The latest medical research on Pancreatic Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pancreatic cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A nationwide certification system to increase the safety of highly advanced hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery.

Pancreatic Cancer

To ensure that highly advanced hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery (HBPS) is performed safely, the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery (JSHBPS) board certification system for expert surgeons established a safety committee to monitor surgical safety.

We investigated postoperative mortality rates based on summary reports of numbers and outcomes of highly advanced HBPS submitted annually by the board-certified training institutions from 2012 to 2019. We also analyzed summary reports on mortality cases submitted by institutions with high 90-day post-HBPS mortality rates and recommended site visits and surveys as necessary.

Highly advanced HBPS was performed in 121,518 patients during the 8-year period. Thirty-day mortality rates from 2012 to 2019 were 0.92%, 0.8%, 0.61%, 0.63%, 0.70%, 0.59%, 0.48%, and 0.52%, respectively (p < .001). Ninety-day mortality rates were 2.1%, 1.82%, 1.62%, 1.28%, 1.46%, 1.22%, 1.19%, and 0.98%, respectively (p < .001). Summary reports were submitted by 20 hospitals between 2015 and 2019. Mortality rates before and after the start of report submission and audit were 5.72% and 2.79%, respectively, (odds ratio 0.690, 95% confidence interval 0.487-0.977; p = .037).

Development of a system for designation of board-certified expert surgeons and safety management improved the mortality rate associated with highly advanced HBPS.

Carbohydrates based stimulus responsive nanocarriers for cancer-targeted chemotherapy: A review of current practices.

Pancreatic cancer research

Many nanocarriers have been developed to react physicochemically to exterior stimuli like ultrasonic, light, heat, and magnetic fields, along with various internal stimuli including pH, hypoxia, enzyme, and redox potential. Nanocarriers are capable to respond various stimuli within the cancer cells to enable on-demand drug delivery, activation of bioactive compounds, controlled drug release, and targeting ligands, as well as size, charge, and conformation conversion, enabling sensing and signaling, overcoming multidrug resistance, accurate diagnosis, and precision therapy.

Carbohydrates are ubiquitous biomolecules with a high proclivity for supramolecular network formation. Numerous carbohydrate-based nanomaterials have been used in biological solicitations and stimuli-based responses. Particular emphasis has been placed on the utilization of carbohydrate-based NPs and nanogels in various fields including imaging, drug administration, and tissue engineering. Because the assembly process is irreversible, carbohydrate-based systems are excellent ingredients for the development of stimulus-responsive nanocarriers for cancer-targeted chemotherapy. This review aims to summarise current research on carbohydrate-based nanomaterials, with an emphasis on stimuli-sensitive nanocarriers for cancer-targeted chemotherapy.

Carbohydrates-based stimulus-responsive nanomaterials have been proved highly efficient for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, thus leading to effective chemotherapy with minimum off-target effects.

Utility of Homologous Recombination Deficiency Biomarkers Across Cancer Types.

Pancreatic cancer research

Homologous recombination DNA repair deficiency (HRD) is associated with sensitivity to platinum and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in certain cancer types, including breast, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate. In these cancers, BRCA1/2 alterations and genomic scar signatures are useful indicators for assessing HRD. However, alterations in other homologous recombination repair (HRR)-related genes and their clinical significance in other cancer types have not been adequately and systematically investigated.

We obtained data sets of all solid tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas and comprehensively analyzed HRR pathway gene alterations, their loss-of-heterozygosity status, per-sample genomic scar scores, ie, the HRD score and mutational signature 3 ratio, DNA methylation profiles, gene expression profiles, somatic TP53 mutations, sex, and clinical information including chemotherapeutic regimens.

Biallelic alterations in HRR genes other than BRCA1/2 were also associated with elevated genomic scar scores. The association between HRR-related gene alterations and genomic scar scores differed significantly by sex and the presence of somatic TP53 mutations. HRD cases determined by a combination of these indices also showed HRD features in gene expression analysis and were associated with better survival when treated with DNA-damaging agents.

This study provides evidence for the usefulness of HRD analysis in all cancer types, improves chemotherapy decision making and its efficacy in clinical settings, and represents a substantial advancement in precision oncology.

Preoperative fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio predicts the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma subjected to hepatectomy.

Pancreatic cancer research

Systemic inflammatory response (SIR) plays a crucial role in every step of tumorigenesis and development. More recently, the fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR), an inflammation-based model, was suggested as a prognostic maker for various cancer patients. This research aimed to estimate the prognostic abilities of FAR, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet- lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subjected to curative hepatectomy.

A total of 1,502 cases who underwent hepatectomy for HCC were included. The predictive performances of FAR, NLR, MLR, PLR and SII were assessed with regards to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare prognostic performances.

Data revealed that FAR had higher predictive accuracy than other inflammation-based models and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in assessing OS and DFS. Indeed, the OS and DFS of patients with high FAR (> 8.9), differentiated by the optimal cut-off value of FAR, were remarkably reduced (p < 0.05 for OS and DFS). Multivariate Cox regression analyses identified that AFP, FAR, clinically significant portal hypertension, tumor size, Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer staging system, major resection and blood loss were independent indicators for predicting OS and DFS. Furthermore, these patients could be classified according to their FAR into significantly different subgroups, regardless of AFP levels (p < 0.05 for DFS and OS). Similar results were obtained in other inflammation-based prognostic models.

Compared with NLR, MLR, PLR, SII and AFP, FAR showed significant advantages in predicting survival of HCC patients subjected to liver resection.

N6-methyladenosine methylation modification patterns reveal immune profiling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatic cancer research

Several studies have revealed that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulation is involved in various biological processes and cancer progression. Nevertheless, the potential effects of m6A modifications in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) and on immune regulation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) remains unclear.

A consensus clustering algorithm was used to identify different m6A modification patterns and construct an m6A-associated gene signature based on 23 m6A regulators in PAAD. The CIBERSORT and ssGSEA algorithms were used to estimate the components of the immune cells in each sample. The PCA algorithm was used to develop the m6Ascore system for the evaluation of m6A modification patterns in each sample.

Two m6A modification patterns with different biological properties and prognoses were identified in 176 PAAD patient samples. The features of TIME between the two patterns were similar, with two definite immune phenotypes: immune-inflamed and immune-excluded. Based on the m6A phenotype-associated signature genes, we constructed an m6Ascore system to investigate the m6A modification pattern of each sample, profile the dissection of physiological processes, immune infiltration, clinical prognosis, immunotherapy, and genetic variation. Patients with low m6Ascore scores had better clinical outcomes, enhanced immune infiltration, and lower expression of immunotherapeutic drug targets, such as CD274 and PDCD1LG2. Further research indicated that the m6Ascore and tumor mutation burden were significantly correlated, and patients with low m6Ascore had higher mutation rates in SMAD4 and TTN. Moreover, TNFRSF21 was significantly upregulated in PAAD tumor tissues and cell lines. Lower expression of TNFRSF21 had a prominent advantage in survival and was correlated with a low level of immune infiltration. PAAD samples with different TNFRSF21 expression levels showed significantly distinct sensitivities to chemotherapeutic agents.

This study revealed that m6A modification patterns could play an important role in the diversity and complexity of TIME, and the m6Ascore system could serve as an independent and powerful prognostic biomarker and is latently related to PAAD immunotherapies. Quantitative determination of m6A modification patterns in individual patients will be instrumental in mapping the TIME landscape and further optimizing precision immunotherapy.

Macrocyclic Cavitand β-Cyclodextrin Inhibits the Alcohol-induced Trypsin Aggregation.

Pancreatic cancer research

Trypsin, the most abundant pancreatic protein, aids in protein digestion by hydrolysis and exhibits aggregation propensity in presence of alcohol w...

Nutrition Intake and Nutrition Status of Pancreatic Cancer Patients: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Exercise Intervention Study.

Pancreatic cancer research

Pancreatic cancer patients often present with an inadequate nutritional intake. At the same time, there are no standardized recommendations for nut...

Feasibility of local therapy for recurrent pancreatic cancer

Science Direct's Pancreatic Cancer

Despite advances in perioperative management, recurrence after curative pancreatectomy is a critical issue in the treatment of pancreatic ductal ad...

Downregulation of ASF1B inhibits tumor progression and enhances efficacy of cisplatin in pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic cancer research

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive and lethal cancer with the highest mortality rate. Hence, the development of new targeting and innovative treatm...

Predictive Biomarkers for a Personalized Approach in Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.

Pancreatic cancer research

The mainstay treatment for patients with immediate resectable pancreatic cancer remains upfront surgery, which represents the only potentially cura...

Association Between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Cancer Morbidity and Mortality: Findings From Cohort Studies.

Pancreatic cancer research

Observational studies suggested that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) might be associated with increased cancer incidence and cancer-related death, however, the results are inconsistent. We aim to comprehensively estimate the causal relationships between SLE and cancer morbidity and mortality using a meta-analysis of cohort studies and Mendelian randomization.

A systematic search was conducted using PubMed to identify cohort studies published before January 21, 2021. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). In addition, we further evaluated the potentially causal relationships identified by cohort studies using two-sample Mendelian randomization.

A total of 48 cohort studies involving 247,575 patients were included. We performed 31 main meta-analysis to assess the cancer risk and three meta-analyses to evaluate cancer mortality in SLE patients. Through meta-analyses, we observed an increased risk of overall cancer (RR=1.62, 95%CI, 1.47-1.79, P<0.001) and cancer-related death (RR=1.52, 95%CI, 1.36-1.70, P<0.001) in patients with SLE. Subgroup analysis by site-specific cancer showed that SLE was a risk factor for 17 site-specific cancers, including six digestive cancers (esophagus, colon, anus, hepatobiliary, liver, pancreatic), five hematologic cancers (lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma), as well as cancer in lung, larynx, cervical, vagina/vulva, renal, bladder, skin, and thyroid. In addition, further mendelian randomization analysis verified a weakly association between genetically predisposed SLE and lymphoma risk (odds ratio=1.0004, P=0.0035).

Findings from our study suggest an important role of SLE in carcinogenesis, especially for lymphoma.

https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, CRD42021243635.

Comprehensive Analysis of 29,464 Cancer Cases and 35,858 Controls to Investigate the Effect of the Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 Gene rs231775 A/G Polymorphism on Cancer Risk.

Pancreatic cancer research

In our previous studies, we found that the rs231775 polymorphism of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is associated with risks of different...