The latest medical research on Otolaryngology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about otolaryngology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Binaural summation, binaural unmasking and fluctuating masker benefit in bimodal and bilateral adult cochlear implant users.

Cochlear Implants International

The number of bilateral adult cochlear implant (CI) users and bimodal CI users is expanding worldwide. The addition of a hearing aid (HA) in the contralateral non-implanted ear (bimodal) or a second CI (bilateral) can provide CI users with some of the benefits associated with listening with two ears. Our was to examine whether bilateral and bimodal CI users demonstrate binaural summation, binaural unmasking and a fluctuating masker benefit.

Direct audio input was used to present stimuli to 10 bilateral and 10 bimodal CochlearTM CI users. Speech recognition in noise (speech reception threshold, SRT) was assessed monaurally, diotically (identical signals in both devices) and dichotically (antiphasic speech) with different masking noises (steady-state and interrupted), using the digits-in-noise test.

Bilateral CI users demonstrated a trend towards better SRTs with both CIs than with one CI. Bimodal CI users showed no difference between the bimodal SRT and the SRT for CI alone. No significant differences in SRT were found between the diotic and dichotic conditions for either group. Analyses of electrodograms created from bilateral stimuli demonstrated that substantial parts of the interaural speech cues were preserved in the Advanced Combination Encoder, an n-of-m channel selection speech coding strategy, used by the CI users. Speech recognition in noise was significantly better with interrupted noise than with steady-state masking noise for both bilateral and bimodal CI users.

Bilateral CI users demonstrated a trend towards binaural summation, but bimodal CI users did not. No binaural unmasking was demonstrated for either group of CI users. A large fluctuating masker benefit was found in both bilateral and bimodal CI users.

Long-term maintenance costs incurred by the families of pediatric cochlear implant recipients in Malaysia.

Cochlear Implants International

Cochlear implant (CI) requires lifelong financial commitments to ensure that the devices always operate optimally.

We estimated the long-term maintenance costs of CI including repair of speech processors, replacement of damaged parts, and battery requirements.

Forty-one parents of children who received CIs in Malaysian government hospitals were enrolled. The first 2 years of CI usage were covered by warranty. The cost increased three-fold from by 4 years of CI usage and then doubled by 8 years of usage. About 75% of parents commented that the costs were burdensome.

Our findings will be useful for parents whose children receive CI and will allow medical personnel to counsel the parents about the costs.

A retrospective evaluation of minimally invasive ponto surgery (MIPS) in two pediatric centers.

Cochlear Implants International

Percutaneous bone anchored hearing systems have been used effectively for over forty years with low rates of complications. Minimally Invasive Ponto Surgery (MIPS) is a surgical technique performed through a puncture hole that has been reported to minimize soft tissue trauma and decrease operative time. Due to it being a relatively new procedure there remains a paucity of pediatric outcomes data.

Pediatric patients from two tertiary pediatric otolaryngology centers between 2016 and 2019 who underwent MIPS were included in this study. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for indications for surgery, implant and abutment type, overlying skin thickness, skin-to-skin time, Holgers score at three, six and twelve months, revision surgery and time to abutment fitting.

Fourteen patients, two with bilateral procedures met inclusion criteria (mean age = 8.07 ± 2.87years). The mean overlying skin thickness was 5.13 ± 3.18mm. 9.44% of visits had an adverse skin reactionOne patient required surgery forskin overgrowth. One implant loss (6.3%) was reported, following trauma to the abutment. Mean MIPS skin to skin times were 12.4 ± 2.6 min, markedly different that the Baha® Attract and Connect which were 56 and 53 min, respectively.

This study represents the largest pediatric MIPS cohort to date, and our results are similar to published adult studies.

Comparison of test methods to assess the implanted ear alone for pediatric cochlear implant recipients with single-sided deafness.

Cochlear Implants International

The purpose of this investigation was to compare three test methods for isolating the test ear for children with single-sided deafness (SSD) who use a cochlear implant (CI).

Word recognition was assessed for five CI recipients with SSD and six bilateral CI recipients with no acoustic hearing. For the SSD subjects, performance was compared: 1) in the sound field with masking in the normal-hearing ear, 2) in the sound field with an earplug and earmuff ("plug-and-muff"), and 3) via direct connect (DC). For the bilateral CI subjects, performance was compared: 1) in the sound field and 2) via DC.

For the bilateral CI subjects, word recognition was similar when assessed in the sound field versus via DC. For the SSD subjects, performance was similar when assessed with the plug-and-muff and DC methods but was significantly poorer with masking presented to the normal-hearing ear.

Masking the normal-hearing ear to isolate the CI for word recognition is problematic in this population. The plug-and-muff and DC test methods may provide a more accurate assessment.

DC or plug-and-muff methods are recommended to isolate the CI-ear for word recognition testing in children with SSD. Patient specific variables should be considered.

Audiological benefits and performance improvements of Baha® attract implantation in patients with unilateral hearing loss.

Cochlear Implants International

To evaluate the overall functional and audiological benefits in unilateral hearing loss, as well as performance improvements with Cochlear™ Baha® Attract System with Baha® 5 sound processor.

We performed a prospective study. Fourteen consecutive adult patients with unilateral hearing loss who were audiologically eligible for Baha® Attract were included in this study. All patients were followed-up, and a series of tests were performed in the sound field before surgery, one, two, three, and 6 months after surgery.

Patients were categorized based on their hearing impairment type and severity. Ten patients had conductive hearing loss (CHL), or mixed hearing loss (MHL), and four patients had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The hearing threshold in the sound field aided with Baha® Attract was similar to the preoperative bone conduction hearing threshold of the better ear. The results of the speech audiometry improved post-operatively, but they did not match that of the better ear before surgery. The overall score of the hearing-in-noise test was gradually improved from one month to 6 months after surgery. The results of the sound localization test for SNHL patients were not as good as those for CHL or MHL. All the questionnaires demonstrated additional benefits that implied performance improvements.

The Baha® Attract provides enough auditory benefits and performance improvements for hearing impaired patients, though there are different benefits according to the type of hearing loss. Clinicians need to counsel the unilateral hearing loss patients for Baha® Attract System carefully, according to their type of hearing loss.

Comparison of speech recognition in cochlear implant patients with and without residual hearing: A review of indications.

Cochlear Implants International

This study evaluated existing guidelines for cochlear implantation (CI) according to the residual hearing of the patient. Speech recognition performance of adults implanted according to their degree of residual hearing was retrospectively evaluated.

Speech recognition results of 174 adult cochlear implant recipients were analyzed. All participants had pure tone thresholds of >75 dB at 2 and 4 kHz and were divided into three groups based on differing levels of low-frequency residual hearing.

Findings indicate that CI was of benefit for all patients with bilateral severe hearing loss and patients with nonfunctional residual hearing both in quiet and noisy conditions. Patients with residual low-frequency hearing could benefit from combined electro-acoustic stimulation compared to CI alone or to hearing aids alone preoperatively. The speech recognition performance of all CI recipients with different levels of residual hearing in the low frequencies was similar except that superior performance was observed in the group using electro-acoustic stimulation compared to electrical stimulation alone.

Study results demonstrate the success of CI in accordance with current guidelines and also support expanding implantation guidelines to include patients who have severe-to-profound high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss and usable residual low frequency hearing.

A study of self-perception and communication success as perceived by adolescents with cochlear implants and their significant others.

Cochlear Implants International

The objectives of this prospective, cross-sectional study were to compare self-perception and communication-success ratings of adolescents with cochlear implant (AWCI) and their caregivers (C-AWCI) and to explore associations with age at CI, implant age, and chronological age.

Fourteen CI centers across India participated. The Think About it Quiz (TAIQ), Self Assessment of Communication-Adolescent (SAC-A), and Significant Other Assessment of Communication-Adolescent (SOAC-A) were translated into five languages. Data were collected from 173 AWCI aged 10;0-19;6 years and an associated caregiver for each participant.

On the TAIQ, self-ratings by AWCI were significantly lower than the ratings by C-AWCI. Peer acceptance correlated with athletic competence for both groups. For the SAC-A versus SOAC-A, there was no significant difference between AWCI and C-AWCI ratings. Except for a negative correlation between peer-acceptance and chronological age for caregiver ratings, no other associations were found between any other ratings and age at CI, implant age, and chronological age.

Caregiver judgments of their adolescents with CI were not in equal agreement with self-ratings by the adolescents across various aspects of performance. Caregivers appeared to underestimate the self-perception issues faced by adolescents with CI but had excellent agreement with their adolescents' self-rating of communication success. The inclusion of activities to improve children's participation in sports could possibly improve peer acceptance.

Translation and validation of the revised version of the LittlEARS® early speech production questionnaire (LEESPQ®), in Dutch-speaking children with normal hearing.

Cochlear Implants International

With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, children with different degrees of hearing loss can receive hearing aids and cochlear implants in the early months after birth, which is also the case in the Netherlands and in Flanders, the Dutch speaking part of Belgium.

This has intensified the need for a validated questionnaire in the Dutch language to assess the speech development of children under the age of two. The LittlEARS Early Speech Production Questionnaire® (LEESPQ®), which was originally developed and validated in German language, was translated and validated into the Dutch language. Questionnaires of 355 normal hearing children were analysed.

Total score was highly correlated with age (r = .775) and a normative curve was created. Internal consistency was reached with a high value of α = 0.870, which indicates that the questionnaire almost exclusively assesses speech production ability. The Dutch version of the LEESPQ®, is reliable, consistent and independent of gender or lingual status. As such, the Dutch LEESPQ®, may be a useful tool for language monitoring for children from birth to 18 months of age.

The Dutch LittlEARS Early Speech Production Questionnaire®, was found to be a reliable and valid tool to assess and monitor the early speech and language production skills in children up to 18 months of age.

Magnet dislocation following magnetic resonance imaging in cochlear implant users: Diagnostic pathways and managment.

Cochlear Implants International

Although modern cochlear implants (CIs) are approved for magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) adverse events still occur with unacceptable frequency. Methods: In this retrospective study, magnet displacement due to MRIs was analysed. Relevant factors e.g. symptoms during MRI, diagnostics, surgical intervention following the diagnosis and possible subsequent damage were assessed.

16 patients were enclosed. All patients complained about pain while the scan was conducted. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the temporal bone or X-rays of the skull were performed to confirm diagnosis. Artefacts on CT scans delayed immediate diagnosis in some cases.

Comprehensive training of patients, surgeons and radiologists is the most efficient tool to prevent damage to the CI and the patient. X-ray of the skull is suggested to be used as the method of choice in imaging.

Cochlear implant indications: a review of third-party payers' policies for standard and expanded indications.

Cochlear Implants International

As cochlear implant (CI) candidacy has expanded, commercial payers in the United States have varied in their adoption of new indications, potential...

Initial hearing preservation outcomes of cochlear implantation with a slim perimodiolar electrode array.

Cochlear Implants International

To assess the slim modiolar array as a hearing preservation electrode.

Retrospective chart review of adult, post-lingual CI recipients implanted with slim modiolar array Sept 2016 to July 2017 in a tertiary referral center. Baseline audiograms were obtained within six months of initial CI evaluation. Patients with low frequency pure tone average (LFPTA) (125, 250, 500 Hz) <80 dB were considered HP candidates. Postoperative audiograms were obtained within 48 h before activation. Successful HP was considered as (1) retention of LFPTA threshold <80 dB and (2) change in threshold from pre- to post-operative.

Sixty-three patients received the slim perimodiolar array and 42 were HP candidates. Post-operative audiograms were obtained for 39 of 42 patients an average of 28.92 days after surgery. 56.4% of HP candidates retainedLFPTA <80 dB. Mean ΔLFPTA was 24.15 dB (±16.14; p < 0.001). 56.4% of HP candidates experienced Δ LFPTA <20 dB; 69.2% <30 dB. Functional hearing preservation was more successful in lower frequencies where starting thresholds were better - 78% with LFPTA <50 dB retained serviceable hearing at activation. The postoperative change was similar in each low frequency (Δ125 Hz: mean 21.25 +/- 14.76 (N = 28); Δ250 Hz: 26.28 +/- 19.29 (N = 39); Δ500 Hz: 25.00 +/- 17.73 (N = 39)).

The slim perimodiolar array is moderately effective at immediate hearing preservation. In subjects with preoperative audiometric profiles similar to those in prior EAS trials, immediate HP is comparable.

The impact of unilateral, simultaneous, or sequential cochlear implantation on pediatric language outcomes.

Cochlear Implants International

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of unilateral versus bilateral cochlear implantation on receptive and expressive spoken language outcomes. Secondary aims were to investigate factors timing of first and second implant placement and reliance on government funded health plans on language outcome.

This was a retrospective chart review of spoken language users with bilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss. A total of 204 children were included, 105 in the bilateral group and 99 in the unilateral group. Multiple regression analyses were completed to investigate factors that influence language outcomes at age 5.

Recipients who received bilateral CIs performed significantly higher on measures of receptive and expressive language than those with unilateral implants.

These results indicate that families should be counseled that language outcomes are better with bilateral cochlear implantation than unilateral implantation. Cochlear implant teams should continue to consider the impact of socioeconomic status on outcomes and explore new methods to reduce the impacts and barriers of poverty to language development.