The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Laser ablation of anal fistulae: a 6-year experience in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

Lasers in Medical Science

Several studies have investigated the role of laser ablation of anal fistulae in the European setting. However, long-term follow-up results following laser fistula ablations are not widely investigated and no study was performed in the Asia-Pacific, a region with a distinctive prevalence of tuberculosis. The primary objective of this study is to report a single-centre experience with laser ablation of anal fistulae in Malaysia over a period of 6 years.

This was a retrospective observational study assessing the outcomes following 70 laser ablations of anal fistulae from February 2014 till December 2019. All cases were assessed using endoanal ultrasound. The laser ablation procedures were performed using laser systems and fibres from Endoteq Medizinische Laser GmBH, Germany, and Biolitec AG, Jena, Germany. Laser fibres were introduced into the fistula tract and laser energy was emitted radially in continuous mode when activated during the procedure. Pre-defined post-procedural outcomes (primary healing, healing failure or recurrence) were recorded as either present or absent during subsequent follow-up appointments and the data was analysed.

Over a median follow-up period of 10 months, primary healing was reported following 42 procedures (60.0%). Healing failure was reported following 28 procedures (40.0%) whilst recurrence was seen after 16 procedures (22.86%). No new cases of incontinence were reported following the procedure.

The reported primary healing rate following laser ablation of anal fistulae in this study appears consistent with existing literature published by other international centres. The most apparent clinical advantage of this procedure is sphincter-function preservation. However, the primary healing rate after isolated laser fistula ablation is still suboptimal. Judicious patient selection and application in anal fistulae with suitable characteristics could potentially improve the post-procedural outcomes.

The pros and cons of follicular unit extraction (FUE) versus elliptical donor harvesting (FUT).

J Cosmet Laser

Hair transplantation has evolved as a practice since the 1960's with advances in technology and surgical technique. With various surgical technique...

Structural and Visual Changes in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Patients with Retinal Atrophy.

J Ophthalmol

To study the changes of retinal vascular density (VD), retinal thickness (RT), and their correlations with visual acuity (VA) in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) patients with retinal atrophy after resolution of macular oedema (MO).

This is a retrospective study consisting of 46 patients diagnosed with BRVO at Beijing Hospital from 2015 to 2019. Patients' 46 affected eyes and 39 fellow eyes were included. The affected eyes were further divided into the atrophy group and the nonatrophy group. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images obtained when MO completely resolved after treatment with ranibizumab were analyzed. We quantitatively measured foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters, the disruption extent of ellipsoid zone (EZ), RT, and VD of superficial vascular complex (SVC), and deep vascular complex (DVC) in central fovea and the minimal-VD quadrant. Paired t-tests, independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, Wilcoxon tests, Pearson correlation analyses, Spearman correlation analyses, and single and multiple linear regression models were adopted.

Compared with nonatrophy eyes, the minimal-VD quadrantal (quadrantal for short) SVC-VD (25.76 ± 4.57% versus 36.21 ± 6.47%, P < 0.001) and quadrantal DVC-VD (27.72 (17.23) % versus 38.95 (11.05) %, P = 0.001) of atrophy eyes decreased significantly. Quadrantal SVC-VD and quadrantal DVC-VD were strongly correlated with quadrantal full RT (r = 0.763 and 0.698, both P < 0.001). The disruption length of EZ was significantly correlated with quadrantal full RT (r = -0.406, P = 0.005) and quadrantal SVC-VD (r = -0.298, P = 0.044). In multiple linear regression analysis, the disruption length of EZ and VA before treatment and age showed significant correlations with VA with complete resolution of MO (P = 0.020,  0.033,  and 0.002).

The retinal VD on the affected area correlates well with the corresponding full RT when BRVO-MO completely resolves, suggesting that VD may predict the final RT. Severe decrease in VD may result in retinal atrophy, which may cause VA loss indirectly with the intermediate influencing factor of EZ defects.

Assessment of the Effect of Wearing a Surgical Face Mask on Tear Film in Normal Eye Subjects.

J Ophthalmol

To assess the effect of wearing a face mask for a short time on the tear film parameters in normal eye subjects.

Fifty-four normal eye subjects (14 female and 40 male) aged 18-40 years (23.8 ± 4.4 years) were recruited. A standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness was completed first, followed by noninvasive tear break-up time, phenol red thread, and tear ferning tests. A 5-minute gap was allowed between the tests. The subjects were asked to wear a surgical mask for one hour. The measurements were taken both before wearing a face mask and immediately after its removal.

Significant (Wilcoxon test) differences were found between the standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness (p=0.002) and the noninvasive tear break-up time scores (p < 0.001) before and after wearing face masks. No significant differences (Wilcoxon test, p > 0.05) were found between the phenol red thread scores and tear ferning grades before and after wearing face masks. Strong correlations (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r) were found among the standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness score (r = 0.590; p < 0.001), noninvasive tear break-up time measurements (r = 0.631; p < 0.001), and the tear ferning grades (r = 0.517; p < 0.001) before and after wearing the mask. A medium correlation (r = 0.377; p=0.005) was found between the noninvasive tear break-up time scores and tear ferning grades before wearing the mask.

Wearing a surgical face mask for a short duration of one hour has an effect on ocular tear film in normal eye subjects. Dry eye symptoms and tear break-up increased after wearing a face mask compared with those experienced before wearing one.

Utilization of gold nanoparticles for the detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue based on laser-induced fluorescence and diffuse reflectance characteristics: an in vitro study.

Lasers in Medical Science

Squamous cell carcinoma is a very common type of oral cancer that affects the health of people with an unacceptably high mortality rate attributed ...

Optical Coherence Tomography Position Analysis of Retropupillary Iris-Fixated Intraocular Lens in Iris Tissue.

J Ophthalmol

The aim of this study was to evaluate a micrometer-accurate analysis of the retropupillary Verisyse® intraocular lens (IOL) (Ophtec, Groningen NL; Santa Ana, USA) enclavation in the iris tissue.

A retrospective consecutive case series was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Mainz. Patients with an optical coherence tomography (Spectralis®, Heidelberg Engineering®; Heidelberg, Germany) examination after retropupillary Verisyse® IOL implantation were included retrospectively. The enclavation geometry was measured using the Eye-Explorer® from Heidelberg Engineering® (Heidelberg, Germany). Seventeen measuring positions were determined nasally and temporally at the corresponding enclavation points.

72 eyes of 67 patients after implantation of a retropupillary Verisyse® IOL were analyzed. The average age was 68 ± 17.2 years (63% female; 38% male). The analysis of the position of the Verisyse® IOL showed highly homogeneous data in all measured points. The depth of the anterior chamber showed a positive correlation with width of the posterior deflection of the iris tissue behind the enclavation (Pearson r: 0.321, p=0.041). The offset of the haptics showed greater deviations, and the lens diopter implanted was higher (r = 0.337, p=0.007).

This is the first study that analysis the exact enclavation of retropupillary implanted Verisyse® IOL. It provides new information about the intrastromal course of the haptics in the iris tissue. It could be shown that the haptics do not run parallel in the iris tissue, but are anchored in the iris tissue with an average offset of 95 µm. This rebuts previous assumptions about the intrastromal course and provides new information.

The Efficacy and Safety of Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant for Diabetic Macular Edema and Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Ophthalmol

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with retinal vein occlusion secondary to macular edema (RVO-ME).

Relevant databases were searched to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating DEX for DME and RVO-ME. The search was conducted until March 2022. Meta-analysis was performed using Rev Man 5.4.1 software after screening the literature by inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracting information, and evaluating the methodological quality of the included studies.

The study showed that DEX treatment of RVO-ME was associated with an improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (MD = -9.08, 95% CI: -10.89-7.27, P < 0.00001) and central retinal thickness (CRT) (MD = 93.47, 95% CI: 28.55-159.39, P=0.005). DEX treatment of DME was significantly better than anti-VEGF treatment in terms of CRT reduction (MD = -72.35, 95% CI: -115.0-29.69, P=0.0009). The safety study showed that the risk of cataract from RVO-ME (OR = 5.06, 95% CI: 1.96 to 13.06, P=0.0008) and the incidence of high intraocular pressure (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 3.46 to 12.86, P < 0.00001) were significantly higher with DEX than with anti-VEGF therapy. The risk of cataract from DME (OR = 4.70, 95% CI: 2.10 to 10.54, P=0.00022) was significantly higher with DEX than with anti-VEGF therapy (OR = 4.70, 95% CI: 2.10 to 10.54, P=0.0002). The incidence of high IOP (OR = 13.77, 95% CI: 4.96 to 38.18, P < 0.00001) was significantly higher with DEX than with anti-VEGF therapy.

In patients with DME and RVO-ME, DEX was more efficacious but slightly less safe than anti-VEGF therapy.

Efficacy and safety of 1565-nm non-ablative fractional laser versus long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser in treating enlarged facial pores.

Lasers in Medical Science

Facial pores are visible openings of pilosebaceous follicles, and they are one of the major factors influencing facial skin appearance. This articl...

Change in Ocular Surface Staining during Eyelid Warming Is Related to Tear Cytokine Levels.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the changes in the tear cytokine profile of patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) treated with eyelid warming and to correlate these changes with clinical parameters for dry eye disease (DED).

Seventy patients with MGD were included and treated with the warming of eyelids. Of these, 61 still used the treatment three months after baseline, while 48 completed the whole treatment period of six months. The concentrations of 39 cytokines in the tear fluid were measured at baseline and after three and six months of treatment. All participants were examined with tests for DED, including tear film break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface staining (OSS), and the self-reporting Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Changes in cytokine concentrations were assessed from baseline to three months, from three to six months, and from baseline to six months. Correlation analyses were performed between changes in the cytokine concentrations and changes in TBUT, OSS, and OSDI during the same time intervals.

No significant changes were found in the concentrations of the 39 cytokines during any of the three treatment intervals. However, several correlations were detected between changes in the level of cytokines and OSS from baseline to three months of treatment. Decreasing concentrations of granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2/CXCL6, mean effect 2.36, p=0.042), interleukin 10 (IL-10, mean effect 1.04, p=0.045), and IL-16 (mean effect 1.36, p=0.035) were associated with decreasing OSS. Decreasing concentrations of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, mean effect -2.98, p=0.024), IL-8 (IL-8/CXCL8, mean effect -1.35, p=0.026), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, mean effect -2.44, p=0.033) were related to increasing OSS.

Warming of eyelids did not change the concentration of cytokines in the tear fluid of patients with MGD significantly. However, alterations in the level of several cytokines were associated with changes in the OSS. This finding indicates a close connection between tear cytokines and OSS in MGD patients treated with eyelid warming.

Analysis of the Cytokine Expression in the Aqueous Humor of Individuals with BRVO-Associated Macular Edema.

J Ophthalmol

This study aimed to determine the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the aqueous humor of patients with macular edema (ME) caused by branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), as well as to investigate the relationship between the cytokines as mentioned earlier and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ME, and the degree of ME from the molecular level.

In a prospective observational study, fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to classify 58 patients with non-ischemic BRVO-ME into three groups according to the degree of ME: 14-mild, 17-moderate, and 27-severe. The specific concentration of IL-6, VEGF, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the aqueous humor was detected using the BD CSCanto™ II Flow Cytometer (US). Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the correlation between the levels of BCVA and severity of ME and the expression levels of IL-6, VEGF, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the aqueous humor.

According to the obtained data, BCVA did not correlate with the severity of ME, and these four cytokines expression levels in patients' aqueous humor (P > 0.05). Moreover, BCVA did not correlate with mild, moderate, or severe ME as well (P > 0.05). However, the levels of these four cytokines were correlated with the severity of the ME. These underlined cytokines were linked to the mild, moderate, and severe degrees of ME. VEGF was also significantly correlated (r > 0.8, P < 0.0001) with the severity of ME.

This study suggests that the severity of ME in BRVO-ME patients is significantly correlated with the expression levels of IL-6, VEGF, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the aqueous humor. Lowering the level of disease-associated cytokines may potentially reduce the degree of ME. Therefore, an in-depth study of the levels and the relationship may provide some evidence for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of BRVO-ME.

Filler-induced non-thrombotic pulmonary embolism after genital aesthetic injection.

J Cosmet Laser

Genital aesthetic procedures have increased in popularity among women and men. Many clinicians tried to expand the application of fill injection by...