5 Diopter (D), K2 > 45.1D, Km > 44.3D, Kmax > 47.9D, astigmatism > 1.4D, pachymetry at the pupil <475 μm, and thinnest pachymetry <478 μm were tentative predictors of progression in the naïve fellow eye.

Unilateral CXL with vigilant follow up of the fellow eye may be an acceptable management strategy in a subset of KC eyes.

Effects of high-frequency near infrared laser irradiation on experimental tooth movement-induced pain in rats.

Lasers in Medical Science

Discomfort and dull pain are known side effects of orthodontic treatment. Pain is expected to be reduced by near-infrared (NIR) lasers; however, th...

Heidelberg Anterion Swept-Source OCT Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping: Repeatability and Agreement With Optovue Avanti.

Refractive Surgery

To assess the repeatability of corneal epithelial thickness mapping in virgin, post-laser refractive surgery (PLRS), and keratoconic eyes using a novel swept-source optical coherence tomographer (SS-OCT), and to determine the agreement of the measurements with a validated spectral-domain (SD) OCT.

Analysis of 90 virgin, 46 PLRS, and 122 keratoconic eyes was performed. Three consecutive measurements of each eye were acquired with the Anterion SS-OCT and Avanti SD-OCT devices, and averages of the epithelial thickness mapping were calculated in the central 2-mm zone and in the 2- to 5-mm and 5- to 7-mm diameter rings. The repeatability was analyzed using pooled within-subject standard deviation (Sw). The agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and paired t tests.

The repeatability ranges of the Anterion and Avanti epithelial thickness mapping measurements were Sw: 0.60 to 1.36 µm and Sw: 0.75 to 1.96 µm, respectively. The 95% limits of agreement of the Anterion and Avanti were 0.826 to 8.297. All values of the thickness measurements with the Anterion were lower than those of the Avanti, with the mean differences being 4.06 ± 1.81, 3.26 ± 2.52, and 3.68 ± 2.51 µm in virgin, PLRS, and keratoconic eyes, respectively (P < .001 for all).

The repeatability of the Anterion's epithelial thickness mapping was higher than that of the Avanti. In terms of the agreement between the Anterion and Avanti, the epithelium measured by the Anterion was always thinner than that of the Avanti, making their interchangeable use unsuitable without corrections. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):356-363.].

Combining Spectral-Domain OCT and Air-Puff Tonometry Analysis to Diagnose Keratoconus.

Refractive Surgery

To investigate the diagnostic capacity of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with air-puff tonometry using artificial intelligence (AI) in differentiating between normal and keratoconic eyes.

Patients who had either undergone uneventful laser vision correction with at least 3 years of stable follow-up or those who had forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC), early keratoconus (EKC), or advanced keratoconus (AKC) were included. SD-OCT and biomechanical information from air-puff tonometry was divided into training and validation sets. AI models based on random forest or neural networks were trained to distinguish eyes with FFKC from normal eyes. Model accuracy was independently tested in eyes with FFKC and normal eyes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity values.

A total of 223 normal eyes from 223 patients, 69 FFKC eyes from 69 patients, 72 EKC eyes from 72 patients, and 258 AKC eyes from 258 patients were included. The top AUC ROC values (normal eyes compared with AKC and EKC) were Pentacam Random Forest Index (AUC = 0.985 and 0.958), Tomographic and Biomechanical Index (AUC = 0.983 and 0.925), and Belin-Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Total Deviation Index (AUC = 0.981 and 0.922). When SD-OCT and air-puff tonometry data were combined, the random forest AI model provided the highest accuracy with 99% AUC for FFKC (75% sensitivity; 94.74% specificity).

Currently, AI parameters accurately diagnose AKC and EKC, but have a limited ability to diagnose FFKC. AI-assisted diagnostic technology that uses both SD-OCT and air-puff tonometry may overcome this limitation, leading to improved treatment of patients with keratoconus. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):374-380.].

Comparative Contralateral Randomized Clinical Trial of Standard (3 mW/cm2) Versus Accelerated (9 mW/cm2) CXL in Patients With Down Syndrome: 3-Year Results.

Refractive Surgery

To compare the long-term results of accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL) (9 mW/cm2, 10 min) with standard CXL (3 mW/cm2, 30 min) in patients with Down syndrome who had keratoconus.

In this contralateral randomized clinical trial, 27 patients with Down syndrome aged 15.78 ± 2.46 years (range: 10 to 19 years) were enrolled. CXL was performed using the KXL System (Avedro, Inc) under general anesthesia, and patients were followed up for 3 years. The main outcome measure was a change in average keratometry in the 3-mm zone around the steepest point (zonal Kmax-3mm). Secondary outcomes were changes in Corvis ST (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH) biomechanical parameters and vision, refraction, and corneal tomography measurements.

Mean 3-year changes in zonal Kmax-3mm were not significantly different between the accelerated and standard groups (-0.06 ± 0.75 and -0.35 ± 0.94 diopters [D], respectively, P = .727). Despite the contralateral design of the study, based on most baseline biomechanical indices, corneas in the standard group were weaker before treatment. The standard group also showed significantly fewer 3-year changes in the stress-strain index (-0.11 ± 0.21 vs -0.30 ± 0.32), integrated radius (+0.99 ± 3.48 vs +3.14 ± 2.84), and deformation amplitude ratio-2mm (-1.38 ± 1.33 vs +0.30 ± 1.75) (all P < .0167). Corneal stiffness in the accelerated group was stable for 2 years, and the decline mainly occurred during the third year.

In young patients with Down syndrome who had keratoconus, accelerated and standard CXL showed a similar flattening effect. Standard CXL is better able to maintain corneal stiffness in weaker corneas. With accelerated CXL, despite stable results for 2 years, there was decreased corneal stiffness in the third year. Longer follow-up periods are warranted to study the decreased efficacy on keratoconus progression. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):381-388.].

Efficacy and Safety After Toric Posterior Chamber Implantable Collamer Lens and Toric Iris-Fixated Foldable Phakic Intraocular Lens for Myopic Astigmatism.

Refractive Surgery

To compare visual, refractive, and safety outcomes of toric posterior chamber Implantable Collamer Lens (T-ICL) (STAAR Surgical) and toric iris-fixated foldable phakic intraocular lens (IOL) (T-Artiflex; Ophtec BV) implantation for the correction of myopic astigmatism.

This retrospective cohort study included 312 eyes of 312 patients who had phakic IOL implantation for myopic astigmatism. Two groups were defined: 205 eyes that underwent T-ICL implantation and 107 eyes that underwent T-Artiflex implantation. Safety, efficacy, and predictability outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Refractive and corneal astigmatic vector analysis were performed using the Alpins method.

One year postoperatively, uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.05 ± 0.18 (T-ICL) and 0.10 ± 0.16 (T-Artiflex) logMAR, with efficacy indexes of 1.16 ± 0.27 and 1.05 ± 0.31, respectively (P < .001). Safety indexes were 1.28 ± 0.30 and 1.21 ± 0.31, respectively (P = .04). Spherical equivalent was within ±0.50 diopters (D) of emmetropia in 165 (80.5%) and 88 (82.2%) eyes, respectively. Refractive astigmatic analysis showed an index of success of 0.28 ± 0.33 (T-ICL) and 0.31 ± 0.26 (T-Artiflex) (P = .07). Surgically induced corneal astigmatism was 0.48 ± 0.74 and 0.81 ± 0.61 D, respectively (P < .001). Mean endothelial loss was 1.11% and 2.05%, respectively (P = .42). Six (2.9%) eyes in the T-ICL group and 1 (0.9%) eye in the T-Artiflex group had phakic IOL repositioning due to significant misalignment. No vision-threatening complications occurred.

Both the T-ICL and T-Artiflex groups showed high visual and refractive efficacy with a good safety profile for the correction of myopic astigmatism. T-ICL implantation demonstrated significantly better efficacy and safety indexes after 12 months. Vector analysis showed similar refractive astigmatic correction in both groups, but T-Artiflex implantation revealed higher surgically induced corneal astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):339-347.].

Long-term Effects of Riboflavin Ultraviolet-A-Induced CXL With Different Irradiances on the Biomechanics of In Vivo Rabbit Corneas.

Refractive Surgery

To evaluate the long-term effects of ultraviolet-A corneal cross-linking (CXL) with different irrandiances on the biomechanical properties of rabbit corneas and the corresponding changes in stromal microstructure.

The study involved the left eyes of 85 healthy white Japanese rabbits, randomly divided into five groups (n = 16 to 18 each). After removing the epithelium, the first four groups were exposed to riboflavin (0.22% concentration by volume) and ultraviolet-A (370 nm) at different CXL irradiations but with the same total dose (5.4 J/cm2). The four groups were defined as standard CXL (SCXL; 3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes, n = 17), accelerated CXL1 (ACXL1; 9 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes, n = 16), accelerated CXL2 (ACXL2; 18 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes, n = 17), and accelerated CXL3 (ACXL3; 30 mW/cm2 for 3 minutes, n = 17). The control group (n = 18) was treated with riboflavin without ultraviolet-A exposure. Nine months after CXL, 10 corneas from each group were tested ex vivo under inflation, and the tangent modulus (Et) was estimated using an inverse analysis process. The remaining six to eight specimens in each group were examined by electron microscopy to determine the mean fibril diameter and interfibrillar spacing.

The SCXL and ACXL1 groups showed statistically significant differences in Et at all stresses (0.005, 0.010, and 0.015 MPa) analyzed compared to the control group (all P < .01), but the differences were non-significant in the ACXL3 group (P = 1.000, .785, and .679, respectively). For the ACXL2 group, there was no statistical difference in Et under the low stress of 0.005 MPa (P = .155), but the differences became significant at 0.010 and 0.015 MPa when compared with the control group (all P < .05).

CXL had a significant effect on corneal biomechanics in both standard and accelerated procedures. However, standard CXL was the most effective, and this effectiveness decreased gradually with increasing ultraviolet-A power intensity. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):389-397.].

Evaluation of Corneal Biomechanical Indices in Distinguishing Between Normal, Very Asymmetric, and Bilateral Keratoconic Eyes.

Refractive Surgery

To evaluate the ability of biomechanical indices provided by the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments) and dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer (Corvis ST; Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH) to distinguish between normal eyes and eyes with very asymmetric ectasia (VAE) and mild and moderate keratoconus.

This prospective, observational, and monocentric study included normal eyes (defined as keratoconus percentage index < 60, Belin/Ambrósio total deviation value [BAD-D] < 1.6, inferior-superior keratometry [I-S value] < 1.45 and maximum keratometry [Kmax] < 47) and eyes with clinical bilateral keratoconus (mild and moderate) and VAE (defined as unilateral keratoconus, where one eye showed a clinical keratoconus and the fellow eye was topographically normal [VAE-NT] or topographically and tomographically normal [VAE-NTT]). All eyes were measured by the Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH), ORA, and Corvis ST. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to test the diagnostic ability.

Fifty-eight normal eyes and 238 ectatic eyes were included. The highest area under the curve (AUC) was provided by the Corvis Biomechanical Index (CBI) with an AUC of 0.979, followed by ORA corneal resistance factor (0.865), and corneal hysteresis (0.824) separating normal eyes from all ectatic subgroups. The AUC of the CBI was statistically significantly higher than all other parameters (DeLong test, P < .001). A sensitivity of 100% and 70.9%, respectively, and a specificity of 93.1% was found to distinguish normal eyes from VAE-NT and VAE-NTT using a cut-off value of 0.2.

The assessment of biomechanical properties is an additional important method to evaluate corneal ectasia independent of its stage. The CBI provides further information for ectasia screening in cases where corneal topography and tomography are clinically not suspicious by using a cutoff of 0.2. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):364-372.].

Comparison of Visual Outcomes and Optical Quality of Femtosecond Laser-Assisted SMILE and Visian Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL V4c) Implantation for Moderate to High Myopia: A Meta-analysis.

Refractive Surgery

To compare visual outcomes and optical quality of femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and Visian Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL V4c; STAAR Surgical) implantation for moderate to high myopia.

For this systematic review and meta-analysis, the Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases (Wan-fang data and CNKI) were comprehensively searched to identify studies comparing SMILE and ICL V4c implantation. Data of interest were extracted and analyzed by Stata V.16.0 software (StataCorp). The weighted mean differences and their 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association.

Twelve studies incorporating 1,390 eyes of 822 patients were included. The analysis revealed ICL V4c implantation had a significantly higher safety index and lower high order aberrations, coma, and spherical aberration than SMILE in treating moderate to high myopia (P < .05). Subgroup analysis revealed such differences were more prominent in patients with high myopia who had shorter follow-up duration. When follow-up was longer than 6 months, the differences in safety index and total HOAs became nonsignificant (P > .05). The two procedures had no difference in efficacy index, postoperative visual acuity, spherical equivalent, trefoil, Objective Scatter Index, or modulation transfer function cut-off frequency (P > .05).

Both SMILE and ICL V4c implantation were safe and efficient for moderate to high myopia. Compared with SMILE, ICL V4c implantation might provide better postoperative visual quality in patients with high myopia in the early postoperative period. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):332-338.].

Femtosecond Intrastromal Lenticule Implantation (FILI) for Management of Moderate to High Hyperopia: 5-Year Outcomes.

Refractive Surgery

To report the long-term clinical experience following femtosecond intrastromal lenticule implantation (FILI) for the management of moderate to high hyperopia.

Eligible patients who underwent FILI for moderate to high hyperopia from July 2013 to October 2020 were included. A donor small incision lenticule extraction lenticule, matched for refractive error, was implanted into the recipient's corneal pocket created using a femtosecond laser at 160 µm depth. Visual and refractive outcomes and long-term complications were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up of 68 ± 17.28 months (5.6 years).

Forty-two eyes of 25 patients (mean age: 27.29 ± 5.52 years) were analyzed. The mean spherical equivalent reduced significantly from +5.50 ± 1.96 to +0.66 ± 1.17 diopters (D) at last follow-up visit. Thirty eyes (71%) were within ±1.00 D of spherical equivalent correction. Cumulative uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/40 or better was achieved in 34 eyes (81%). Efficacy and safety indices were 0.86 ± 0.19 and 1.17 ± 0.39, respectively. There was a significant increase in mean keratometry (Kmean) anterior, central corneal thickness, Q-value, and corneal higher order aberrations and a decrease in Kmean posterior 2 weeks postoperatively, without any significant change in these parameters thereafter (P > .05). Four eyes of 3 patients underwent enhancement and another 4 eyes underwent explantation of the lenticule followed by exchange (2 eyes) and hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (2 eyes). No eye lost more than one line of CDVA.

At 5 years of follow-up, FILI for moderate to high hyperopia showed good safety, efficacy, and reversibility. Modification of nomograms and surgical planning may be employed for further refinement of the outcomes. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(6):348-354.].