The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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42 °C heat stress pretreatment protects human melanocytes against 308-nm laser-induced DNA damage in vitro.

Lasers in Medical Science

Vitiligo is a common depigment of skin disorder due to loss of functional melanocytes. Recently, the phototherapy with a 308-nm xenon-chloride exci...

Effectiveness of a combined 308-nm excimer lamp and topical mid-potent steroid treatment for facial vitiligo: a preliminary, randomized double-blinded controlled study.

Lasers in Medical Science

Facial vitiligo has considerable psychological and emotional impacts. Though topical corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment, adverse reactions ...

Photobiomodulation with 808-nm diode laser enhances gingival wound healing by promoting migration of human gingival mesenchymal stem cells via ROS/JNK/NF-κB/MMP-1 pathway.

Lasers in Medical Science

Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been shown to improve wound healing by promoting mesenchymal stem cell migration and proliferation. However, it remain...

The Healing Process and Functional Recovery of Neuroretina after Idiopathic Macular Hole Surgery without Internal Limiting Membrane Reversal Tamponade.

J Ophthalmol

To investigate the healing process and functional recovery of neuroretina after idiopathic macular hole surgery, as well as analyzing the influencing factors.

Thirty-six eyes of 31 patients with full-thickness idiopathic macular hole (IMH) were enrolled in this retrospective study. All of them were operated using 23-gauge or 25-gauge vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling and air tamponade. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was performed before surgery and after surgery to observe the structural changes of neuroretina.

Twenty eyes (55.56%) had the macular hole closed at 3 to 5 days after surgery (closed group), beginning from the inner retina based on OCT. Holes of 16 eyes (44.44%) remained unclosed and progressed to larger holes at 13 to 15 days (t = -2.811, P=0.013) after surgery (unclosed group). Compared with the eyes in the closed group, the eyes in the unclosed group had significantly larger hole diameter (t = -2.882, P=0.007). Postoperative BCVA was significantly improved in the closed group (t = 2.573, P=0.019) and not improved in the unclosed group (t = 0.606, P=0.554) at the 6-month follow-up.

Full-thickness IMHs could achieve anatomic closure 3 to 5 days after surgery with first-step inner retina tissue bridging. Otherwise, they were not able to achieve hole closure and opened to larger holes about 2 weeks postoperatively. Macular hole diameter was an important factor affecting the healing of the holes. The delayed restoration of fovea detachment and ellipsoid area deficiency were responsible for poor vision outcomes after surgery.

Results of Ranibizumab Treatment of the Myopic Choroidal Neovascular Membrane according to the Axial Length of the Eye.

J Ophthalmol

A retrospective evaluation of the results of treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in a pro re nata (PRN) regimen in three groups of patients distributed according to axial length.

The paper presents a retrospective multicenter study carried out with the cooperation of several Departments of Ophthalmology in the Czech Republic. The study included 60 eyes of 60 patients suffering from mCNV, divided according to axial length into three groups. The first group consisted of 20 patients with an axial length of the eyes shorter than 28 mm (Group 1), the second group included 27 patients with axial lengths ranging from 28 mm to 29.81 mm (Group 2), and 13 patients had axial lengths longer than 30 mm (Group 3). All patients were first administered 3 initial intravitreal ranibizumab injections at monthly intervals (loading phase), and other injections were administered according to a PRN treatment regimen. Patients were evaluated before treatment and then at intervals of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The effect of ranibizumab treatment on the functional and morphological parameters of the affected eye was evaluated.

The average baseline BCVA ± SD in Group 1 was 52.6 ± 12.5 letters of ETDRS optotypes, and at the end of the one-year follow-up, it was 63.3 ± 11.8 letters. The average baseline of CRT ± SD in this group was 377.4 ± 80.0 μm, and in the 12th month, it was 311.1 ± 63.7 μm. The average baseline BCVA ± SD in Group 2 was 50.2 ± 9.0 ETDRS letters, and at the end of the follow-up, it was 60 ± 12.4 letters. The average baseline of CRT ± SD in Group 2 was 391.2 ± 85.2 μm, and in the 12th month, it was 323.9 ± 91.2 μm. In Group 3, the average baseline of BCVA was 48.5 ± 14.5 ETDRS letters, and at the end of the one-year follow-up, it was 55.7 ± 16.1 letters. The average baseline CRT ± SD for Group 3 was 342.1 ± 94.9 μm, and after 12 months, it was 287.8 ± 88.4 μm. An improvement of BCVA by ≥15 letters of ETDRS optotypes was achieved by 3 patients of 20 (15%) in Group 1, by 5 patients of 27 (18.5%) in Group 2, and by 3 patients of 13 (23.1%) in Group 3. All these changes were statistically significant in comparison with the input values (p < 0.05).

Ranibizumab treatment in patients with mCNV in our study resulted in statistically significant improvement in BCVA and a decrease in CRT in all groups of patients. Our results from a routine clinical practice correspond with the results of large clinical studies; we confirm a particularly good effect of treatment in patients with axial lengths of the eye smaller than 28 mm.

Peripheral Refraction in Myopic Children with and without Atropine Usage.

J Ophthalmol

To compare the patterns of relative peripheral refractions of myopic children who were currently on atropine treatment for myopia control and myopic children who did not use atropine.

Chinese children (n = 209) aged 7 to 12 years participated in the study, 106 used atropine and 103 did not. Participants were also classified into three groups: emmetropes (SE: +0.50 to -0.50 D), low myopes (SE: -0.50 to -3.00 D), and moderate myopes (SE: -3.00 to -6.00 D). The central and peripheral refractions along the horizontal meridians (for both nasal and temporal fields) were measured in 10-degree steps to 30 degrees.

There were no statistically significant differences in spherical equivalent and astigmatism of the three refractive groups in either the nasal or temporal retina. The atropine group showed a significant relative myopia in the temporal 30° field in spherical equivalent compared to the emmetropic group (t49 = 3.36, P=0.02). In eyes with low myopia, the atropine group had significant relative myopia in the nasal 30° and temporal 30° fields (t118 = 2.59, P=0.01; t118 = 2.06, P=0.04), and it is also observed at 20° and 30° of the nasal field for the moderate myopic group (t36 = 2.37, P=0.02; t2.84 = 2.84, P=0.01).

Significant differences in relative peripheral refraction were found between the atropine group and its controls. The findings suggested that the eyes that received atropine may have a less prolate shape and thus explain why using atropine is effective in controlling myopia progression.

Multimodal Imaging Features of Bilateral Choroidal Ganglioneuroma.

J Ophthalmol

Bilateral choroidal ganglioneuroma is extremely rare, and no cases have been described in the literature. Multimodal images are crucial for its diagnosis. Here, we evaluated multimodal images in the early stage of choroidal ganglioneuroma.

A 6-year-old boy was recruited who had experienced gradually progressive vision loss and rapidly progressive myopia in both eyes over the past 2 years. His eyes were comprehensively evaluated via slit-lamp microscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), fundoscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), ultrasound B scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging. Electrophysiological examinations included electrooculography and electroretinography. Choroid biopsy and pathological examination were performed.

Over the past 2 years, the patient's best-corrected visual acuity had gradually decreased to hand motions at 10 cm in the right eye and 20/63 in the left, with axial length growth to 25.89 mm in the right and 28.99 mm in the left. Diffuse thickening in bilateral eyewalls was depicted in B scanning and magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary exudative retinal detachment was evident in SS-OCT and B scanning. SS-OCT depicted low optical reflections in the choroidal layer, revealing a lack of choroidal vasculature. Diffuse hypofluorescence in ICGA photography confirmed extensive loss of choroidal vasculature. In electrophysiological function investigations, electrooculography revealed remarkable bilateral low Arden ratios, with almost extinguished electroretinogram in the right eye. Right-eye choroid biopsy was performed, resulting in a histological diagnosis of choroidal ganglioneuroma.

Choroidal ganglioneuroma is rare. To our knowledge, no bilateral cases have been described in the literature. Major clinical features include a rapid increase in axial length, diffuse choroidal thickening, hyper-reflectivity in the choroid on optical coherence tomography, and loss of choroidal vasculature on ICGA. The current report provides multimodal imaging of choroidal ganglioneuroma for the first time and can be valuable for early diagnosis.

Preoperative Steroid Use in Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Choroidal Detachment after 23-Gauge Vitrectomy.

J Ophthalmol

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment (RRDCD) is rare and the prognosis is poor. This retrospective study evaluated the effect of preoperative steroid on the clinical outcome of patients with RRDCD receiving 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV).

Sixty-six patients (67 eyes) with diagnosed RRDCD underwent 23-gauge PPV. The patients assigned to receive systemic or subtenon injection of preoperative steroids were considered Group A (35 eyes) and did not receive are considered Control Group B (32 eyes). Most patients in Group A received subtenon injection of glucocorticoids. The cyclodialysis angle was measured with ultrasound biomicroscopy. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were compared.

The rates of retinal reattachment in Group A after the first and second operations were 68.8% (24/35 eyes) and 91.43% (32/35 eyes), respectively, which were not significantly different from that of Group B (78.1%, 25/32 eyes; 96.6%, 31/32 eyes). The logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) visual acuity in Group A (1.63 ± 0.75) was similar to that of Group B (1.34 ± 0.74). Postoperative intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension in Group A (17.94 ± 9.82 mmHg and 37.1%, respectively; 13/35 eyes) were comparable to that of Group B (20.93 ± 10.21 mmHg and 56.3%; 18/32 eyes). Logistic regression analysis showed that postoperative reattachment was negatively associated with preoperative cyclodialysis angle as measured with ultrasound biomicroscopy (P=0.048) but was not significantly associated with preoperative steroid use (P=0.907).

Preoperative steroid use does not improve retinal reattachment and visual acuity in patients with RRDCD after 23-gauge PPV. Preoperative measurement of the cyclodialysis angle with ultrasound biomicroscopy may be useful for predicting clinical outcomes.

Pseudodominant Nanophthalmos in a Roma Family Caused by a Novel PRSS56 Variant.

J Ophthalmol

The aim of the study was to identify the molecular genetic cause of two different Mendelian traits with ocular involvement present in the members of a single consanguineous Czech Roma family.

We have performed ocular examination and review of medical records in two individuals diagnosed with nanophthalmos (proband and her father) and one individual followed for bilateral congenital cataract and microcornea (uncle of the proband). DNA of subjects with nanophthalmos was analysed by exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing was applied for targeted screening of potentially pathogenic variants and to follow segregation of identified variants within the family.

A homozygous variant c.1509G>C; p.(Met503Ile), in PRSS56 was found in the two individuals affected with nanophthalmos. The change was absent from the gnomAD dataset, but two out of 118 control Roma individuals were also shown to be heterozygous carriers. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with the c.1509G>C in PRSS56 suggested a shared chromosomal segment. The nanophthalmos phenotype, characterized in detail in the younger individual, encompassed bilateral corneal steepening, retinal folds, buried optic head drusen, and restricted visual fields, but no signs of retinal dystrophy. A known pathogenic founder CTDP1 variant c.863+389C>T in a homozygous state was identified in the other family member confirming the suspected diagnosis of congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and demyelinating neuropathy syndrome.

Herein, we report the first occurrence of nanophthalmos in the Roma population. We have identified pseudodominant inheritance for this phenotype caused by a novel variant in PRSS56, representing a possible founder effect. Despite advances in genetic technologies such as exome sequencing, careful phenotype evaluation in patients from an isolated population, along with an awareness of population-specific founder effects, is necessary to ensure that accurate molecular diagnoses are made.

Microcornea and Thickened Lens in Angle Closure following Nonsurgical Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

J Ophthalmol

To characterize the clinical features in young patients with angle closure and to determine the characteristics associated with acquired anterior segment abnormality following retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treatment.

We performed two retrospective case-control series. In the first series, we identified consecutive young angle closure patients without prior surgeries, with and without a history of ROP treatment; in the second series we identified consecutive patients who underwent ROP treatment, without and without anterior segment changes.

In the first series, 25 eyes of 14 consecutive angle closure patients were included: 19 eyes (11 patients, 78.6%) had a history of treated ROP, while 6 eyes (3 patients) belonged to full-term patients. The treated ROP eyes had significantly shallower anterior chambers (1.77 ± 0.17 mm vs 2.72 ± 0.18 mm, P < 0.0001) and thicker lenses (5.20 ± 0.54 mm vs 3.98 ± 0.20 mm, P = 0.0002) compared to the full-term controls. In the second series, 79 eyes of 40 patients were included, with median gestational age of 24.6 weeks. Acquired iridocorneal adhesion was noted in the eight eyes (10.1%) at a mean age of 4.7 years and was associated with prior zone 1 and plus disease (P = 0.0013), a history of initial intravitreal bevacizumab treatment (IVB, P = 0.0477) and a history of requiring additional IVB after initial treatment (P = 0.0337).

Many young angle closure patients may have a history of treated ROP and may present with the triad of increased lens thickness, microcornea, and angle closure.

Role of ferritin in pathogenesis of rosacea and its value in efficacy of 595 nm pulsed dye laser in treatment of different variants of rosacea: a clinical and immunohistochemical study.

J Cosmet Laser

Current rosacea treatment focused on symptom suppression to improve patient's quality of life, prevent progression, and sustain remission. The progress of laser therapy has brought about a paradigm shift in the world of treating erythema and telangiectasia. We appraised role of ferritin in pathogenesis of rosacea and consider its value in efficacy of 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) in treatment of rosacea.

20 patients had rosacea were treated with PDL; received 4 sessions, 4 weeks apart. They were assessed before and after treatment by rosacea grading scale and skin biopsies were taken to detect changes in ferritin expression before and after treatment.

Ferritin expression in lesional skin was positively expressed in all patients proportional to severity of rosacea that showed statistically significant reduction of ferritin expression after PDL. There was a statistically significant reduction in rosacea grading scale after PDL (p value = .005*); the highest efficacy was in phymatous then papulopustular and erythrotelangiectatic types.

The reduction of ferritin expression after PDL opens a new era for antioxidant agents to be added as a relevant approach for the therapy of rosacea via attenuation of oxidative stress.