The latest medical research on Psychosomatic Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about psychosomatic medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Making sense of phantom limb pain.

Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Phantom limb pain (PLP) impacts the majority of individuals who undergo limb amputation. The PLP experience is highly heterogenous in its quality, ...

Blue Monday, yellow Friday? Investigating work anticipation as an explanatory mechanism and boundary conditions of weekly affect trajectories.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Affective well-being of employees is a key outcome in the occupational health literature. Yet, researchers of emotions and affect have long called ...

Adding fuel to the fire: The exacerbating effects of calling intensity on the relationship between emotionally disturbing work and employee health.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

The burgeoning occupational callings literature has shown that feeling called to a job is associated with an array of positive job-, career-, and h...

Efficacy of App-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder with Coach Support: Initial Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is severe, chronic, and undertreated. Apps could substantially improve treatment access.

We provide an initial test of the usability and efficacy of coach-supported app-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for BDD. The Perspectives app covers core treatment components: psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, exposure with response prevention, mindfulness, attention retraining, and relapse prevention.

A randomized waitlist-controlled trial was conducted. Adults (N = 80) with primary BDD were assigned to 12 weeks of Perspectives or waitlist. Coaches promoted engagement and answered questions via in-app messaging and phone calls. BDD severity was measured at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment by blinded independent evaluators (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD; BDD-YBOCS). Secondary outcomes included BDD-related insight, depression, quality of life, and functioning.

App uptake and satisfaction were high. In intent-to-treat analyses, Perspectives app-based CBT was associated with significantly lower BDD-YBOCS severity at end of treatment (M [SD]: 16.8 [7.5]) compared to the waitlist (26.7 [6.2]; p < 0.001, d = 1.44). App-based CBT was associated with greater improvements across all secondary measures, with medium to large effects.

Perspectives, supported by a bachelor's-level coach, is an efficacious, scalable treatment for adults with BDD.

Evaluation of Inference-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial with Three Treatment Modalities.

Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics

Inference-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) is a specialized psychological treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without deliberate and prolonged exposure and response prevention (ERP) that focuses on strengthening reality-based reasoning and correcting the dysfunctional reasoning giving rise to erroneous obsessional doubts and ideas.

The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of I-CBT through a comparison with appraisal-based cognitive behavioral therapy (A-CBT) and an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention.

This was a two-site, parallel-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing I-CBT with A-CBT. The MBSR intervention acted as a non-specific active control condition. Following formal evaluation, 111 participants diagnosed with OCD were randomly assigned. The principal outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale.

All treatments significantly reduced general OCD severity and specific symptom dimensions without a significant difference between treatments. I-CBT was associated with significant reductions in all symptom dimensions at post-test. Also, I-CBT led to significantly greater improvement in overvalued ideation, as well as significantly higher rates of remission as compared to MBSR at mid-test.

I-CBT and MBSR appear to be effective, alternative treatment options for those with OCD that yield similar outcomes as A-CBT. I-CBT may have an edge in terms of the rapidity by which patients reach remission, its generalizability across symptom dimension, its potentially higher level of acceptability, and effectiveness for overvalued ideation. Future research is needed to assess whether additional alternative treatments options can help to increase the number of people successfully treated.

Flaws and all: How mindfulness reduces error hiding by enhancing authentic functioning.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Hiding errors can undermine safety by amplifying the risks of undetected errors. This article extends research on occupational safety by investigat...

How does social support modify the association between psychological distress and risk of suicide death?

Depression and Anxiety

Social support (SS) has been reported as a factor preventing suicide death, but whether this association is independent of mental status is unclear. The present study examined the effect modification of SS on the association between psychological distress status and risk of suicide death.

Follow-up data for 43,015 subjects participating in a prospective cohort study were analyzed. At baseline, the subjects were asked about SS and mental status with the Kessler six-item Distress (K6) Scale. A Cox model was used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of suicide death according to two levels of psychological distress (K6 ≤ 4, K6 ≥ 5). The HRs in each SS subtype (emotional and instrumental) were also calculated.

There was a significant association between SS and a lower risk of suicide death in the stratum of K6 ≥ 5, with an HR of 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.96). On the other hand, the association with the K6 ≤ 4 strata was not significant.

SS appears to be associated with a lower risk of suicide death only among participants with moderate or severe psychological distress. These results imply that early detection of psychological distress and provision of SS is important for preventing suicide death.

Longitudinal relationship between sensory impairments and depressive symptoms in older adults: The mediating role of functional limitation.

Depression and Anxiety

The underlying mechanism between sensory impairments (SIs) and depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults is not well understood. This study aims to explore the mediating role of functional limitation on the longitudinal relationship between SIs and depressive symptoms among older adults in China.

A total of 4130 older adults who participated in the 3-year follow-up China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were included in the analysis. The hierarchical multiple linear regression model and nonparametric bootstrapping method were employed to explore the relationship between SIs and depressive symptoms, and the mediating role of functional limitation in this link.

The prevalence of self-reported hearing impairment (HI) only, vision impairment (VI) only, and dual sensory impairment (DSI) at baseline were 5.7%, 22.2%, and 58.6%, respectively. After adjusting for controlling variables, older adults with DSI had significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with those without SIs at baseline (β = .07, p = .005). The magnitude of mediation effect from DSI to depressive symptoms via functional limitation was a*b = 0.060 (BCa 95% confidence interval: 0.031-0.094).

Functional limitation partially mediated the relationship between DSI and depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults. Interventions of DSI and functional limitation should be included in depressive symptoms prevention among older adults in China.

The effects of varenicline, bupropion, nicotine patch, and placebo on smoking cessation among smokers with major depression: A randomized clinical trial.

Depression and Anxiety

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy among smokers with MDD.

Primary safety outcome: the occurrence of ≥1 treatment-emergent, moderate to severe neuropsychiatric adverse event (NPSAE). Primary efficacy outcome: biochemically confirmed continuous abstinence (CA) during the final 4 weeks of treatment (Weeks 9-12).

A total of 6653 participants (56% female; 39% MDD) ~47 years old. Risk of NPSAEs did not differ by medication for MDD. MDD had higher risk (p < .0001) for NPSAEs than the NPC. Efficacy (6653; intent-to-treat): CA rates for MDD versus NPC respectively were 31.2% versus 38.0% VAR; 23.0% versus 26.1% BUP; 22.6% versus 26.4% NRT; and 13.4% versus 13.7% PLA but no differential treatment effect was noted within the cohorts. All active treatments differed from PLA but VAR showed the largest effect.

Results suggest that for MDD smokers, inclusive of those with recurrent episode, varenicline plus counseling may be the best pharmacological option for the treatment of smoking given its greater efficacy effect size and similar risk of NPSAEs.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01456936. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01456936.

What role for cognitive remediation in the treatment of depressive symptoms? A superiority and noninferiority meta-analysis for clinicians.

Depression and Anxiety

Cognitive remediation (CR) is a promising technique in the treatment of the cognitive dimension of depression. The present study evaluated the potential of CR in treating depressive symptoms and provides practical information about its usefulness in clinical settings.

We performed two meta-analyses of published randomized (and nonrandomized) clinical trials, comparing CR to control conditions in subjects with current depressive symptomatology. The superiority meta-analysis aimed to determine the superiority of CR when compared with placebo/waiting list interventions and its efficacy when used as an augmentation therapy. The noninferiority meta-analysis determined whether CR had noninferior efficacy compared with standard antidepressant interventions.

CR was found to significantly improve depressive symptomatology in the superiority meta-analysis (CR: n = 466, control n = 478). Moreover, CR seemed to be noninferior to standard antidepressant interventions (CR: n = 230, control n = 235). CR was more effective when addressing hot (vs. cold) cognition, when involving younger patients (i.e., <30 years), and in the case of mild-moderate (vs. severe) depression.

CR should be considered an augmentation treatment to improve treatment outcomes in depressed subjects, especially among young individuals. Interventions addressing hot cognition seem to be the most promising.

Neural correlates of anxious distress in depression: A neuroimaging study of reactivity to emotional faces and resting-state functional connectivity.

Depression and Anxiety

Comorbid anxiety disorders and anxious distress are highly prevalent in major depressive disorder (MDD). The presence of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (ADS) has been associated with worse treatment outcomes and chronic disease course. However, little is known about the neurobiological correlates of anxious distress in MDD.

We probed the relation between the DSM-5 ADS and task-related reactivity to emotional faces, as well as resting-state functional connectivity patterns of intrinsic salience and basal ganglia networks in unmedicated MDD patients with (MDD/ADS+, N = 24) and without ADS (MDD/ADS-, N = 48) and healthy controls (HC, N = 59). Both categorical and dimensional measures of ADS were investigated.

MDD/ADS+ patients had higher left amygdala responses to emotional faces compared to MDD/ADS- patients (p = .015)-part of a larger striato-limbic cluster. MDD/ADS+ did not differ from MDD/ADS- or controls in resting-state functional connectivity of the salience or basal ganglia networks.

Current findings suggest that amygdala and striato-limbic hyperactivity to emotional faces may be a neurobiological hallmark specific to MDD with anxious distress, relative to MDD without anxious distress. This may provide preliminary indications of the underlying mechanisms of anxious distress in depression, and underline the importance to account for heterogeneity in depression research.

COVID-19-related posttraumatic stress disorder in adults with lived experience of psychiatric disorder.

Depression and Anxiety

Prevalence estimates of COVID-19-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have ranged from 1% to over 60% in the general population. Individuals with lived experience of a psychiatric disorder may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19-related PTSD but this has received inadequate attention.

Participants were 1571 adults with lived experience of psychiatric disorder who took part in a longitudinal study of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. PTSD was assessed by the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) anchored to the participant's most troubling COVID-19-related experiencevent. Factors hypothesised to be associated with traumatic stress symptoms were investigated by linear regression.

40.10% of participants perceived some aspect of the pandemic as traumatic. 5.28% reported an ICD-11 PTSD qualifying COVID-19 related traumatic exposure and 0.83% met criteria for probable ICD-11 COVID-19-related PTSD. Traumatic stress symptoms were associated with younger age, lower income, lower social support, and financial worries, and lived experience of PTSD/complex PTSD. Depression and anxiety measured in June 2020 predicted traumatic stress symptoms at follow-up approximately 20 weeks later in November 2020.

We did not find evidence of widespread COVID-19-related PTSD among individuals with lived experience of a psychiatric disorder. There is a need for future research to derive valid prevalence estimates of COVID-19-related PTSD.