The latest medical research on Mircobiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about mircobiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

STAT4 genetic polymorphism significantly affected HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients receiving Peginterferon-α therapy: A prospective cohort study in China Running title: STAT4 variation affecting response to PegIFN-α therapy.

Journal of Medical Genetics

Variant in STAT4 was reported to correlate with response of IFN-α in a retrospective study in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Here we conducted a prospective study to analyze the effect of STAT4 genetic polymorphism on response of PegIFN-α-2a in HBeAg-positive patients.

A prospective, multi-center, open-label, paralleled cohort study was performed. 150 treat-naïve and 156 nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs)-experienced HBeAg-positive CHB patients were enrolled respectively. All patients received PegIFN-α-2a treatment for 48 weeks and 24-week follow-up post PegIFN-α-2a treatment. Before treatment, STAT4 genetic polymorphism were determined by PCR and DNA sequencing. Serological markers, serum HBV DNA level and adverse events were collected at each visit point.

We observed a larger reduction of HBV DNA load and significant higher HBeAg seroconversion rate in GT/TT than in GG group at week 72 (P = 0.002 and P = 0.023) in treat-naïve patients. In NAs-experienced patients, the HBeAg seroconversion rate in GT/TT group was higher than in GG group at week 72 (P = 0.005). STAT4 rs7574865 gene polymorphism was the strongest independent predictor for HBeAg seroconversion in both two paralleled cohorts. Also, patients in GT/TT group had higher HBsAg loss rate than in GG group in the study. There was no significant difference in adverse events between GG and GT/TT groups.

This prospective cohort study confirmed that STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism is associated with HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss irrespective of naïve and NAs-experienced HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PegIFN-α-2a. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Comparative Analysis of the Mechanism of Resistance to Silver Nanoparticles and the Biocide 2,2-Dibromo-3-Nitrilopropionamide.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Antimicrobials such as nanoparticles and biocides are used to control microbial growth. We used Escherichia coli to study the process of acquired r...

Sofosbuvir-based Therapy for Late Pregnant Women and Infant with Severe Chronic Hepatitis C: A Case Series Study.

Journal of Medical Genetics

Data on sofosbuvir-based therapy for pregnant women and infant with severe chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are lacking. Two late pregnant women and one f...

Respiratory viruses among pediatric inpatients with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Jinan, China, 2016-2019.

Journal of Medical Genetics

The viral etiologies responsible for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are a major cause of pediatric hospitalization, and some devel...

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene contents: Are they associated with cervical cancer?

Journal of Medical Genetics

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are required for natural killer cell function against virus-infected cells or tumor cells. KIR gen...

Surveillance of influenza B severe hospitalized cases during ten seasons in Catalonia. Does the lineage make a difference?

Journal of Medical Genetics

Influenza B viruses circulates in two lineages (B/Victoria and B/Yamagata). Although classically affecting children, recently it has shown high rate of infection and increased hospitalization in the elderly.

To describe and analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza B virus (SHLCI-B) cases in Catalonia associated to mismatch from Influenza B virus strain included in the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).

SHLCI-B registered by the influenza sentinel surveillance system of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) during ten surveillance seasons from 2010 to 2020. Variables age, comorbidities, vaccination status were recorded. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-OR) for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Statistical significance was established at p <0.05.

A total of 1159 SHLCI-B were registered, of these 68.2% (791) corresponded to the 2017-18 season; 21.8% (253) were admitted to ICU and 13.8% (160) were exitus; 62.5% (725) cases occurred in those aged > 64 years; most frequent risk factor was cardiovascular disease (35.1%, 407) followed by chronic pulmonary obstructive disease-COPD (24.6%, 285) and diabetes (24.1%, 279). In 4 seasons, the predominant circulating lineage was B/Victoria, in 2 seasons the B/Yamagata lineage and 4 seasons had no IBV activity. Four seasons presented discordance with the strain included within the TIV. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) to prevent ICU admission was 31% (95% CI: 4-51%; p=0.03); being 29% (95%CI: -3%, 51%) in discordant and 43% (95% CI:-43%, 77%) in concordant seasons. Significant differences were observed in the number of affected aged > 64 years (OR=2.5; 95% CI: 1.9-3.4; p <0.001) and in patients with heart disease (OR = 2.40 95% CI: 1.7-3.4; p <0.001), COPD (OR = 1.6 95% CI: 1.1-2.3; p = 0.01) and diabetes (OR = 1.5 95% CI: 1.1-2.1; p = 0.04) between discordant and concordant seasons.

The increase in hospitalization rate in people> 64 years of age and those presenting comorbidities in seasons with circulating influenza B virus belonging to a lineage discordant with the strain included in the TIV and the decrease of VE to prevent ICU admissions evidences the vital need to administer the quadrivalent influenza vaccine regardless of the findings of predominant circulation in the previous season. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

May the concurrent use of indomethacin and an anti-oxidant in the SARS-CoV2 infection treatment induce an exacerbation of COVID-19?

Journal of Medical Genetics

While it is particularly wise to prevent the use of nature-derived anti-oxidants as the only therapy against SARS-CoV2 infection, the association o...

Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in people living with HIV: A cross-sectional study.

Journal of Medical Genetics

We aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in people living with HIV (PLWH). A total of 143 PLWH and 50 healt...

Frequency and distribution of H1N1 influenza A viruses with oseltamivir-resistant mutations worldwide before and after the 2009 pandemic.

Journal of Medical Genetics

H1N1 influenza has brought serious threats to people's health and a high socio-economic burden to society. Oseltamivir, a kind of neuraminidase (NA...

Neutralizing activity to SARS-CoV-2 in 1.2 to 10.0 month convalescent plasma samples of COVID-19: a transversal surrogate in vitro study performed in Quito-Ecuador.

Journal of Medical Genetics

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 201...

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant breakthrough infections in nursing home residents after an homologous third dose of the Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccine: Looking for correlates of protection.

Journal of Medical Genetics

We investigated whether peripheral blood levels of SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) receptor binding domain antibodies (anti-RBD), neutralizing antibodies targeting Omicron S (NtAb), and S-reactive-IFNγ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells measured after an homologous booster dose (3D) with the Comirnaty® vaccine were associated with the likelihood of subsequent breakthrough infections due to the Omicron variant.

Observational study including 146 nursing home residents (median age, 80 years; range, 66-99; 109 female) evaluated for an immunological response after 3D (at a median of 16 days). Anti-RBD total antibodies were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. NtAb were quantified by an Omicron S pseudotyped virus neutralization assay. SARS-CoV-2-S specific-IFNγ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were was enumerated by whole-blood flow cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining.

In total, 33/146 participants contracted breakthrough Omicron infection (symptomatic in 30/33) within 4 months after 3D. Anti-RBD antibody levels were comparable in infected and uninfected participants (21,123 BAU/ml vs. 24,723 BAU/ml; P=0.34). Likewise, NtAb titers (reciprocal IC50 titer, 157 vs. 95; P=0.32) and frequency of virus-reactive CD4+ (P=0.82) and CD8+ (P=0.91) T cells were similar across participant in both groups. Anti-RBD antibody levels and NtAb titers estimated at around the time of infection were also comparable (3,445 BAU/ml vs. 4,345 BAU/ml; P=0.59 and 188.5 vs. 88.9; P=0.70, respectively). Having detectable NtAb against Omicron or SARS-CoV-2-S-reactive-IFNγ-producing CD4+ or CD8+ T cells after 3D was not correlated with increased protection from breakthrough infection (OR, 1.50; P=0.54; 0.0; P=0.99 and 3.70; P=0.23, respectively).

None of the immune parameters evaluated herein, including NtAb titers against the Omicron variant, may reliably predict at the individual level the risk of contracting COVID-19 due to Omicron variant in nursing home residents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Clinical Manifestations of COVID-19 Breakthrough Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of Medical Genetics

To provide a comparative meta-analysis and systematic review of the risk and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated groups.

Eighteen studies of COVID-19 infections in fully vaccinated ("breakthrough infections") and unvaccinated individuals were reviewed from Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The meta-analysis examined the summary effects and between-study heterogeneity regarding differences in the risk of infection, hospitalization, treatments, and mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.

The overall risk of infection was lower for the fully vaccinated compared to that of the unvaccinated (relative risk[RR] 0.20, 95% CI 0.19-0.21), especially for variants other than Delta (Delta: RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.65; other variants: RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08). The risk of asymptomatic infection was not statistically significantly different between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.27-1.19). There were neither statistically significant differences in risk of hospitalization (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.38-2.93), invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 1.65 ,95% CI 0.90-3.06), or mortality (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.79-1.78). Conversely, the risk of supplemental oxygen during hospitalization was significantly higher for the unvaccinated (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.08-1.82).

Unvaccinated people were more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection than fully vaccinated for all variants. Once infected, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation, or mortality. Still, unvaccinated showed an increased need for oxygen supplementation. Further prospective analysis, including patients' risk factors, COVID-19 variants, and the utilized treatment strategies, would be warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.