The latest medical research on Otolaryngology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about otolaryngology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Cochlear implantation in a 10-year old boy with Pendred syndrome and extremely enlarged endolymphatic sacs.

Cochlear implants international

A 10-year-old boy with fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4 gene and with inner ear anomalies recei...

Duration of unilateral auditory deprivation is associated with reduced speech perception after cochlear implantation: A single-sided deafness study.

Cochlear implants international

Examine the relationship between duration of unilateral deafness and speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation in adults with single-sided deafness.

A systematic review of PubMed articles containing individual speech perception and duration of deafness data from single-sided deaf adults. Studies were selected for detailed review and duration of deafness and speech perception outcomes were extracted, with speech scores reported as percent correct. A linear regression as a function of study and length of deafness was performed.

A statistically significant negative effect of duration of unilateral deafness on speech perception was found, but there was substantial uncertainty regarding the strength of the effect.

Speech perception scores in SSD patients are negatively correlated with duration of deafness, but the limited amount of data from cochlear implant users with long-term single-sided deafness leads to substantial uncertainly, which in turn precludes any strong clinical recommendations. Further study of SSD CI users with long-term deafness will be necessary to generate evidence-based guidelines for implantation criteria in this population.

An unusual case of post-cochlear implant performance degradation in a patient with suspected Cogan's syndrome.

Cochlear implants international

Cogan's Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that can affect the ear, eye and other organs. Although rare, Cogan's Syndrome is particularly relevant ...

Use of MRI to determine cochlear duct length in patients undergoing cochlear implantation.

Cochlear implants international

It is recognised that CT can be used to determine the cochlear duct length (CDL) when selecting an electrode for cochlear implantation. It is the practice of our institution to routinely use MRI as the sole modality of pre-operative imaging in the assessment of children referred for consideration of cochlear implantation. We therefore wanted to determine whether MRI could be reliably used to determine cochlear duct length.

An analysis of 40 ears that had undergone MRI and CT of the temporal bones was undertaken. The diameter of the basal turn was independently measured for each ear using the two modalities, and CDL was then calculated.

The mean error of measurement was 0.26 mm (range 0-0.8 mm), leading to a difference in calculated CDL of 0.96 mm (range 0-2.92 mm). CDL did not predict full insertion of 28 mm cochlear implant electrodes in 30 ears.

MRI can be used to reliably determine cochlear duct length.

Objective, audiological and quality of life measures with the CI532 slim modiolar electrode.

Cochlear implants international

To report on electrode array measurements for the Nucleus® CI532 Slim Modiolar Electrode device including: ECAP thresholds, electrode impedances, and psychophysical comfort levels, as well as speech perception results pre- and post-operatively and standardized evaluations of quality of life.

Forty-four subjects were implanted with the CI532. Electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) thresholds and impedances were measured using automatic Neural Response Telemetry intra-operatively, at activation and at six months post implant. Pre- and post-operative measures of words in quiet and sentences in noise were made in multiple languages. Quality of life was assessed using The Speech Spatial Qualities questionnaire (SSQ) and Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI).

Intra-operative ECAP thresholds were recorded successfully from 90% of electrodes tested. ECAP thresholds varied across the array and a post-hoc Dunn's test showed that median thresholds for electrodes E1-E13 were significantly greater than those for E17-E22 (all P < 0.001). Impedances increased significantly between surgery and activation. Speech recognition scores for words in quiet and sentences in noise showed a significant improvement for the group at six months, when using the cochlear implant, compared with pre-operative performance (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase compared to pre-operative ratings for all sections of the SSQ at six months post activation (P < 0.001). The GBI gave scores significantly above zero for the 'general' subscale and total score.

Objective ECAP and impedance measures for this new electrode array were as expected and similar to results reported for other array types. Speech perception and quality of life improved significantly following implantation. (Registered as NCT02392403 on PRS).

Knowledge about cochlear implantation: A parental perspective.

Cochlear implants international

Cochlear implantation (CI) is used for children with severe to profound hearing loss who show little or no improvement using hearing aids. This study explored parental knowledge of their children's CI.

A cross-sectional study involving the parents of 115 pediatric CI patients was conducted at King Abdullah Specialized Children's Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Parents were interviewed by telephone using a 50-question validated questionnaire.

Most parents of children with CI reported being comfortable in using the internet (68.7%) and social media (40.9%) to obtain information regarding CI. Although most parents of children with CI relied on health professionals and websites as their main sources of information, they were also able to obtain necessary information at meetings for CI patients and health professionals. Parents of children with CI felt they had sufficient information regarding the impact of hearing loss (78%) and CI (71%) on speech understanding and language development; however, they had insufficient information regarding criteria for CI candidacy, available brands of CI devices, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Parents reported that health professionals were the ideal source of information regarding hearing loss and CI. Moreover, our study showed that parents should learn more about cochlear implant devices, the post-implantation process, and candidacy criteria.

Recurrent cochlear implant associated seroma: A series of five patients.

Cochlear implants international

We have observed a small number of patients with cochlear implants who have a tendency to develop recurrent seromas overlying the implant package.

Five patients with a current or previous history of recurrent seromas presenting for review over a three-month period were identified. A retrospective review of their case notes was undertaken.

All patients identified were children, with a mean age at first seroma of 5.0 years (range 1.9-10.4 years). The mean interval between implantation and first episode of seroma was 3.1 years (range 0.9-6.4 years). With the exception of imaging showing a fluid-density collection, investigations were generally unremarkable. Fluid aspirated from one patient was cultured and no organisms were grown. Antibiotics, most commonly amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, were commonly but not universally prescribed.

Recurrent cochlear implant associated seroma appears to be an idiopathic process. Investigations are generally unhelpful, and whilst it is probably prudent to treat with antibiotics during an initial presentation, once a pattern of recurrent seroma is established, patients can be treated conservatively.

Improved speech and language development after unilateral cochlear implantation in children with a potentially useable contralateral ear.

Cochlear implants international

Increasingly, children are considered for a unilateral cochlear implant (CI), even if the contralateral ear falls outside current audiological guidelines, especially if they are not considered to be reaching their educational potential. Here we present the outcomes of CI in children with potentially useable hearing in the contralateral ear.

A retrospective case note review was performed for a total of 57 patients. Primary outcome was speech and language (SaL) development, as measured by the Manchester Speech and Language Development Scale (MSLDS) and SaL age equivalent. Secondary outcomes were auditory perception, perceived parental benefit and compliance; respectively measured by Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), Brief Assessment of Parental Perception (BAPP) and reported use.

SaL development improved after CI with a mean pre-operative MSLDS score of 5.8 to a postoperative score of 8.0 (n = 57) and a mean SaL age equivalent of 14 months in a one-year period (n = 14). Furthermore, CAP scores improved from 4.9 to 7.0 (n = 57). Analysis of BAPP scores showed improved quality of life in 18/19 patients (94.7%). With regards to compliance, 50/57 (87.7%) are fulltime users of both their CI and their HA.

The present study indicates that despite one ear having potentially useable hearing outside national audiological criteria, the majority of participants received benefit from a CI in the poorer hearing ear. We suggest that assessment of each ear separately and treatment with the most appropriate amplification device, has given these children a benefit they may not otherwise have acquired if they only had bilateral HA.

Electric compound action potentials (ECAPs) and impedances in an open and closed operative site during cochlear implantation.

Cochlear implants international

In patients undergoing cochlear implantation, intraoperative measures of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) are used to confirm device integrity and electrode array position. However, these electrophysiological parameters have been shown to decrease over time, with a small decrement observable as early as 24 h post implantation and becoming more apparent after 6 months. Whether the intraoperatively measured impedances and ECAPs recorded immediately after electrode insertion versus later in the operation or in an open versus closed operative site vary has not been documented. Such variation in measurement procedure may affect the ultimate operative outcome.

Between February and October 2016, 38 patients received a cochlear implant (Cochlear®), with half receiving a CI 522 device and the other half receiving a CI 512 device. These patients were distributed into three groups. In the first (group A; n = 21), the impedance and threshold neural response telemetry (tNRT) measures were taken before (M1) and after cutaneous suture (M2), whereas in the second group (group B; n = 11) they were taken twice in the open operative site, once at the time of electrode insertion (M1) and then again 10 min later (M2). The last group (group C; n = 6) was measured only once after a 10 min waiting time before closing the operative site.

tNRTs of both group A and B were significantly higher at M1 than measured at M2. The magnitude of change in tNRT did vary significantly by group (P = .027) with group A having a bigger decrease than group B. For impedances there was evidence for a significant difference in M2 between the three groups (P = .012), with group C having significantly higher values compared to group A and B.

Intraoperative tNRT measures change significantly over time, including within the first 10 min of implantation. One underlying etiology of this phenomenon for tNRTs seems to be the condition of the surgical site whereas changes of impedances can be best explained by the 'electrochemical cleaning' theory associated with the first stimulation of the electrode. However, for both impedances and tNRTs there also is an important impact of time as well as of acute perioperative changes in electrical conductivity.

Cochlear implantation in children with auditory neuropathy: Lessons from Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

Cochlear implants international

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder associated with auditory neuropathy (AN). The decision process for CI in AN is evolving with increasing evidence of efficacy. We evaluated the benefit of CI in children with BVVL syndrome.

A retrospective study reviewed the pre- and post-operative hearing outcomes of three patients with BVVL who presented for CI. A fourth patient with BVVL who was not suitable for CI is also discussed. The primary outcomes were hearing thresholds and auditory perception. Outcome measurement instruments included visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) or Play Audiometry (PA), Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Auditory Speech Sound Evaluation (ASSE). Secondary outcomes were parental report (BAPP questionnaire), the perception of our SaLT and compliance.

Patient 1 had ASSE levels of 40-45 dB HL 1 year post-operatively, and CAP score had improved from 2 to 5. At 2-year review, aided thresholds were 40 dB at 2-4 kHz. Three months following CI, the CAP score of Patient 2 had improved from 3 to 5. At 6 months, thresholds were 25-30 dB at 2-4 kHz. Single words/phrases are used by both patients and benefit is reported by both families. Patient 3 has recently undergone CI, having been previously rejected at another centre. Three months following CI, his thresholds were 35-40 dB at 2-4 kHz and increased use of sign and vocalization is reported.

CI in children with AN complicating BVVL has a variable, but a positive effect. Other manifestations of BVVL make measuring benefit challenging, in the absence of a 'bespoke' measurement instrument for children with complex needs. This study provides further evidence for the benefit of CI in children with AN.

Patterns of recognition of Arabic consonants by non-native children with cochlear implants and normal hearing.

Cochlear implants international

This study examined the patterns of recognition of Arabic consonants, via information transmission analysis for phonological features, in a group of Malay children with normal hearing (NH) and cochlear implants (CI).

A total of 336 and 616 acoustic tokens were collected from six CI and 11 NH Malay children, respectively. The groups were matched for hearing age and duration of exposure to Arabic sounds. All the 28 Arabic consonants in the form of consonant-vowel /a/ were presented randomly twice via a loudspeaker at approximately 65 dB SPL. The participants were asked to repeat verbally the stimulus heard in each presentation.

Within the native Malay perceptual space, the two groups responded differently to the Arabic consonants. The dispersed uncategorized assimilation in the CI group was distinct in the confusion matrix (CM), as compared to the NH children. Consonants /ħ/, /tˁ/, /sˁ/ and /ʁ/ were difficult for the CI children, while the most accurate item was /k/ (84%). The CI group transmitted significantly reduced information, especially for place feature transmission, then the NH group (p < 0.001). Significant interactions between place-hearing status and manner-hearing status were also obtained, suggesting there were information transmission differences in the pattern of consonants recognition between the study groups.

CI and NH Malay children may be using different acoustic cues to recognize Arabic sounds, which contribute to the different assimilation categories' patterns within the Malay perceptual space.

Cochlear implant in Thalassemia patient - Case report.

Cochlear implants international

Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. Iron overload occurs in thalassemia, with blood transfusion therapy being the major cause. Deferoxamine continues to be the mainstay of therapy to remove excess iron in patients requiring long-term transfusions. One of the most important complications of deferoxamine therapy is neurosensory toxicity, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Labyrinthine hemmorhage (LH) is thought to result from altered capillary hemodynamics or reperfusion injury. It is theorized that LH incites a reparative response that cascades from fibrosis to sclerosis and ultimately ossification of the inner ear structures.

We present a case of 3-year-old thalassemic child with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was on regular blood transfusions with chelation therapy. HRCT temporal bone and MRI brain and temporal bone had features of labyrinthitis ossificans (LO). Child underwent uniateral cochlear implantation and postimplantation speech perception and production outcomes were normal.

This case illustrates the unique feature of labyrinthitis ossificans in a thalassemia patient which has not yet reported in the English literature. Hearing screening of all thalassemia patients and therefore early diagnosis of SNHL prompts early intervention and improved quality of life.