The latest medical research on Pancreatic Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pancreatic cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Disease-related protein co-expression networks are associated with the prognosis of resectable node-positive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatic cancer research

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a multifactorial disease, the molecular profile of which remains unclear. This study aimed at unveiling ...

The Effectiveness of Chemoradiotherapy in Elderly Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Population-Based Study Based on the SEER Database.

Pancreatic cancer research

Chemotherapy (CT) is the main treatment for patients with unresected pancreatic cancer (PC). Whether the addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy improves the prognosis of elderly patients with unresected PC is unclear. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with chemotherapy alone in elderly patients with unresected PC.

The clinical data of elderly patients with unresected PC who received chemotherapy between 2004 and 2017 were determined from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, and the patients were divided into CT and CRT groups. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints were cancer-specific survival (CSS) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Propensity matching analysis (PSM) was used to balance the differences between the two groups. OS and CSS were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, while CSM was assessed using a competing risk model. Subgroup analyses were also performed, and Cox regression was used to adjust for confounding factors.

A total of 17,814 patients were diagnosed with PC including 14,222 who received CT alone and 3592 who received CRT. The 1-year OS of the CT and CRT groups after PSM was 30.1% and 40.8%, and the 1-year CSS was 31.4% and 42.1%, respectively. Overall, the CRT group had better OS, CSS, and CSM rates than the CT group before and after PSM (P < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, race, histological grade, stage, and other factors, the CRT group still had a lower risk of death than the CT group, and subgroup analysis further revealed the survival benefit of CRT in each population.

CRT improves the outcome of patients with non-surgical PC over 65 years of age. But prospective studies are needed to validate our results.

A novel peroral digital cholangioscope with a large accessory channel: an experimental study.

Pancreatic Cancer

A peroral cholangioscope (POCS) can allow direct visualization of the biliary mucosa and its use is becoming more widespread due to improvements in functionality, image quality, and operability, as well as the development of related devices. Recently, a novel mother-baby peroral cholangioscope (nMB-POCS) with a large (2-mm) accessory channel has been developed. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of this novel POCS in a dry simulation model and an animal model.

We evaluated the ease of insertion and maneuverability of the nMB-POCS, the image quality, and the passage of the devices into the accessory channel and into the common bile duct in a dry model and a live porcine model.

In both models, the nMB-POCS could be easily inserted into the duodenoscope and into the distal bile duct and hilum. The image quality was good, and it was possible to observe the surface structure and the vascular network of the bile duct mucosa in detail.

The nMB-POCS with its larger accessory channel is expected to improve the efficiency of treatment and reduce the procedure time. Clinical studies in patients are warranted.

Quantitative MRI of chronic pancreatitis: results from a multi-institutional prospective study, magnetic resonance imaging as a non-invasive method for assessment of pancreatic fibrosis (MINIMAP).

Pancreatic cancer research

To determine if quantitative MRI techniques can be helpful to evaluate chronic pancreatitis (CP) in a setting of multi-institutional study.

This study included a subgroup of participants (n = 101) enrolled in the Prospective Evaluation of Chronic Pancreatitis for Epidemiologic and Translational Studies (PROCEED) study (NCT03099850) from February 2019 to May 2021. MRI was performed on 1.5 T using Siemens and GE scanners at seven clinical centers across the USA. Quantitative MRI parameters of the pancreas included T1 relaxation time, extracellular volume (ECV) fraction, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fat signal fraction. We report the diagnostic performance and mean values within the control (n = 50) and CP (n = 51) groups. The T1, ECV and fat signal fraction were combined to generate the quantitative MRI score (Q-MRI).

There was significantly higher T1 relaxation time; mean 669 ms (± 171) vs. 593 ms (± 82) (p = 0.006), ECV fraction; 40.2% (± 14.7) vs. 30.3% (± 11.9) (p < 0.001), and pancreatic fat signal fraction; 12.2% (± 5.5) vs. 8.2% (± 4.4) (p < 0.001) in the CP group compared to controls. The ADC was similar between groups (p = 0.45). The AUCs for the T1, ECV, and pancreatic fat signal fraction were 0.62, 0.72, and 0.73, respectively. The composite Q-MRI score improved the diagnostic performance (cross-validated AUC: 0.76).

Quantitative MR parameters evaluating the pancreatic parenchyma (T1, ECV fraction, and fat signal fraction) are helpful in the diagnosis of CP. A Q-MRI score that combines these three MR parameters improves diagnostic performance. Further studies are warranted with larger study populations including patients with acute and recurrent acute pancreatitis and longitudinal follow-ups.

Expression of CASC8 RNA in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.

Pancreatic cancer research

A lot of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in human cells in a number of transcripts of different lengths and composition of exons. In c...

A Web-Based Prediction Model for Estimating the Probability of Post-hepatectomy Major Complications in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Multicenter Study from a Hepatitis B Virus-Endemic Area.

Pancreatic cancer research

The identification of patients at high risk of developing postoperative complications is important to improve surgical safety. We sought to develop an individualized tool to predict post-hepatectomy major complications in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

A multicenter database of patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC were analyzed; 2/3 and 1/3 of patients were assigned to the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Independent risks of postoperative 30-day major complications (Clavien-Dindo grades III-V) were identified and used to construct a web-based prediction model, which predictive accuracy was assessed using C-index and calibration curves, which was further validated by the validation cohort and compared with conventional scores.

Among 2762 patients, 391 (14.2%) developed major complications after hepatectomy. Diabetes mellitus, concurrent hepatitis C virus infection, HCC beyond the Milan criteria, cirrhosis, preoperative HBV-DNA level, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI), and aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI) were identified as independent predictors of developing major complications, which were used to construct the online calculator ( http://www.asapcalculate.top/Cal11_en.html ). This model demonstrated good calibration and discrimination, with the C-indexes of 0.752 and 0.743 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, which were significantly higher than those conventional scores (the training and validation cohorts: 0.565 ~ 0.650 and 0.568 ~ 0.614, all P < 0.001).

A web-based prediction model was developed to predict the probability of post-hepatectomy major complications in an individual HBV-infected patient with HCC. It can be used easily in the real-world clinical setting to help management-related decision-making and early warning, especially in areas with endemic HBV infection.

Heat Shock Proteins: Central Players in Oncological and Immuno-Oncological Tracks.

Pancreatic cancer research

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of proteins that promote protein folding, inhibit denaturation of cellular proteins, and maintain other prot...

Exclusion criteria: evaluating the impact of enrollment requirements in SEER-Medicare research.

Pancreatic cancer research

Enrollment criteria are routinely utilized in patient selection in SEER-Medicare but little is known about how this may be impacting research outcomes. This study evaluated demographics and survival among pancreatic cancer patients who are included and excluded from SEER-Medicare analyses.

Patients ≥66 years old with pancreatic cancer were identified (SEER-Medicare, 2008-2015). Two patient cohorts were compared: included (continuous enrollment in Medicare Parts A and B and no enrollment in Medicare Advantage), and excluded. Mortality was assessed using a Standardized Mortality Ratio.

Among 49,017 patients with pancreatic cancer, 59.5% were in the included cohort. The excluded cohort was younger (median age 74 vs. 77) with more male (49.9% vs. 47.8%), non-white (33.0% vs. 21.3%) and urban-dwelling patients (91.0% vs. 85.0%). Those excluded had a higher mortality risk (SMR 1.06, 95%CI 1.04-1.07).

There are significant differences in patient demographics and mortality among those who are and are not routinely included in SEER-Medicare analyses and our study provides a critical opportunity to quantify this potential bias.

Productivity Loss and Indirect Costs for Patients Newly Diagnosed with Early- versus Late-Stage Cancer in the USA: A Large-Scale Observational Research Study.

Pancreatic cancer research

The total economic burden of cancer reflects direct and indirect costs, including productivity loss due to employment change, absenteeism, and presenteeism of patients and caregivers.

This study estimated the magnitude of employment decrease, work absence (WA), short-term disability (STD), long-term disability (LTD), and associated indirect costs among employees newly diagnosed with metastatic versus non-metastatic cancer in the USA.

IBM® MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters and Health and Productivity Management databases were used to identify employees aged 18-64 years and newly diagnosed with any cancer from 2009 to 2019. Proportions of patients with employment decrease, WA, STD, and LTD claims, and number of days missing from work were summarized by metastatic status during the first 12 months after diagnosis and the entire follow-up period. Subgroup analyses were conducted by age (< 50 years, ≥ 50 years) and cancer type (breast, lung, colon, pancreatic, and liver cancer).

During the first year after diagnosis, compared to patients without metastases, significantly higher proportions of patients with metastases had employment decrease and STD or LTD claims (p < 0.001). The mean total number of days missing from work for patients with versus without metastases was 33.39 versus 14.91 (ratio = 2.40), 64.05 versus 27.15 (ratio = 2.36), and 105.93 versus 46.29 (ratio = 2.29) days within 3, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis, respectively. Estimates of indirect cost differences between the two groups ranged from $6,877 to $22,283 in the first year.

Earlier detection of cancer may reduce productivity loss of patients and indirect costs by initiating treatment before cancer progresses to late stage.

Versatile use of Carmofur: A comprehensive review of its chemistry and pharmacology.

Pancreatic cancer research

Carmofur, 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil (HCFU) is an antineoplastic drug, which has been in clinics in Japan since 1981 for the treatment of colo...

Hyperthermia combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in the treatment of primary and metastatic tumors.

Pancreatic cancer research

According to the difference in temperature, thermotherapy can be divided into thermal ablation and mild hyperthermia. The main advantage of thermal...

Development and external validation of a dynamic nomogram to predict the survival for adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas.

Pancreatic cancer research

We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the survival and prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCP).

Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCP) is a relatively rare histological subtype of pancreatic exocrine neoplasms. It was reported a worse survival in ASCP than in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Prediction of ASCP prognosis is of great importance.

Histologically confirmed ASCP patients from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program database were finally enrolled and divided into development and internal validation cohorts. Moreover, a multi-center cohort of 70 patients from China was registered as the external validation. A nomogram was developed based on independent predictors of ASCP determined in multivariable analysis.

A total of 233 patients from SEER were finally included. Univariate and Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and lymph node ratio (LNR) were considered the independent prognostic indicators. We developed a nomogram according to these four parameters. The C index of the nomogram in the development cohort was 0.696. Through analysis of the area under the curve (AUC) of the different cohorts, we observed that the predictive efficacy of the nomogram for 1-, and 2-year overall survival (OS) were better than those of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM (8th) staging system both in the development and validation cohort. External validation confirmed that 1-year survival is 67.2% vs. 29.7%, similar to the internal cohort analysis.

The nomogram showed good performance in predicting the survival of ASCP. It could help surgeons to make clinical decisions and develop further plans.