The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Correlations of Corneal Spherical Aberration with Astigmatism and Axial Length in Cataract Patients.

J Ophthalmol

To clarify the distribution of corneal spherical aberrations (SAs) in cataract patients with different corneal astigmatism and axial length.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science of the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Retrospective case series.

The axial length, corneal SAs, and other corneal biometrics were collected in cataract patients with Pentacam HR and IOLMaster 500. The statistical analysis of the corneal SAs was based on the stratification of axial length and anterior corneal astigmatism.

In total, 6747 eyes of 6747 patients were recruited, with 2416 eyes (58.17 ± 16.81 years old) in the astigmatism group (anterior corneal astigmatism ≥1 D) and others (61.82 ± 12.64 years old) in the control group. In patients with astigmatism <2 D, the total and anterior SAs decreased as the axial length increased (P < 0.001). The total corneal SAs of patients with astigmatism of 2-3 D stabilized at around 0.29 μm, whereas those of patients with anterior corneal astigmatism ≥3 D tended to be variable. Age and anterior corneal astigmatism had positive and negative effects, respectively, on SA in the regression model.

Axial length has a negative effect on the anterior and total corneal SAs, which stabled around 0.33 μm and 0.30 μm in patients with axial length of ≥26 mm, respectively. Individualized SA adjustments are essential for patients undergoing aspheric toric IOL implantation with preoperative anterior corneal astigmatism of 1-2 D or ≥3 D. Toric IOLs with a negative SA of -0.20 μm are recommended for patients with anterior corneal astigmatism of 2-3 D if no customized therapy is warranted.

Day Ward Glaucoma Patients Have Lower Depression Levels and Higher Glaucoma Knowledge Levels than Inpatients.

J Ophthalmol

Psychological factors and glaucoma knowledge are closely related to the effects of glaucoma treatment.

Studies comparing anxiety and depression levels and glaucoma knowledge between glaucoma day-case patients and inpatients are limited.

Randomized clinical trial.

Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were prospectively enrolled.

Patients were randomized into the day-case group or the inpatient group. All of the patients underwent corresponding procedures for treatment, care, and education. All participants were asked to complete the General Condition Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Gray Glaucoma Knowledge Questionnaire (GGKQ) at admission and the HADS and GGKQ at discharge.

The scores for the General Condition Questionnaire, the HADS, and the GGKQ.

In total, 216 patients were enrolled in this study, including 119 day ward patients and 97 inpatients. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of their baseline demographic and clinical data (P > 0.05). The baseline HADS-anxiety (HADS-A), HADS-depression (HADS-D), and GGKQ scores were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Before discharge, the difference in HADS-A scores between the two groups was not significant; however, the HADS-D scores of the day-case inpatients were significantly lower (α = 0.05, P < 0.001), and the GGKQ scores of day-case inpatients were significantly higher than those of the inpatients before discharge (α = 0.05, P < 0.001).

Day ward patients had lower levels of depression and higher levels of glaucoma knowledge.

Distribution and Determinants of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Its Association with Sleep Quality in Chinese Teenagers.

J Ophthalmol

We aimed to evaluate the distribution and determinants of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and its associations with general sleep quality in Chinese school students.

1063 grade 7 students aged 13 to 14 years with pRNFL thickness data from a school-based study on grade 7 students in Southwestern China participated in the study. The pRNFL thickness was measured on the optical coherence tomography images of a circular scan centered on the optic disc. Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor and biometric parameters including axial length (AL) were measured by an IOLMaster. Participants' sleep quality was measured by the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ).

The mean pRNFL thickness was 106.8 ± 10.7 μm among the 1063 participants. There was an increasing trend of spherical equivalent and a decreasing trend of AL with RNFL thickness. In multivariate analysis, each diopter of spherical equivalent increase was associated with 0.64 μm increase in pRNFL thickness. Girls had an increased mean pRNFL thickness compared with boys with a mean difference of 1.65 μm. Per 10 μm increase in pRNFL thickness was significantly associated with a 0.5 reduction in CSHQ score (better sleep quality).

More myopic refractive error was the major ocular determinant of decreased pRNFL thickness. In addition, students with thinner pRNFL tended to have a worse sleep quality.

Assessment of Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Changes following Cataract Surgery in Patients with Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma.

J Ophthalmol

To assess eye pressure, ganglion cell complex, and retinal nerve fiber layer changes following cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

Eighty-five patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) were included in the study. They were divided into two groups; the first group included patients with PEXG and cataract who underwent phacoemulsification (pseudophakic group; n = 40 eyes). The second group included patients with PEXG without cataract (control group; n = 45 eyes). Both groups were on antiglaucoma treatment. IOP changes after surgery and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients underwent cataract extraction surgery compared to controls that did not have cataract, nor underwent surgery. Both groups were followed up postoperatively for 18 months.

There was no difference in the mean age and glaucoma stage in both groups (P=0.242 and 0.70, respectively). In the pseudophakic group, the mean IOP significantly dropped from 20.43 ± 0.90 to 17.00 ± 2.75 mmHg at the end of the follow-up period (P ≤ 0.001). Slight decrease (≈3 μm) was recorded in the mean GCC thickness of the pseudophakic patients from the baseline at the end of the follow-up period. This decrease was lower than that of the controls (≈5 μm). No significant pRNFL changes were recorded all over the postoperative visits (88.78 ± 22.55 μm at 3 months, 88.67 ± 23.14 μm at 6 months, 87.62 ± 23.04 μm at 12 months, and 87.32 ± 22.61 μm at 18 months) as compared to preoperative value (90.28 ± 22.31 μm) with P=0.335, 0.387, 0.158, and 0.110, respectively, or controls (89.69 ± 21.76 μm, 88.73 ± 21.08 μm, 87.33 ± 20.67 μm, and 87.23 ± 20.54 μm with P=0.850, 0.990, 0.951, and 0.984).

Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation may aid in managing pseudoexfoliation glaucoma by lowering IOP and slowing the rate of GCC and pRNFL losses over a short-term period.

Shortened Measurement Time of Functional Visual Acuity for Screening Visual Function.

J Ophthalmol

The functional visual acuity test which is the average of the visual acuities measured during a specific time frame (standard, 60 seconds) has been...

Research on Association of the Diameter of the Internal Carotid Artery Siphon and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the association of the diameter of the internal carotid artery siphon (ICAS) and nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION).

Thirty patients clinically diagnosed with NAION (unilateral affected) who presented to Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2017 to October 2018 were selected. The eyes suffered from NAION were enrolled as the observation group, and the fellow healthy eyes were enrolled as the control group. The following indexes were measured: diameter of the ICAS and the ophthalmic artery (OA), intima-media thickness (IMT) of the internal carotid artery (ICA), degree of stenosis of the ICA and plaque formation, and hemodynamic parameters of the ICA and the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs). All the values were compared between the two groups.

The diameter of the ICAS in the observation group (0.30 ± 0.07 cm) significantly narrowed compared with that of the control group (0.32 ± 0.06 cm) (P < 0.05), but the diameter of the OA of the two groups had no significant difference. The detection rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaque, the average blood flow velocity (Vm), and the resistance index (RI) of the ICA in the observation group (46.67%, 26.81 ± 1.78 cm/s, and 0.72 ± 0.06) had significant differences compared with those of the control group (16.67%, 28.19 ± 2.75 cm/s, and 0.70 ± 0.05) (P < 0.05), but the gradings of ICA stenosis and IMT between the two groups had no significant differences. The peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the end diastolic velocity (EDV) of the SPCAs in the observation group (10.72 ± 2.88 cm/s and 3.43 ± 1.01 cm/s) were significantly lower than those of the control group (13.62 ± 3.93 cm/s and 4.59 ± 1.71 cm/s) (P < 0.05), but the RI of the SPCAs of the two groups had no significant differences.

The diameter of the ICAS has a close relationship with NAION.

Efficient treatment of upper-lip rhytidosis by pneumatic administration of hyaluronic acid.

J Cosmet Laser

Three female patients with extensive upper lip rhytidosis were successfully treated with kinetic energy-based injections of hyaluronic acid.

Outcomes of MyoRing Implantation in Eyes with Keratoconus in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: "A Single-Arm Cohort Study".

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of MyoRing implantation in eyes with keratoconus managed at a tertiary eye hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

This one-armed historical cohort study included keratoconus patients operated for MyoRing implant. The cases were assessed before and 6 months after surgery. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical equivalent (SE), central corneal thickness (CCT), and corneal curvature (Kmean) were noted and measured before and 6 months after the intervention. Intra- and postoperative complications were noted.

We studied 12 eyes of 12 patients with moderate keratoconus. The median of Kmean was 50.6 mm (IQR 47.54; 52.5) and 44.5 mm (IQR 42.5; 46.8) before and 6 months after surgery. The change in Kmean was significant (P=0.002). The median spherical equivalent (SE) was -5.1D (interquartile range (IQR) 7.1; -3.6) and -0.6 (IQR -2.1; 0.8) before and 6 months after surgery. The difference in SE was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P=0.004). The CCT was 447 ± 34 μm and 444 ± 30 μm before and 6 months after surgery, respectively. The CCT change was not significant (P=0.26). The UCVA and BCVA improved by 2 or more lines in 9 (75%) eyes, remained stable in 2 (16.7%) eyes, and decreased in 2 (16.7%) eyes.

MyoRing implant seems to be a safe and effective procedure to manage low and moderate keratoconus. The outcomes could be further enhanced by additional procedures such as collagen cross-linkage and photorefractive keratectomy if warranted.

The Needs for Visual Improvement of Patients Presented at Low-Vision Center in Wenzhou, China.

J Ophthalmol

To characterize the needs for visual improvement of new-visit patients with low vision.

This cross-sectional study collected detailed information of patients presented at low-vision center of the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University between January 2015 and January 2017. A questionnaire interview, including demographic information and needs for visual improvement, was conducted before ophthalmology examinations.

The main need for visual improvement was engagement in hobbies (68.9%), followed by reading (20.9%), engaging in occupation (20.1%), and watching TV or movies (17.1%). Less than 10% of patients mentioned the demand of using public transportation (5.8%), doing housework (3.7%), writing (1.9%), walking on irregular surfaces (1.5%), driving (1.1%), and others (2.4%). Women were significantly associated with a concern for performing hobbies (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.0-2.0) but associated with lower odds of reading (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.3-0.7). Older subjects were more willing to choose hobbies (OR 1.35 (per 10-year increase), 95% CI 1.3-1.4), reading (OR 1.11 (per 10-year increase), 95% CI 1.0-1.2), watching TV or movies (OR 1.4 (per 10-year increase), 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and housework (OR 1.21 (per 10-year increase), 95% CI 1.0-1.5) than younger individuals. In comparison with younger participants, older individuals were less likely to choose occupation (OR 0.53 (per 10-year increase), 95% CI 0.5-0.6). No significant association was found between visual acuity and needs for visual improvement.

Hobbies, reading, engaging in occupation, and watching TV were the most common needs for visual rehabilitation in patients with visual impairment. Gender and age showed a modest influence on the choice of different needs.

Dry Eye Indexes Estimated by Keratograph 5M of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients without Secondary Sjögren's Syndrome Correlate with Lupus Activity.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the incidence, severity, and influencing factors of dry eye in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients without secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS).

A total of 78 patients who were diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and met inclusion criteria were selected as the study subjects in this cross-sectional study. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and noninvasive Keratograph tear breakup time (NIKBUT) including NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average of the subjects were measured using a noninvasive ocular analyzer, the Keratograph 5M (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Symptoms related to dry eye were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The severity of SLE was evaluated by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). Results of the levels of 4 serum antibodies were collected from the patients' medical records. Correlations between SLEDAI and various ocular surface parameters were analyzed, and multiple-factor binary logistic regression analysis was conducted.

In the study subjects, mean TMH was 0.22 mm, mean NIKBUT-first was 9.12 s, and mean OSDI was 13.14. The subjects (19 eyes) whose NIKBUT-average was < 10 s and OSDI was ≥ 13 accounted for 24.36% of all the included patients. SLEDAI showed a statistically significant correlation with TMH (r = -0.233, p=0.040), NIKBUT-first (r = -0.254, p=0.025), NIKBUT-average (r = -0.343, p=0.002), and OSDI (r = 0.256, p=0.024). According to multiple-factor binary logistic regression analysis, SLEDAI could be considered as a risk factor of the incidence of dry eye in SLE patients without sSS.

One-fourth of the SLE patients without sSS suffered from dry eye, and the severity of dry eye correlated with the activity of SLE.

Femtosecond Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis Treatment of Residual Refractive Error following Femtosecond Laser-Enabled Keratoplasty.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in the treatment of residual myopia and astigmatism following femtosecond laser-enabled keratoplasty (FLEK).

Retrospective case review.

Chart review of all patients with prior FLEK who subsequently underwent femto-LASIK surgery after full suture removal was performed at the Gavin Herbert Eye Institute at the University of California, Irvine. A total of 14 eyes in 13 patients met this criterion, and their comprehensive examinations performed at standard intervals were reviewed. Main outcome measures include uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) expressed as the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), manifest refractive astigmatism, and spherical equivalent.

From the preoperative visit to the 3 month visit, all 14 eyes significantly improved in UDVA (logMAR, 0.93 ± 0.23 to 0.44 ± 0.32, P = 0.002) with no loss of CDVA (logMAR, 0.26 ± 0.19 to 0.18 ± 0.23, P = 0.50). All 14 eyes showed significant improvement in manifest refractive astigmatism (4.71 ± 1.77 to 2.18 ± 1.45 diopters (D), P = 0.003) and spherical equivalent (-2.57 ± 2.45 to -0.48 ± 0.83 D, P = 0.0007). There were no flap or graft complications as a result of femto-LASIK.

Our findings suggest that femto-LASIK on eyes with prior FLEK is safe and effective in improving visual acuity and reducing residual astigmatism.