The latest medical research on Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about acute myeloid leukaemia gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Posttranslational control of lipogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.

Leukaemia

Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells within the tumor microenvironment typically occurs in response to increased nutritional, translation and pr...

Recent advances in therapeutic strategies for triple-negative breast cancer.

Leukaemia

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most malignant subtype of breast cancer (BC) with a poor prognosis. Current treatment options are limit...

CircRNA-CREIT inhibits stress granule assembly and overcomes doxorubicin resistance in TNBC by destabilizing PKR.

Leukaemia

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a novel type of regulatory RNA characterized by high evolutionary conservation and stability. CircRNAs are expected to be potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for a variety of malignancies. However, the regulatory functions and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are largely unknown.

By using RNA high-throughput sequencing technology, qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays, we screened dysregulated circRNAs in breast cancer and TNBC tissues. Then in vitro assays, animal models and patient-derived organoids (PDOs) were utilized to explore the roles of the candidate circRNA in TNBC. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), co immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and Western blotting assays were carried out.

In this study, we demonstrated that circRNA-CREIT was aberrantly downregulated in doxorubicin resistant triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and associated with a poor prognosis. The RNA binding protein DHX9 was responsible for the reduction in circRNA-CREIT by interacting with the flanking inverted repeat Alu (IRAlu) sequences and inhibiting back-splicing. By utilizing in vitro assays, animal models and patient-derived organoids, we revealed that circRNA-CREIT overexpression significantly enhanced the doxorubicin sensitivity of TNBC cells. Mechanistically, circRNA-CREIT acted as a scaffold to facilitate the interaction between PKR and the E3 ligase HACE1 and promoted proteasomal degradation of PKR protein via K48-linked polyubiquitylation. A reduced PKR/eIF2α signaling axis was identified as a critical downstream effector of circRNA-CREIT, which attenuated the assembly of stress granules (SGs) to activate the RACK1/MTK1 apoptosis signaling pathway. Further investigations revealed that a combination of the SG inhibitor ISRIB and doxorubicin synergistically inhibited TNBC tumor growth. Besides, circRNA-CREIT could be packaged into exosomes and disseminate doxorubicin sensitivity among TNBC cells.

Our study demonstrated that targeting circRNA-CREIT and SGs could serve as promising therapeutic strategies against TNBC chemoresistance.

Emerging strategies in targeting tumor-resident myeloid cells for cancer immunotherapy.

Leukaemia

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein 1, programmed death-ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 ...

Osteosarcoma with cell-cycle and fibroblast growth factor genomic alterations: case report of Molecular Tumor Board combination strategy resulting in long-term exceptional response.

Leukaemia

There is a paucity of information about molecularly driven therapy in osteosarcomas. We report a 31-year-old woman with chemotherapy-refractory met...

Connecting telomere maintenance and regulation to the developmental origin and differentiation states of neuroblastoma tumor cells.

Leukaemia

A cardinal feature that distinguishes clinically high-risk neuroblastoma from low-risk tumors is telomere maintenance. Specifically, neuroblastoma ...

Thrombotic and bleeding complications in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and severe COVID-19: a study of ERIC, the European Research Initiative on CLL.

Leukaemia

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be more susceptible to COVID-19 related poor outcomes, including thrombosis and death, due to the advanced age, the presence of comorbidities, and the disease and treatment-related immune deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of thrombosis and bleeding in patients with CLL affected by severe COVID-19.

This is a retrospective multicenter study conducted by ERIC, the European Research Initiative on CLL, including patients from 79 centers across 22 countries. Data collection was conducted between April and May 2021. The COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for SARS-CoV-2 on nasal or pharyngeal swabs. Severe cases of COVID-19 were defined by hospitalization and the need of oxygen or admission into ICU. Development and type of thrombotic events, presence and severity of bleeding complications were reported during treatment for COVID-19. Bleeding events were classified using ISTH definition. STROBE recommendations were used in order to enhance reporting.

A total of 793 patients from 79 centers were included in the study with 593 being hospitalized (74.8%). Among these, 511 were defined as having severe COVID: 162 were admitted to the ICU while 349 received oxygen supplementation outside the ICU. Most patients (90.5%) were receiving thromboprophylaxis. During COVID-19 treatment, 11.1% developed a thromboembolic event, while 5.0% experienced bleeding. Thrombosis developed in 21.6% of patients who were not receiving thromboprophylaxis, in contrast to 10.6% of patients who were on thromboprophylaxis. Bleeding episodes were more frequent in patients receiving intermediate/therapeutic versus prophylactic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin (LWMH) (8.1% vs. 3.8%, respectively) and in elderly. In multivariate analysis, peak D-dimer level and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio were poor prognostic factors for thrombosis occurrence (OR = 1.022, 95%CI 1.007‒1.038 and OR = 1.025, 95%CI 1.001‒1.051, respectively), while thromboprophylaxis use was protective (OR = 0.199, 95%CI 0.061‒0.645). Age and LMWH intermediate/therapeutic dose administration were prognostic factors in multivariate model for bleeding (OR = 1.062, 95%CI 1.017-1.109 and OR = 2.438, 95%CI 1.023-5.813, respectively).

Patients with CLL affected by severe COVID-19 are at a high risk of thrombosis if thromboprophylaxis is not used, but also at increased risk of bleeding under the LMWH intermediate/therapeutic dose administration.

Revealing the evolution of the tumor immune microenvironment in follicular lymphoma patients progressing within 24 months using single-cell imaging mass cytometry.

Leukaemia

Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) who experience disease progression within 24 months (POD24) have inferior outcomes. The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) plays a crucial role in pathogenesis and progression of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, TIME evolution during progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) is elusive.

Spatially resolved and single-cell image mass cytometry with a panel of 36 metal-tagged antibodies was used to quantitatively analyze the TIME structure in 13 paired FLs at diagnosis and POD24.

Follicles and peri-follicular regions were well dissected in structure. Peri-follicular regions represented a barrier for immune infiltration into the follicles. More FL-cells in the peri-follicular regions suffered CD8+T cells attacks under simultaneous protection of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and/or macrophages compared with that in the follicles irrespective of POD24. During POD24, increased CD163- macrophages with PD-1 ligand upregulation and decreased CD8+T cells with upregulated LAG-3 expression around FL-cells were observed in the follicles. Spatial analyses demonstrated that FL-cells interacted more intimately with macrophages than with Tregs and less with cytotoxic T cells in both peri-follicular regions and follicles during POD24. In comparison, macrophages also cooperated more frequently with Tregs to simultaneously hijack FL-cells, creating an enhanced immunosuppressive environment in both peri-follicular and follicular regions during POD24.

Peri-follicular regions function as a barrier by recruiting both CD8+T cells and immunosuppressive cells, protecting follicular FL-cells from immune attack at diagnosis or POD24. FL-cells reside in a more immune-compromised microenvironment and evade immune cell attacks during POD24. Novel immunotherapeutic approaches harnessing LAG-3, macrophages, and Tregs will be empowered to overcome poor outcomes in patients with FL POD24.

Super-enhancer hijacking LINC01977 promotes malignancy of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma addicted to the canonical TGF-β/SMAD3 pathway.

Leukaemia

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) hijacked by super-enhancers (SEs), vital regulatory elements of the epigenome, remain elusive in the progression of LUAD metastasis.

SE-associated lncRNA microarrays were used to identify the dysregulated lncRNAs in LUAD. ChIP-seq, Hi-C data analysis, and luciferase reporter assays were utilized to confirm the hijacking of LINC01977 by SE. The functions and mechanisms of LINC01977 in LUAD were explored by a series of in vitro and in vivo assays.

We found that LINC01977, a cancer-testis lncRNA, was hijacked by SE, which promoted proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. LINC01977 interacted with SMAD3 to induce its nuclear transport, which facilitated the interaction between SMAD3 and CBP/P300, thereby regulating the downstream target gene ZEB1. Additionally, SMAD3 up-regulated LINC09177 transcription by simultaneously binding the promoter and SE, which was induced by the infiltration of M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM2), subsequently activating the TGF-β/SMAD3 pathway. Moreover, LINC01977 expression was positively correlated with TAM2 infiltration and SMAD3 expression, especially in early-stage LUAD. Higher chromatin accessibility in the SE region of LINC01977 was observed with high expression of TGF-β. Early-stage LUAD patients with high LIN01977 expression had a shorter disease-free survival.

TAM2 infiltration induced a rich TGF-β microenvironment, activating SMAD3 to bind the promoter and the SE of LINC01977, which up-regulated LINC01977 expression. LINC01977 also promoted malignancy via the canonical TGF-β/SMAD3 pathway. LINC01977 hijacked by SE could be a valuable therapeutic target, especially for the treatment of early-stage LUAD.

Olverembatinib (HQP1351), a well-tolerated and effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with T315I-mutated chronic myeloid leukemia: results of an open-label, multicenter phase 1/2 trial.

Leukaemia

The phase 1 trial is registered at CTR20220566, and the two single-arm, open-label phase 2 studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03883087 (CML-CP) and NCT03883100 (CML-AP).

In the phase 1 study, olverembatinib was orally administered once every other day in 28-day cycles at 11 dose cohorts ranging from 1 to 60 mg, and we evaluated the maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of olverembatinib. In the phase 2 studies, olverembatinib was administered at the RP2D of 40 mg orally on alternate days for 28-day cycles. The primary outcome measure is major cytogenetic response (MCyR) and major hematologic response by the end of Cycle 12 in CML-CP and CML-AP, respectively. Fine and Gray's hazard models were used to identify covariates associated with responses.

A total of 165 patients (> 80.0% of whom had received ≥ 2 TKIs) were enrolled in this study. Among 127 patients with CML-CP, the 3-year cumulative incidences of achieving MCyR, complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major molecular response (MMR), MR4.0, and MR4.5 were 79.0, 69.0, 56.0, 44.0 and 39.0%, respectively. The highest response rates were observed in patients with a single T315I mutation. Among 38 patients with CML-AP, the 3-year cumulative incidences of achieving MCyR, CCyR, MMR, MR4.0, and MR4.5 were 47.4%, 47.4%, 44.7%, 39.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, baseline BCR-ABL1 mutation status was significantly associated with cytogenetic and molecular responses. Common treatment-related adverse events included skin hyperpigmentation, hypertriglyceridemia, proteinuria, and severe thrombocytopenia.

Olverembatinib was well tolerated, with significant antileukemic activity in adults with TKI-resistant CML-CP and CML-AP, especially those with the T315I mutation.

Triple MAPK inhibition salvaged a relapsed post-BCMA CAR-T cell therapy multiple myeloma patient with a BRAF V600E subclonal mutation.

Leukaemia

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a progressive plasma cell neoplasm characterized by heterogeneous clonal expansion. Despite promising response rates achieved with anti-BCMA CAR-T cell therapy, patients may still relapse and there are currently no clear therapeutic options in post-CAR-T settings. In this report, we present a case of a post-BCMA CAR-T relapsed/refractory (RR) MM patient with skin extramedullary disease (EMD) in which a novel MAPK inhibition combinatorial strategy was implemented based on next-generation sequencing and in vitro experiments.

A 61-year-old male with penta-refractory MM penta- (IgA lambda), ISS stage 3 with hyperdiploidy, gain of 1q21 and del13 was treated with anti-BCMA CAR-T cell therapy, achieving a best response of VGPR. He progressed after 6 months and was salvaged for a short period with autologous stem cell transplantation. Eventually, he progressed with extramedullary disease manifested as subcutaneous nodules. Based on whole-exome sequencing, we identified a BRAF (V600E) dominant subclone in both bone marrow and cutaneous plasmacytoma. Following in vitro experiments, and according to our previous studies, we implemented a triple MAPK inhibition strategy under which the patient achieved a very good partial response for 110 days, which allowed to bridge him to subsequent clinical trials and eventually achieve a stringent complete response (sCR).

Here, we show the applicability, effectiveness, and tolerability the triple MAPK inhibition strategy in the context of post-BCMA CAR-T failure in specific subset of patients. The triple therapy could bridge our hospice bound RRMM patient with BRAF (V600E) to further therapeutic options where sCR was achieved. We will further evaluate triple MAPK inhibition in patients with BRAF V600E in a precision medicine clinical trial launching soon.

Targeting macrophages in hematological malignancies: recent advances and future directions.

Leukaemia

Emerging evidence indicates that the detection and clearance of cancer cells via phagocytosis induced by innate immune checkpoints play significant...