The latest medical research on Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about acute myeloid leukaemia gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infection in Vaccinated Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Leukaemia

Although messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have established efficacy for prevention of severe SARS-CoV2 infection in the general population, their effe...

Direct oral anticoagulant versus low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: 2022 updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Leukaemia

International clinical practice guidelines have progressively endorsed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as an alternative to low-molecular-weight...

Worked to the bone: antibody-based conditioning as the future of transplant biology.

Leukaemia

Conditioning of the bone marrow prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplant is essential in eradicating the primary cause of disease, facilitating...

Immunosuppressive cells in cancer: mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

Leukaemia

Immunotherapies like the adoptive transfer of gene-engineered T cells and immune checkpoint inhibitors are novel therapeutic modalities for advance...

Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) can predict the therapeutic outcomes of immuno-neoadjuvant therapy in NSCLC patients.

Leukaemia

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy is emerging as novel effective intervention in lung cancer, but study to unearth effective surrogates indicating its therapeutic outcomes is limited. We investigated the genetic changes between non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with varied response to neoadjuvant immunotherapy and discovered highly potential biomarkers with indicative capability in predicting outcomes.

In this study, 3 adenocarcinoma and 11 squamous cell carcinoma NSCLC patients were treated by neoadjuvant immunotherapy with variated regimens followed by surgical resection. Treatment-naive FFPE or fresh tissues and blood samples were subjected to whole-exome sequencing (WES). Genetic alternations were compared between differently-responded patients. Findings were further validated in multiple public cohorts.

DNA damage repair (DDR)-related InDel signatures and DDR-related gene mutations were enriched in better-responded patients, i.e., major pathological response (MPR) group. Besides, MPR patients exhibited provoked genome instability and unique homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) events. By further inspecting alternation status of homology-dependent recombination (HR) pathway genes, the clonal alternations were exclusively enriched in MPR group. Additionally, associations between HR gene alternations, percentage of viable tumor cells and HRD event were identified, which orchestrated tumor mutational burden (TMB), mutational intratumor heterogeneity (ITH), somatic copy number alteration (SCNA) ITH and clonal neoantigen load in patients. Validations in public cohorts further supported the generality of our findings.

We reported for the first time the association between HRD event and enhanced neoadjuvant immunotherapy response in lung cancer. The power of HRD event in patient therapeutic stratification persisted in multifaceted public cohorts. We propose that HR pathway gene status could serve as novel and additional indicators guiding immune-neoadjuvant and immunotherapy treatment decisions for NSCLC patients.

Navigating financial toxicity in patients with cancer: A multidisciplinary management approach.

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Approximately one-half of individuals with cancer face personal economic burdens associated with the disease and its treatment, a problem known as ...

Molecular profiling and clinical implications of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and extramedullary manifestations.

Leukaemia

Extramedullary manifestations (EM) are rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their impact on clinical outcomes is controversially discussed.

We retrospectively analyzed a large multi-center cohort of 1583 newly diagnosed AML patients, of whom 225 (14.21%) had EM.

AML patients with EM presented with significantly higher counts of white blood cells (p < 0.0001), peripheral blood blasts (p < 0.0001), bone marrow blasts (p = 0.019), and LDH (p < 0.0001). Regarding molecular genetics, EM AML was associated with mutations of NPM1 (OR: 1.66, p < 0.001), FLT3-ITD (OR: 1.72, p < 0.001) and PTPN11 (OR: 2.46, p < 0.001). With regard to clinical outcomes, EM AML patients were less likely to achieve complete remissions (OR: 0.62, p = 0.004), and had a higher early death rate (OR: 2.23, p = 0.003). Multivariable analysis revealed EM as an independent risk factor for reduced overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43, p < 0.001), however, for patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survival did not differ. For patients bearing EM AML, multivariable analysis unveiled mutated TP53 and IKZF1 as independent risk factors for reduced event-free (HR: 4.45, p < 0.001, and HR: 2.05, p = 0.044, respectively) and overall survival (HR: 2.48, p = 0.026, and HR: 2.63, p = 0.008, respectively).

Our analysis represents one of the largest cohorts of EM AML and establishes key molecular markers linked to EM, providing new evidence that EM is associated with adverse risk in AML and may warrant allogeneic HCT in eligible patients with EM.

Incidence, mortality, risk factors, and trends for Hodgkin lymphoma: a global data analysis.

Leukaemia

Hodgkin lymphoma is a lymphatic malignancy commonly found in cervical lymph nodes. This study evaluated the worldwide incidence, mortality, associated risk factors, and temporal trends of Hodgkin lymphoma by sex, age, and country.

The age-standardised Hodgkin lymphoma incidence and mortality were retrieved from the GLOBOCAN, CI5 volumes I-XI, WHO mortality database, the NORDCAN and SEER Program. The age-standardised prevalence of smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, and hypertension was also extracted for each country. Trends were tested using Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) from Joinpoint regression analysis.

The Hodgkin lymphoma incidence and mortality were 0.98 and 0.26 per 100,000 in 2020. A higher incidence was observed in high-income countries, while higher mortality was found in low-income countries. Incidence and mortality were associated with GDP per capita, prevalence of smoking, obesity, and hypertension at the population level. Despite the decreasing mortality trend, there was an increasing incidence, especially among females, younger population, and subjects from Asian countries.

There was an increasing trend in Hodgkin lymphoma incidence, especially among subjects who were female, younger population, and from Asian countries. Further studies are needed to investigate the reasons for these epidemiologic trends.

Single-cell sequencing: a promising approach for uncovering the mechanisms of tumor metastasis.

Leukaemia

Single-cell sequencing (SCS) is an emerging high-throughput technology that can be used to study the genomics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics at ...

Tumor organoids: applications in cancer modeling and potentials in precision medicine.

Leukaemia

Cancer is a top-ranked life-threatening disease with intratumor heterogeneity. Tumor heterogeneity is associated with metastasis, relapse, and ther...

Study identifies potential target for treating childhood blood cancer

Science Direct Leukemia

Scientists have pinpointed a possible new target for treating patients with the blood cancer juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), according to...

Major discovery provides new hope for blood cancer patients

Science Direct Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukaemia is a rare and devastating blood cancer that is highly resistant to treatment. Now, scientists have discovered a way to supp...