The latest medical research on Ophthalmology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ophthalmology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Photobiomodulation therapy improves human dental pulp stem cell viability and migration in vitro associated to upregulation of histone acetylation.

Lasers in Medical Science

This in vitro study evaluated the role of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on viability and migration of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and...

The efficacy of selective retina therapy for diabetic macular edema based on pretreatment central foveal thickness.

Lasers in Medical Science

To evaluate the efficacy of selective retina therapy (SRT) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) based on pretreatment central foveal thick...

Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: OCT Angiography Findings and Risk Factors.

J Ophthalmol

To identify the clinical characteristics and risk factors for secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

In this retrospective study, we included a total of 108 eyes in 106 CSC patients. Group A was defined as patients initially diagnosed with CSC who developed secondary CNV, and group B was defined as patients who did not develop secondary CNV. Clinical and demographic characteristics, optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings at CSC diagnosis and OCT angiography (OCTA) at the time of secondary CNV diagnosis, were compared between the groups.

Thirty-one eyes had CNV (group A) and 77 eyes did not (group B). The mean age of group A was higher than that of group B (52.28 ± 6.87 vs. 46.78 ± 9.45 years; P < 0.001). Although there was no difference in pigment epithelial detachment (PED) height, group A had larger PED width than group B at CSC diagnosis. The foveal and parafoveal choriocapillary flow densities were significantly lower in group A than group B (P < 0.001). Although there was no difference in pigment epithelial detachment (PED) height, group A had larger PED width than group B at CSC diagnosis. The foveal and parafoveal choriocapillary flow densities were significantly lower in group A than group B (P < 0.001). Although there was no difference in pigment epithelial detachment (PED) height, group A had larger PED width than group B at CSC diagnosis. The foveal and parafoveal choriocapillary flow densities were significantly lower in group A than group B (.

We identified that older age, wider PED width at diagnosis, and recurrent episodes of CSC were independent risk factors for development of secondary CNV. Therefore, patients with these risk factors should be monitored to allow early detection and prompt treatment of secondary CNV.

Causes and Clinical Impact of Loss to Follow-Up in Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

J Ophthalmol

This study determined the clinical impact and causes of loss to follow-up (LTFU) from the patients' perspective in individuals with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) who received panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and/or intravitreal injections (IVIs) of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

This prospective cohort study included 467 patients with PDR who received PRP and/or IVIs of anti-VEGF between May 2013 and June 2018. LTFU was defined as missing any follow-up visit for any interval exceeding 6 months, provided that patients eventually resumed care. Main outcome measures include rates and causes of LTFU.

A total of 391 patients (83.7%) were followed up, and 76 patients (16.3%) were LTFU over the study period. Rates of LTFU decreased with age (P=0.005). Questionnaire analysis conducted for patients' LTFU showed a significant positive correlation between best corrected visual activity (BCVA) loss and patient's lack of trust and satisfaction with treatment (rs = 0.458, P=0.005). Questionnaire analysis conducted for patients' LTFU showed a significant positive correlation between best corrected visual activity (BCVA) loss and patient's lack of trust and satisfaction with treatment (rs = 0.458, P=0.005). Questionnaire analysis conducted for patients' LTFU showed a significant positive correlation between best corrected visual activity (BCVA) loss and patient's lack of trust and satisfaction with treatment (rs = 0.458, P=0.005). Questionnaire analysis conducted for patients' LTFU showed a significant positive correlation between best corrected visual activity (BCVA) loss and patient's lack of trust and satisfaction with treatment (rs = 0.458.

LTFU threatens vision in PDR patients receiving PRP and/or IVIs of anti-VEGF. Possibly, patient-specific LTFU causes should be addressed before treatment in order to minimize the risk of LTFU. The clinical trial is registered with NCT04018326 (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04018326, 10th of July 2019 "Retrospectively registered").

Bevacizumab as an Adjunct to Trabeculectomy in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Randomized Trial.

J Ophthalmol

To compare the outcomes of trabeculectomy using two different routes of bevacizumab administration as an adjunct in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

Prospective, randomized, masked trial that included 180 eyes of 180 patients of documented primary open angle glaucoma were eligible for surgery. Patients were randomized to receive either a single intraoperative dose of subconjunctival bevacizumab (1.25 mg, Group I) or topical bevacizumab (5 mg/ml) for 30 days (Group II). One eye was randomly selected, if both were eligible for surgery. All patients underwent a complete ocular and systemic examination. Bleb morphology was examined and scored as per Moorfields system (MBGS) at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Visual field, fundus photography, and disc analysis were performed. Outcome measures (at one year) included (1) comparison of bleb morphology in both groups, (2) proportion of patients achieving surgical success, and (3) side effects of treatment.

The groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, and crystalline lens status. Group II patients had significantly lower vascularity scores for central (P=0.042) and peripheral bleb areas (P=0.042) and peripheral bleb areas (P=0.042) and peripheral bleb areas (n = 88) patients achieved average vascular scores of less than 2.5 (P=0.042) and peripheral bleb areas (n = 88) patients achieved average vascular scores of less than 2.5 (vs. 94%; P=0.042) and peripheral bleb areas (.

Topical bevacizumab gives a better vascularity profile at one year, but the studied routes appear equally safe and do not seem to affect the outcome in any other way.

Ophthalmologic Manifestations and Retinal Findings in Children with Down Syndrome.

J Ophthalmol

To evaluate ocular findings in children with Down syndrome and to compare with the healthy children group.

The study patients were divided into two groups as the diagnosed Down syndrome group and the control group. The study was designed as a prospective and single-center study in Istanbul University Faculty of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology. The study included 93 patients in the age range from 7 to 18 years, who applied to the ophthalmology department of our clinic in the period from July 2017 to June 2018. The study included the patients allocated into the control group and the Down syndrome patients allocated into the patient group, containing 49 and 44 participants, respectively. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination with biomicroscopy. Autorefractometer measurements were performed in all patients, and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was determined with the use of the Snellen chart. All patients underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) measurements for central foveal retinal (CRT), subfoveal choroidal (CCT), and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thicknesses.

The average CRT was 241.2 ± 25.7 microns in Down syndrome group and 219.4 ± 21.1 microns in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in regards to CRT (p < 0.001). The average pRNFL values were 123.1 ± 15.4 microns in the Down syndrome group and 102.2 ± 8.7 microns in the control group (p < 0.001). The average pRNFL values were 123.1 ± 15.4 microns in the Down syndrome group and 102.2 ± 8.7 microns in the control group (.

In the subjects with Down syndrome, the incidence of lens opacities, strabismus, and amblyopia was higher than the control group. CRT and pRNFL were thicker in the Down syndrome group than in control group. This may represent retinal developmental changes in the patients with Down syndrome.

Outcome of a Low-Cost Glaucoma Implant versus the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant for Paediatric Glaucoma in a Tertiary Hospital in Egypt.

J Ophthalmol

To compare safety and efficacy between a low-cost glaucoma drainage device (GDD), the Aurolab aqueous drainage implant (AADI), and the Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI) in refractory childhood glaucoma in Egypt.

This is a retrospective study of patients who received either an AADI or BGI at a tertiary care postgraduate teaching institute. Children aged <16 years with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) with or without prior failed trabeculectomy who completed a minimum 6-month follow-up were included. The outcome measures were IOP reduction from preoperative values and postoperative complications.

Charts of 57 children (younger than 16 years old) diagnosed with refractory childhood glaucoma were included. Of these, 27 eyes received AADI implants (group A), while 30 received BGI implants (group B). The mean preoperative baseline IOP was 34 ± 5 mmHg in group A versus 29 ± 2 mmHg in group B (p=0.78) in patients on maximum allowed glaucoma medications. In group A versus group B, the mean IOP decreased to 13.25 ± 8.74 mmHg (p=0.6), 12.8 ± 5.4 mmHg (p=0.7), and 12.6 ± 5.6 mmHg (p=0.9) after 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. However, in group A, an anterior chamber reaction appeared around the tube in 14 cases starting from the first month and resolved with treatment in only 4 cases. In the other 10 cases, the reaction became more severe and required surgical intervention. This complication was not observed in any eye in group B.

AADI, a low-cost glaucoma implant, is effective in lowering IOP in patients with recalcitrant paediatric glaucoma. However, an intense inflammatory reaction with serious consequences developed in some of our patients; we believe these events are related to the valve material. We therefore strongly recommend against its use in children.

Comparison of Intravitreal Aflibercept and Ranibizumab for Treatment of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization: One-Year Results-A Retrospective, Comparative Study.

J Ophthalmol

To compare one-year treatment outcomes of intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) and intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) for treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV).

The medical records of a total of 30 eyes diagnosed with mCNV and underwent IVA or IVR treatment for a minimum one-year follow-up were studied retrospectively. All the subjects had an axial length >26 mm and received a 1 + PRN (pro re nata) regimen IVA or IVR. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thicknesses (CMT) on optical coherence tomography were evaluated before and after treatment.

There were 12 eyes in IVA group, with a mean age of 60.0 ± 10.2 years. The mean BCVA significantly improved from baseline 1.54 ± 0.76 to 0.85 ± 0.61 and the mean CMT significantly decreased from baseline 384.3 ± 119.1 μm to 305.9 ± 75.4 μm to 305.9 ± 75.4 p : 0.024 and p : 0.024 and μm to 305.9 ± 75.4 μm to 305.9 ± 75.4 p : 0.024 and p : 0.024 and p : 0.024 and p : 0.024 and.

Both IVA and IVR treatment modalities resulted in similar anatomical outcomes but IVA had better visual outcomes in treatment of mCNV.

Effect of Near Work on Intraocular Pressure in Emmetropes.

J Ophthalmol

To determine whether accommodation induced by reading alters intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy, young, emmetropic adults and to document the duration and magnitude of this effect.

Cross-sectional study. Participants. Fifteen healthy, emmetropic young adults.

Subjects performed 20 minutes of near work (reading at 33 cm) followed by 20 minutes of far work (reading at 520 cm) while IOP was measured using an iCare tonometer at baseline and every 5 minutes thereafter. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Main Outcome Measures. Intraocular pressure.

IOP decreased significantly compared to baseline IOP after 10 minutes of near work (average change of -1.60 ± 2.2 (SD) mm Hg, p < 0.05). IOP remained lower than baseline IOP throughout all subsequent near and far work. The difference in IOP at the end of experimentation compared to baseline IOP was -1.87 ± 1.81 mm Hg (p < 0.05). IOP remained lower than baseline IOP throughout all subsequent near and far work. The difference in IOP at the end of experimentation compared to baseline IOP was -1.87 ± 1.81 mm Hg (.

Near work decreases IOP in healthy emmetropes, and this effect is sustained for at least 20 minutes after discontinuing prolonged near work. Providers may need to consider this effect when measuring IOP in clinical practice.

Photobiomodulation by light emitting diode applied sequentially does not alter performance in cycling athletes.

Lasers in Medical Science

Analyze the effects of sequential application of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) at different wavelengths on the performance of cycling athletes....

Clinical efficacy comparison of low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation and Nd:YAG laser in treating recurrent acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

Lasers in Medical Science

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation (coblation) and Nd:YAG laser in treating recurrent nasol...

Experimental investigations on thermal effects of a long-pulse alexandrite laser on blood vessels and its comparison with pulsed dye and Nd:YAG lasers.

Lasers in Medical Science

Laser has been widely used in the treatment of vascular skin diseases, such as port wine stain, due to the effect of selective photothermolysis in ...