The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Usefulness of picosecond pulse alexandrite laser treatment for nevus of Ota.

Laser Therapy

Recently, novel picosecond pulse duration lasers (ps-lasers) have been developed for the treatment of multicolored and recalcitrant tattoos, and safety and efficacy have been reported. We therefore hypothesized that ps-lasers could be an alternative treatment for dermal pigmented lesions. We performed a retrospective review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the ps-laser for nevus of Ota.

A retrospective photographic review of 15 patients with nevus of Ota was performed (ages from 10 months to 65 yr). The patients were treated in the Ohshiro Clinic with a picosecond-domain 755 nm alexandrite laser (ps-Alex laser) from June 2015 to August 2017. Improvement was evaluated as the percentage of pigmentation clearance comparing the baseline findings with those at 3 months after the final treatment using a four category grading scale: Poor, 0-24%; Fair, 25-49%; Good, 50-74%; and Excellent 75-100% improvement. Adverse events were also assessed.

All patients obtained clinical improvement ranging from fair to excellent. All 5 patients whose primary treatment was the ps-Alex laser obtained excellent in 2-3 treatment sessions (average 2.5 sessions), and the average total treatment span was 10.0 months. Treatment with the ps-Alex laser caused transient hyperpigmentation followed by improvement to complete resolution at 3 months of follow-up.

Our results suggest that 755 nm ps laser treatment is efficacious for the treatment of nevus of Ota with minimum adverse events.

Candida albicans Sterilization Using a Light-Emitting Diode and Methylene Blue.

Laser Therapy

Conventional fungal treatment using external medication requires considerable time and effort. We herein examined the basic effect of methylene blue (MB) with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on Candida albicans sterilization using photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT).

NaHCO3 was added to MB to establish a basic pH. Then, C. albicans was smeared on a medium with basic MB followed by irradiation using a red light-emitting diode (LED) with a wavelength of 660 nm. The applied energy fluencies were 5, 10, 15, and 20 J/cm2. After 48 h of culture, the effects of the intervention were determined according to the fungal growth area.

The basic effect appeared at a pH range of 8.6 to 8.9 and at 10 and 15 J/cm2, while the NaHCO3 concentration was between 1% and 2%.

Our results suggested that PACT using basic MB was effective for C. albicans sterilization.

Efficacy Comparison of Nd:YAG laser, diode laser and dentine bonding agent in dentine hypersensitivity reduction: a clinical trial.

Laser Therapy

Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli. Several modalities have been suggested for treatment of this condition such as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and application of dentin bonding agents. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of diode laser, Nd:YAG laser and dentin bonding agent for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

In this study, 135 teeth of 22 patients diagnosed with dentin hypersensitivity were divided into three groups: In group 1, the teeth were irradiated by diode laser with 810 nm wavelength for 30 seconds and in group 2, the teeth were irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength for 40 seconds. CLEARFIL SE BOND was applied on teeth in group 3. LLLT was carried out in 3 sessions with 7-day intervals between sessions, during a period of 3 consecutive weeks. Hypersensitivity was assessed by cold test according to the criteria proposed by Uchida at baseline, immediately after treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 months, postoperatively.

Reduction of dentin hypersensitivity was observed at 3 and 6 months following the use of Nd:YAG laser (p < 0.001). Reduction in dentin hypersensitivity was observed immediately after treatment in all groups. Statistically significant differences in level of dentin hypersensitivity were found between groups at 3 and at 6 months (p ≤ 0.001). The reduction in dentin hypersensitivity by Nd:YAG laser was significantly superior to that in other groups at this time.

The efficacy of Nd:YAG laser in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity was significantly superior to that of other modalities at 3 and 6 months.

Association of Bioglass/Collagen/Magnesium composites and low level irradiation: effects on bone healing in a model of tibial defect in rats.

Laser Therapy

Bioglass (BG) and Magnesium (Mg) composites have been used for bone tissue engineering proposes due to its osteogenic activity and increased mechanical properties respectively. The introduction of Collagen (Col) is a common and efficient approach for bone tissue engineering applications toward cell proliferation. Recently, studies demonstrated that BG/Col/Mg composites presented proper mechanical properties and were non-cytotoxic. Although the osteogenic potential of BG/Col/Mg composites, in specific situations, biomaterials may not be capable of stimulating bone tissue. Therefore, combining biomaterial matrices and effective post-operative therapies (such as low level lasertherapy; LLLT) may be necessary to appropriately stimulate bone tissue. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop intra- and extra-operatively bone regenerative therapeutical strategies, based on the association of Col-enriched BG/Mg composites with LLLT.

Thereby, an in vivo study, using tibial defect in Wistar rats, was performed in order to investigate the bone regenerative capacity. LLLT treatment (Ga-Al-As laser 808 nm, 30 mW, 2.8 J, 94 s) was performed 3 times a week, in non-consecutive days. Histology, histomorphometry, immunohistochemical analysis and mechanical test were done after 15 and 45 days post-implantation.

The results showed that Col could be successfully introduced into BG/Mg and the association of BG/Mg/Col and LLLT constituted an optimized treatment for accelerating material degradation and increasing bone deposition. Additionally, mechanical tests showed an increased maximal load for BG/Mg + LLLT compared to other groups.

These results lead us to conclude that the Col enriched BG/Mg composites irradiated with LLLT presented superior biological and mechanical properties, demonstrating to be a promising bone graft.

Fractional microneedling radiofrequency and fractional 1927 nm thulium laser treatment offer synergistic skin rejuvenation: A pilot case series.

Laser Therapy

Facial rejuvenation has become an increasingly patient-driven procedure with speedy but significant results and minimal downtime being the holy grail of both patient and practitioners. Fractional techniques with both laser and radiofrequency sources have attracted attention with some good results, but still with some downtime. Combination therapy could offer the best points of the separate techniques to give synergistic results with minimal downtime. The present pilot mini-study investigated the safety and efficacy of facial rejuvenation with a combination of microneedling fractional radiofrequency (MFR) and fractional minimally-invasive thulium laser (FTL) treatment.

Four Korean females, ages from 53-63 yr (mean age 58.25), Fitzpatrick skin type Ⅲ-Ⅳ with mild to moderate photoaging-related sequelae participated in the study. On the first pass an MFR system was used with insulated microneedles to deliver a single pass of RF energy to a depth of 1.5 mm-1 mm in the dermis (7.5 W, 30 ms exposure). This was immediately followed by an FTL (5 W, 10 mJ) with 2-3 passes over the whole face, and a further 4-5 passes over the target wrinkles. This was repeated for 6 treatment sessions with 2-weekly intervals, and with a follow-up of 16 weeks after the final session. An analytical digital clinical imaging system captured gross and analytical images, and an independently-scored Physician Global Assessment (PGA) scale was used to assess efficacy in addition to patient satisfaction.

Apparent smoothing of wrinkles and general improvement in skin condition was seen following the 3rd to 4th sessions. At the 16-week assessment very clear improvement was seen both with the naked eye and with specific analytical software from the imaging system. The total mean PGA score was 3.35 (out of 4), and all patients were extremely satisfied with the results. No adverse events were reported and pain was minimal.

The combination of MFR and FTL was safe and effective, and produced synergistic results in skin rejuvenation in the Asian skin type which were judged to be better than either system used on its own. Further larger population, split-face and controlled trials are warranted to confirm these optimistic results.

Photosensitizers in antibacterial photodynamic therapy: an overview.

Laser Therapy

Antibacterial Photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a process utilizing light and light sensitive agents (named photosensitizer (PS)) and is usually appli...

Efficacy of seasonal allergic rhinitis using an 810 nm diode laser system.

Laser Therapy

Allergic rhinitis annually reach epidemic proportions in Japan. Approximately 30 to 40% of the population suffers from allergic rhinitis during the spring season. Symptoms comprise rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and sneezing accompanied by irritation and itching of the eyes. The Ohshiro Clinic started using the conventional Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in 1993, and from 2005 we started using a diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser. From 2010, we adopted a novel 810 nm diode laser, and the present retrospective study examined the efficacy rate of the treatment of allergic rhinitis in the 2018 season with this system, compared with a previous study in 2011. We aimed to confirm the degree of improvement for each symptom to evaluate effectiveness of the diode laser treatment.

Between January 8, 2018 and April 30, 2018, a large number of patients consulted our clinic with the major complaint of seasonal allergic rhinitis. They underwent a blood test, and the antigen-specific serum IgE antibody titers were measured for a definitive diagnosis of cedar pollinosis. A total of 211 target patients were treated during the trial period. The average age of the target group was 36.3 years, 134 males, and 77 females. The target patients were treated with lower nasal turbinate mucosal irradiation using a diode laser (ADL-20, Asuka Medical) delivering 810 nm at 7.5 W, with a total energy per treatment of 240 J/cm2. We adopted a five-step evaluation in accordance with the Japanese Guidelines for Allergic Rhinitis 2014 for the symptoms of rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal obstruction. We assessed the degree of improvement in the severity of these symptoms following diode laser treatment from baseline to one month after treatment, in addition to assessing patient satisfaction with the degree of improvement in their quality of life (QOL).

The 211 patients positive for cedar pollinosis by the antigen-specific serum IgE antibody tests were broken down by month by number and by improvement, no change or exacerbation as follows. January, 18 patients: 33.4%, 44.4% and 22.2%, respectively. February, 29: 10.4%, 44.4% and 22.2%, respectively. March, 146: 60.3%, 31.5% and 8.2%, respectively. April, 18: 77.8%, 16.7% and 5.5%, respectively. The monthly respective improvement, no change or worse patient QOL as percentages were as follows: January: 16.7%, 44.4% and 38.9%. February: 17.3%, 13.8% and 68.9%. March: 61.6%, 29.5% and 8.9%. April: 94.4%, 0.0% and 5.6%. The values for prevention of exacerbation versus exacerbation for each month were: January, 77.8% vs 22.2%; February, 41.4% vs 58.6%; March, 91.8% vs 8.2%; and April, 94.4% vs 5.6%. The mean efficacy rate for the trial period in the present study was therefore 52.6% which compared very favorably with the mean efficacy rate in the 2011 study of 53.4%.

The results showed that the 810 nm diode laser offered a safe and effective solution for the uncomfortable symptoms of allergic rhinitis and could be well applied during the season of Japanese cedar pollen dispersion. Furthermore, a tendency towards high efficacy was demonstrated for laser treatment in class 6 cedar pollinosis patients, based on the specific IgE antibody test.

Altered adhesion of dental sealant to tooth enamel microscopically modified by Er:YAG laser irradiation: An in vitro study.

Laser Therapy

Er:YAG laser has become optional for enamel and dentin preparation for a decade. However, it is unclear if Er:YAG laser is acceptable for enamel conditioning prior to an application of a pit-and-fissure sealant. This in vitro study thus aimed to investigate shear bond strength of a sealant to enamel etched with Er:YAG laser, as well as to demonstrate an alteration of enamel surface after the laser was applied.

One hundred and twenty extracted human premolars were divided into 4 groups (N = 30 per group) in which the enamel surfaces were treated with 1) 37% phosphoric acid, 2) Er:YAG laser 80 mJ/pulse, 2 Hz, 3) Er:YAG laser 120 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz, and 4) Er:YAG laser 140 mJ/pulse, 2 Hz. Prior to sealant application. Shear bond strength was determined by using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA. Modification of enamel surface after laser ablation was also investigated using scanning electron microscope.

Phosphoric acid-etched enamel yielded the highest shear bond strength when bonded with a sealant. Ablation of enamel with Er:YAG laser did not significantly improve sealant bonding since it demonstrated lower shear bond strength, compared to acid-etched enamel. Despite the presence of cracks after Er:YAG laser application, dissolution of enamel substances was limited.

Our study has shown a reduced shear bond strength of dental sealant to an Er:YAG laser-irradiated enamel, compared with phosphoric acid-etched enamel.

The effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against virulence genes expression in colistin-resistance Acinetobacter baumannii.

Laser Therapy

The emergence of drug-resistant infections is a global problem. Acinetobacter baumannii has attracted much attention over the last few years because of resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Applying new non-antibiotic methods can save lives of many people around the world. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) technique can be used as a new method for controlling the infections. In this study we investigated the effect of aPDT on the expression of pathogenic genes in colistin-resistance A. baumannii isolated from a burn patient.

The suspension of colistin-resistance A. baumannii was incubated with 0.01 mg/ml of toluidine blue O (TBO) in the dark; then the light emitting diode device with a wavelength of 630 ± 10 nm and output intensity of 2000-4000 mW /cm2 was irradiated to the suspension at room temperature. Subsequently, after the aPDT, genes expression of ompA and pilZ was investigated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction technique.

Among the genes studied, the transcript of the ompA gene after aPDT was increased significantly in comparison with control groups (P < 0.05). Whereas, there was no remarkable different in pilZ gene expression (P > 0.05).

It can be concluded from the results that the ompA as an outer membrane of A. baumannii is degraded after exposing aPDT and it will probably be done the penetration of antibiotics into cells of this bacterium easily.

Correction to: Are the ergogenic effects of photobiomodulation therapy age-dependent? A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

Lasers in Medical Science

The author name Bruno Menfridini Baroni was incorrectly captured in the original article. The correct author name is Bruno Manfredini Baroni. The o...

Differential expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators by M1 and M2 macrophages after photobiomodulation with red or infrared lasers.

Lasers in Medical Science

In response to stimuli in the microenvironment, macrophages adopt either the M1 or M2 phenotype to coordinate the tissue repair process. Photobiomo...