The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Reflectance confocal microscopy evaluation of pigmented lesions on tattooed skin.

Lasers in Medical Science

The evaluation of pigmented lesions on tattooed skin poses a diagnostic challenge for dermatologists, as a nevus may be partially or completely obs...

Comparison of low-level light therapy and combination therapy of 5% minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

Lasers in Medical Science

This study was conducted in order to compare the safety and efficacy of LLLT, 5% minoxidil, and combination therapy in the treatment of FPHL. A ran...

Effect of Adding Losartan to Bevacizumab for Treating Diabetic Macular Edema.

J Ophthalmol

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of visual loss and blindness in the age group of 20 to 64 years. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral Losartan adjuvant therapy in combination with intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

In this randomized clinical trial, 61 eyes of 47 patients with normal blood pressure and diabetic macular edema and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy were studied. Patients were randomly divided into Losartan (n = 33) and control (n = 28) groups. All patients received 3-6 intravitreal injections of Bevacizumab over 6 months. General examination including blood pressure and glycosylated hemoglobin measurements were performed in all patients. Complete ophthalmologic examination and macular OCT were performed at the first, third, and sixth months of treatment in all patients.

The mean age of the patients studied was 57.1 ± 7.4 years and 37.7% of the patients were male. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of initial visual acuity, central macular thickness, and frequency of injections. There was no significant difference in visual acuity and central macular thickness between the two groups at the first, third, and sixth months of treatment. Age, frequency of injection, and initial macular thickness less than 450 microns were effective in patients' final visual acuity.

Short-term adjuvant treatment with Losartan in patients with diabetic macular edema and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy has no greater effect than the standard treatment.

Comparative Study of the Effects of 1% Atropine on the Anterior Segment.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the influences of atropine on changes in anterior segment geometry, as measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy in children.

A prospective observational study was performed. Anterior segment parameters were obtained by UBM before and after the instillation of 1% atropine. Univariate linear regression was performed to identify the variables contributing to the changes in the trabecular meshwork-iris angle (TIA).

The study included 21 boys and 37 girls with a mean age of 10.79 ± 2.53 years. Anterior chamber parameters including the central anterior chamber depth, TIA, angle opening distance at 500 μm from the scleral spur, iris thickness 750 μm and 1500 μm from the scleral spur, trabecular-ciliary angle (TCA), trabecular-ciliary process distance, sclera-iris angle (SIA), and sclera-ciliary process angle significantly increased after cycloplegia (P < 0.05). In contrast, the lens vault, iris cross-sectional area, and maximum ciliary muscle thickness significantly decreased after cycloplegia. Univariate analysis identified the change in TCA and the change in SIA and the TIA before mydriasis as determinants of the change in TIA.

Atropine causes statistically significant changes in various anterior segment parameters in children. The change in anterior chamber angle is associated with the change in TCA and the change in SIA and the TIA before mydriasis.

Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters Related to Vision Impairment in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: A Quantitative Correlation Analysis.

J Ophthalmol

To quantitatively explore the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters and vision impairment in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).

This study was a retrospective observational case series. One-hundred eyes from 66 patients with DME were retrospectively included. OCT parameters, including central macular thickness (CMT), height of intraretinal cystoid, subretinal fluid and sponge-like retinal swelling, density of hyperreflective foci (HRF), and integrity of the ellipsoidal zone (EZ), were assessed. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to quantitatively explore the relationship between best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT parameters.

Among all OCT parameters, CMT, height of intraretinal cystoid, height of sponge-like retinal swelling, and density of HRF and EZ integrity were significantly correlated with BCVA (r = -0.550, -0.526, -0.411, -0.277, and -0.501, respectively; P < 0.01). In multiple linear regression analysis, CMT, density of HRF, and EZ integrity fit a significant linear equation (β = 0.482, 0.184, and 0.447, respectively), with the adjusted R square reaching 0.522 (P < 0.001). In eyes without SRF, the height of intraretinal cystoid, density of HRF, and EZ integrity were included in the model and an adjusted R square of 0.605 (P < 0.001) was obtained.

In DME eyes, OCT parameters, including the density of HRF, the EZ integrity together with CMT, or the height of intraretinal cystoid, could explain 52.2% to 60.5% of the variation in BCVA and were weighted approximately 2 : 1 : 2, respectively.

Prevalence and Age-Related Changes of Corneal Astigmatism in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery in Northern China.

J Ophthalmol

To examine the magnitude, orientation, and age-related changes of corneal astigmatism of the eyes before cataract surgery. Setting. Hebei Eye Hospital, Hebei, China.

A clinical-based retrospective study.

The study consisted of 5662 eyes of 5662 consecutive cataract surgery patients with a mean age of 68.26 ± 10.39 (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) years (range 40 to 97 years), and 59.86% of the patients were women. Mean corneal astigmatism was 0.98 ± 0.76 diopter (D) (range 0.00-9.61 D). Corneal astigmatism of 0.50-0.99 D was the most common range of values (30.08%), followed by 1.00-1.49 D (22.15%), ≤0.50 D (21.21%), and 1.50-1.99 D (10.28%). There was a strong U-shaped relation between corneal astigmatism and age (p for nonlinearity <.01). With the increase of age, the astigmatism axis gradually changes from with-the-rule (WTR) to against-the-rule (ATR). Moreover, in young patients with age below 65 years, WTR astigmatism was negatively correlated with age, while ATR was positively correlated with age (r = -0.11, p=.001; r = 0.10, p=.010, respectively). However, in the old patients with age above and equal to 65 years, all types of astigmatism were positively correlated with age.

This study may provide valuable and practical information to surgeons when selecting the appropriate surgical method and toric intraocular lens (IOLs).

First Experience in Small Incision Lenticule Extraction with the Femto LDV Z8 and Lenticule Evaluation Using Scanning Electron Microscopy.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate the specifications and technique properties of the new Femto LDV Z8 in creating intrastromal refractive lenticules during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).

Six enucleated porcine eyeballs were equally divided into two groups (Femto LDV Z8 or VisuMax) and were randomly assigned to three experienced refractive surgeons who performed SMILE on each group. Five intraoperative time parameters and surgeons' satisfaction on the surgical procedure were compared between two groups. Postoperatively, the roughness of the lenticule surfaces and the irregularity of edges were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and were also compared between the two groups.

Longer time on suction peak pressure, total laser application, and total surgery were spent in the Femto LDV Z8 group as compared with the VisuMax group. The Femto LDV Z8 group applied OCT scanning and offsetting before performing the laser procedure, which expended more time for these crucial steps. The widest range of surgeons' satisfaction scores was found in the step of lenticule interface identification of the Femto LDV Z8 group. The roughness scores of the anterior and posterior lenticule surfaces were statistically less in the Femto LDV Z8 group than in the VisuMax group (anterior, ×180, p=0.039; anterior, ×250, p=0.337; posterior, ×180, p=0.006; and posterior, ×250, p=0.007).

Femto LDV Z8 showed promising performances as a novel SMILE equipment for the correction of myopia. It has special and unique features for SMILE procedures, which need more learning and researching processes. With its low-energy high-frequency nJ-level laser system, the Femto LDV Z8 provided smoother lenticule surface than VisuMax.

Does Cataract Surgery Improve the Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration? A Meta-Analysis.

J Ophthalmol

Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the common causes of blindness in the elderly. Although cataract surgery is the most effective treatment for cataract, some clinicians suspect that such interventions may accelerate the progression of AMD. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to focus on demonstrating the effectiveness and safety of cataract surgery in eyes with AMD.

We performed a systematic literature search in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, and the electronic databases were last searched in January 2019. We planned to include cohort trials of eyes affected by both cataract and AMD in which cataract surgery would be compared to no surgery. Two reviewers independently evaluated the search results against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 8 trials were included for this meta-analysis.

We used the Stata/12.0 to integrate the data that was extracted from the articles. Eight cohort trials with data from different study populations were included. In random effects model, the relative risk (RR) for the progression of AMD is 1.194 (95% CI 0.897-1.591). As for those grouped according to the follow-up year, the RR for longer than five years was 1.372 (95% CI 1.062-1.772).

We could draw out such a conclusion that there is still a positive correlation between cataract surgery and the progression of AMD, especially for the Asians. However, based on the current results, it is not possible to draw conclusions from existing studies on the impact of cataract surgery on early AMD development.

Efficacy and Safety Outcomes of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant Therapy for the Treatment of Adult Coats' Disease.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with Stage 3A Coats' disease.

A consecutive case series of adult Coats' disease managed with or without intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, California, USA) injection was retrospectively evaluated. The medical records of all included patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to the application of dexamethasone implant as a DEX (+) group and DEX (-) group. Laser photocoagulation, anti-VEGF agents, and vitrectomy were performed if necessary. The primary outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) at month 6. Resolution of the exudative retinal detachment (ERD), subretinal fluid (SRF), and vitreous hemorrhage (VH) was also collected.

Ten eyes (10 patients) with Stage 3A Coats' disease were included, and the mean follow-up time was 9.70 ± 4.42 months. The mean age was 44.20 ± 7.42 years, and 80% were male. Six eyes (6 patients) received intravitreal injection of Ozurdex were included in the DEX (+) group, while the other 4 eyes in the DEX (-) group. No significant difference of baseline characteristics including BCVA, CRT, IOP, and follow-up time can be defined between DEX (+) and DEX (-) groups. For the patients in the DEX (+) group, a significant improvement of BCVA was observed from the baseline of 1.28 ± 0.58 to 0.84 ± 0.66 logMAR at month 6 (P=0.03), while the CRT decreased from 970.33 ± 696.49 to 421.00 ± 275.76 μm (P=0.067). For the DEX(-) group, BCVA changed from 0.76 ± 0.74 to 0.96 ± 0.60 logMAR at month 6 (P=0.066), while the CRT from 382.75 ± 17.68 to 412.75 ± 195.53 μm (P=0.525) with no significant difference. IOP was elevated from 13.15 ± 1.74 mmHg at baseline to 18.05 ± 3.57 mmHg at month 6 with a P value of 0.02 for the DEX(+) group and from 14.48 ± 1.70 to 18.83 ± 4.06 mmHg (P=0.076) for the DEX (-) group. After a mean follow-up of 9.70 months, 5/6 (83.3%) eyes in the DEX (+) group and ¼ (25%) eye in the DEX (-) group achieved reattachment of ERD.

Intravitreal dexamethasone implant therapy is effective for adult Stage 3A Coats' disease, which provides a new treatment option for ophthalmologists.

Motorized botulinum toxin injection device: a pilot study on attitudes toward technology-assisted injection in novice and experienced cosmetic practitioners.

J Cosmet Laser

This study was performed to investigate the user perception of a cordless, motorized electronically controlled delivery system for botulinum toxin ...

Clinical effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Lasers in Medical Science

The meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate all the available pieces of evidence concerning the clinical effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers ...

Secondary Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Plug due to Persistent Full-Thickness Macular Hole OCT-Angiography and Microperimetry Features: Case Series.

J Ophthalmol

To study the features in OCT-angiography and microperimetry in eyes with persistent full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) closed with the secondary plana vitrectomy (PPV) with autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) plug.

Secondary PPV was performed with closing the persistent FTMH with ILM plug, C3F8 tamponade, and face-down positioning. Four patients were followed for 6 months with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, SD-OCT and OCT-A, and microperimetry. The results were compared with the fellow eye; in two patients, it was the healthy eye, and in two remaining eyes, successfully closed FTMH after primary PPV.

ILM flap was integrated in all cases with V-shape of closure, and atrophy was found in one case, with the largest diameter of FTMH. BCVA improved in two cases and remained the same in two cases. In OCT-A, the area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was larger, and foveal vessel density (FVDS) was smaller in eyes after secondary PPV in comparison to fellow eyes. In microperimetry, retinal sensitivity was lower in eyes after secondary PPV, and eccentric fixation was found in 2 of 4 patients.

Although the anatomical results of repeated surgeries of FTMH with ILM plug are favorable, visual function results may be limited. Secondary closure of FTMH with ILM plug may lead to atrophy, changes in the macular vasculature, and eccentric fixation. The trial is registered with NCT03701542.