The latest medical research on Otolaryngology
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about otolaryngology gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Arabic phoneme-grapheme correspondence by non-native, deaf children with cochlear implants and normal hearing children.Cochlear Implants International
This study aimed to compare the error patterns of Arabic phoneme-grapheme correspondence by a group of Malay children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal hearing (NH) and the effects of the visual graphical features of Arabic graphemes (no-dot, single-dot, and multiple-dots) on the phoneme-grapheme correspondence.
Participants were matched for hearing age (Mean, M = 7 ± 1.03 years) and duration of exposure to Arabic sounds (M = 2.7 ± 1.2 years). All 28 Arabic phonemes were presented through a loudspeaker and participants pointed to the graphemes associated with the presented phonemes.
A total of 336 and 616 tokens were collected for six children with CI and 11 NH children for each task, i.e., phonemes repetition and phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Both groups found it easier to repeat phonemes than the phoneme-grapheme correspondence. The children with CIs showed more confusion ([ظ, ز, ذ, ض, خ, ب, ه, س, ع, & ث] >10% correct scores) in phoneme-grapheme correspondence than the NH children ([ظ:14%] and [ث: 27%]). There was a significant interaction (p = 0.001) among the three visual graphical features and hearing status (CI and NH).
Our results infer that non-native Malay children with CIs and NH use different strategies to process the Arabic graphemes' visual features for phoneme-grapheme correspondence.
The case for intra-operative X-ray in cochlear implantation: Four illustrative cases and literature review.Cochlear Implants International
To demonstrate the utility of routine intraoperative plain film imaging in optimizing outcomes in cochlear implantation.
Evolving surgical techniques, programming, and electrode arrays have all improved performance outcomes in cochlear implantation. Yet despite decreasing complication rates, electrode misplacement remains a common occurrence. Utilization of intraoperative confirmational tools (radiologic, electrophysiologic) remains unstandardized despite the acknowledged importance of proper electrode positioning. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use and benefits of intraoperative X-ray (IOXR) in four cases, particularly in cases of normal electrophysiologic testing.
Four cases performed by an experienced CI surgeon are discussed where electrode malposition was only detected through X-ray. Literature review was performed on the use of intraoperative imaging, focusing on plain film radiography.
Case 1-3 describe examples of resistance-free electrode insertion in patients with normal pre-operative imaging. Intraoperative impedances and neural response telemetry (NRT) were normal. However, IOXR ultimately revealed tip fold-over prompting array repositioning. Case 4 describes an elective replacement of a soft-failing device. Resistance was encountered during array insertion, with IOXR demonstrating incomplete insertion compared with prior imaging. Positioning was revised to achieve pre-revision insertion depth, demonstrating the utility of prior IOXR in revision cases. Literature review of IOXR is discussed.
Appropriate placement of the electrode is paramount to successful CI outcomes. These cases illustrate IOXR as a safe, effective method to ensure optimal placement even in cases of normal electrophysiologic testing, supporting its routine use even by the most seasoned surgeons.
Mechanically evoked tinnitus after cochlear implantation with preservation of residual hearing.Cochlear Implants International
In the recent past, inclusion criteria for cochlear implant surgery expanded to patients with ever more residual acoustic hearing in the low freque...
AzBio Sentence test in Hebrew (HeBio): development, preliminary validation, and the effect of noise.Cochlear Implants International
HeBio results were similar to AzBio. Results obtained with two noise types were as expected. HeBio is recommended for evaluation of different populations in quiet and noise.
Considerations in pediatric device candidacy: An emphasis on spoken language.Cochlear Implants International
As cochlear implant (CI) candidacy expands to consider children with more residual hearing, the use of a CI and a hearing aid (HA) at the non-impla...
Achondroplasia and severe sensorineural hearing loss: The role of active bone conduction implants.Cochlear Implants International
The BONEBRIDGE is a partially implantable, transcutaneous bone conduction device that can be used to treat conductive or mixed mild-to-moderate hea...
MELUDIA - Online music training for cochlear implant users.Cochlear Implants International
Music enjoyment is of importance for many cochlear implant (CI) users, and the interest in music training is high. But many CI users report that it is a challenge to find suitable training resources and that they stall because they don't know how to practice. Meludia is an online music training program that provides structured and guided music training for musically experienced and inexperienced children and adults.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the Meludia music training software for CI recipients based on two research questions: (1) are the easiest exercises available easy enough for CI users, and (2) are there any gaps when progressing through levels and stars with increasing difficulty?
Thirty-eight adult MED-EL CI users completed fourteen exercises involving 5 different musical dimensions of the online music training program.
Our results show that the easiest exercises available in Meludia are easy enough for CI users to be able to use this training resource independent of age, indication, duration of CI use or musical background.
With Meludia we assessed and found a suitable and comprehensive training tool that allows CI recipients to work on individual goals regardless of their present abilities.
Speech perception abilities of adult cochlear implant listeners with single-sided deafness vs. bilateral hearing loss.Cochlear Implants International
The purpose of this study was to compare the speech perception abilities in adult cochlear implant recipients implanted for bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (BSNHL) with those implanted for single-sided deafness (SSD).
A total of 12 adults with BSNHL and 12 adults with SSD participated. Each participant completed a battery of speech perception measures including monosyllabic words, sentences, and consonant recognition.
Cochlear implant users with BSNHL performed higher on word and sentence recognition. Consonant recognition scores showed higher performance for CI listeners with BSNHL for voicing and manner, but not for place or articulation.
Results of this study suggest that adults with SSD may have lower speech perception abilities with their cochlear implant when compared to adults implanted for BSNHL.
Detection accuracy of soft tissue complications during remote cochlear implant follow-up.Cochlear Implants International
After cochlear implantation (CI), long-term follow-up is obligatory. Remote-care options which provide a standard of care comparable to in-person consultations, could be an attractive addition to a cochlear implant centre's portfolio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of photographs of the skin covering the implant to reliably detect skin irritations or soft tissue complications.
During routine follow-up consultations, 109 CI patients were examined in person and asked to take a photograph of the skin covering the implant using their smartphones. Photographs were digitally and remotely evaluated by two CI physicians who were blinded to the findings during the in-person examination.
In nine cases, skin abnormalities were detected by the CI physician upon in-person examination, seven of which required immediate treatment. Both digital evaluators reliably detected all treatment-requiring conditions. Overall, more skin irritations were suspected digitally compared to in-person examination. Without additional information from the patients' medical record, sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 63%; with additional information provided, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity increased to 65.3%.
Digital photographic assessment of the skin covering the implant is a highly sensitive method to detect skin irritations and could reduce the number of necessary in-person consultations.
National study of hearing preservation rates and outcomes after cochlear implantation in Ireland.Cochlear Implants International
To study the rate of hearing preservation and outcomes of hearing preservation candidates in a national cochlear implant centre. The HEARRING criteria was used.
All cochlear implant candidates with preserved low frequency pure tone average (PTA) were included. All patients underwent cochlear implantation using a standard 'soft-surgery' technique. PTA was assessed at switch-on, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively. The primary outcome was hearing preservation at 12 months.
Sixty six patients were included in the study between 2015 and 2020. Seventy one ears were implanted including 33 adults and 33 children with 5 bilateral implantations. Mean preoperative PTA was 74.8 dB (range 52.3-92 dB), mean postoperative PTA was 95.3 dB corresponding to a mean shift of 20.5 dB. In the adult population, HP rates were as follows: complete HP in 13%, partial HP in 39.1%, minimal HP in 30.4%, loss of hearing in 17.4%. In the paediatric population: complete HP in 20.7%, partial HP in 51.7%, minimal HP in 13.8% and loss of hearing in 13.8%. After the initial postoperative shift, there was no significant worsening of residual hearing during follow-up between 3 and 12 months. There were no significant prognostic factors for hearing preservation.
Hearing preservation rates using the HEARRING criteria are described. This study will help counselling and decision making in patients eligible for cochlear implantation with hearing preservation. Further studies are required to assess the performances and outcomes of electronatural and electroacoustic stimulation.
Maximum acceptable level for the determination of ECAP and ESRT in a paediatric population.Cochlear Implants International
Two of the most used objective measures are electrically evoked action potentials (ECAPs) and electrically evoked stapedius reflex thresholds (ESRTs). Although stimuli used for these measures differ considerably, both measures are influenced by subjective loudness percept. We focus on the subjective maximum acceptable loudness (MAL) to investigate if loudness sensitivity varied along the electrode array during ECAP recordings. In addition, we explored how the MAL reached during an ECAP recording related to the postoperative ESRT.
Uni- and bilaterally implanted young CI users (n = 15, average age = 9 y, age range 3-18 y) underwent ECAP and ESR recordings using the clinical software MAESTRO (MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) and a commercially available immittance instrument (PATH MEDICAL GmbH, Germering, Germany).
Loudness tolerance during ECAP recordings was lowest at the two apical-most electrode contacts (number 1 and 2). There was a moderate correlation between the MAL achieved during ECAP recordings and ESR maximum stimulation amplitudes. (r: 0.44344).
ECAP recordings should commence at basal or medial contacts to increase the users' comfort and loudness tolerance, especially in young CI users. A higher maximum stimulation appears to increase the chance of the automatic determination of ECAP thresholds for all electrode contacts.
Neural recovery function of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant surgery: Comparison between different regions of the cochlea.Cochlear Implants International
Cochlear implants allow measures of neural function, through Neural response telemetry (NRT) and Auditory nerve recovery function (REC). These help in programming the speech processor and understanding the auditory system. However, not many studies have evaluated and compared these in different regions of the cochlea.
Comparing NRT and REC in different regions of the cochlea.
Cross-sectional, descriptive and prospective. NRT and REC (through the function of T0 - absolute refractory period, A - amplitude and TAU - time constant of the relative refractory period parameters) were evaluated, in three groups according to the stimulated electrode of the cochlea: apical, medial and basal.
26 adult patients were evaluated, 2 bilateral, totalling 28 ears. Data analysis showed no statistically significant difference between NRT between medial and basal but showed between apical and medial and apical and basal. For T0, there was a significant difference between medial and basal; for A, there was a significant difference between apical and basal and also medial and basal; and for TAU, there was no significant difference.
There was a statistically significant difference in NRT and REC when compared between different regions of the cochlea.