The latest medical research on Orthopaedic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about orthopaedic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Identification and Validation of a Biomarker Signature in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer via Genome-Wide Screening for Functional Genetic Variants.

JAMA Surgery

Surgery currently offers the only chance for a cure in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it carries a significant morbidity and mortality risk and results in varying oncologic outcomes. At present, to our knowledge, there are no tests available before surgical resection to identify tumors with an aggressive biological phenotype that could guide personalized treatment strategies.

Identification of noninvasive genetic biomarkers that could direct therapy in patients whose cases are amenable to pancreatic cancer resection.

This multicenter study combined a prospective European cohort of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatic resection (from University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Cantonal Hospital of Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; and University Clinic of Ulm, Ulm, Germany) with data from the Cancer Genome Atlas database in the United States, which includes prospectively registered patients with PDAC. A genome-wide screening for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect PDAC survival was conducted using the European cohort for identification and the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort for validation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to screen for high-frequency polymorphic variants that are associated with allelic differences in tumor-associated survival and either result in an altered protein structure and function or reside in known regulatory noncoding genomic regions. The false-discovery rate method was applied for multiple hypothesis-testing corrections. Data analysis occurred from November 2017 to May 2018.

Pancreatic resection.

Tumor-associated survival.

A total of 195 patients in the European cohort were included, as well as 136 patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (overall median [range] age, 66 [19-87] years; 156 [47.1%] were women, and 175 [52.9%] were men). Two SNPs in noncoding, functional regions of genes that regulate cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis were identified (CHI3L2 SNP rs684559 and CD44 SNP rs353630). These were associated with survival after PDAC resection; patients who carry the risk alleles at 1 of both SNP loci had a 2.63-fold increased risk for tumor-associated death compared with those with protective genotypes (hazard ratio for survival, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.27-0.53]; P = 1.0 × 10-8).

The identified polymorphisms may serve as a noninvasive biomarker signature of prospective survival after pancreatic resection that is readily available at the time of PDAC diagnosis. This signature can be used to identify a subset of high-risk patients with PDAC with very low survival probability who might be eligible for inclusion in clinical trials of new therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the biological knowledge about these SNPs could help guide the development of individualized genomic strategies for PDAC therapies.

Management Options for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

JAMA Surgery

Varices are one of the main clinical manifestations of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastric varices are less common than esophageal varices but are often associated with poorer prognosis, mainly because of their higher propensity to bleed.

Currently, treatments used to control and manage gastric variceal bleeding include β-blockers, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, shunt surgery, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO), and modified BRTO. In the past few decades, Western (United States and Europe) interventional radiologists have preferred transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts that aim to decompress the liver and reduce portal pressure. Conversely, Eastern radiologists (Japan and South Korea) have preferred BRTO that directly targets the gastric varices. Over the past 20 years, BRTO has evolved and procedure-related risks have decreased. Owing to its safety and efficiency in treating gastric varices, BRTO is now starting to gain popularity among Western interventional radiologists. In this review, we present a comprehensive literature review of current and emerging management options, including BRTO and modified BRTO, for the treatment of gastric varices in the setting of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration has emerged as a safe and effective alternative treatment option for gastric variceal hemorrhage. A proper training, evidence-based consensus and guideline, thorough preprocedural and postprocedural evaluation, and a multidisciplinary team approach with BRTO and modified BRTO are strongly recommended to ensure best patient care.

Association of Racial Disparities With Access to Kidney Transplant After the Implementation of the New Kidney Allocation System.

JAMA Surgery

Inactive patients on the kidney transplant wait-list have a higher mortality. The implications of this status change on transplant outcomes between racial/ethnic groups are unknown.

To determine if activity status changes differ among races/ethnicities and levels of sensitization, and if these differences are associated with transplant probability after implementation of the Kidney Allocation System.

A multistate model was constructed from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant database (December 4, 2014, to September 8, 2016). The time interval followed Kidney Allocation System implementation and provided at least 1-year follow-up for all patients. The model calculated probabilities between active and inactive status and the following competing risk outcomes: living donor transplant, deceased donor transplant, and death/other. This retrospective cohort study included 42 558 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant wait-list following Kidney Allocation System implementation. To rule out time-varying confounding from relisting, analysis was limited to first-time registrants. Owing to variations in listing practices, primary center listing data were used for dually listed patients. Individuals listed for another organ or pancreatic islets were excluded. Analysis began July 2017.

Probabilities were determined for transitions between active and inactive status and the following outcome states: active to living donor transplant, active to deceased donor transplant, active to death/other, inactive to living donor transplant, inactive to deceased donor transplant, and inactive to death/other.

The median (interquartile range) age at listing was 55.0 (18.0-89.0) years, and 26 535 of 42 558 (62.4%) were men. White individuals were 43.3% (n = 18 417) of wait-listed patients, while black and Hispanic individuals made up 27.8% (n = 11 837) and 19.5% (n = 8296), respectively. Patients in the calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 0% or 1% to 79% showed no statistically significant difference in transplant probability among races/ethnicities. White individuals had an advantage in transplant probability over black individuals in calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 80% to 89% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4-2.2]) and 90% or higher (HR, 2.4 [95% CI, 2.1-2.6]), while Hispanic individuals had an advantage over black individuals in the calculated plasma reactive antibody group of 90% or higher (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.1-2.8]). Once on the inactive list, white individuals were more likely than Hispanic individuals (HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.17-1.3]) or black individuals (HR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.4]) to resolve issues for inactivity resulting in activation.

For patients who are highly sensitized, there continues to be less access to kidney transplant in the black population after the implementation of the Kidney Allocation System. Health disparities continue after listing where individuals from minority groups have greater difficulty in resolving issues of inactivity.

Variation in Surgical Outcomes Across Networks of the Highest-Rated US Hospitals.

JAMA Surgery

Hospitals are rapidly consolidating into regional delivery networks. To our knowledge, whether these multihospital networks leverage their combined assets to improve quality and provide a uniform standard of care has not been explored.

To evaluate the extent to which surgical outcomes varied across hospitals within the networks of the highest-rated US hospitals.

This longitudinal analysis of 87 hospitals that participated in 1 of 16 networks that are affiliated with US News & World Report Honor Roll hospitals used data from Medicare beneficiaries who were undergoing colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, or hip replacement between 2005 and 2014 to evaluate the variation in risk-adjusted surgical outcomes at Honor Roll and affiliated hospitals within and across networks. The data were analyzed between April 20, 2018, and June 25, 2018.

Thirty-day postoperative complications, mortality, failure to rescue, and readmissions.

Of 143 174 patients, 68 718 (48.0%) were men, 124 427 (86.9%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 71.8 (9.9) years and 73.5 (9.1) years in Honor Roll and affiliated hospitals, respectively. Outcomes were not consistently better at Honor Roll hospitals compared with network affiliates. For example, Honor Roll hospitals had lower failure to rescue rates (13.3% vs 15.1%; odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98) but higher complication rates (22.1% vs 18.0%; odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19). Within networks, risk-adjusted outcomes varied widely across affiliated hospitals. The differences in failure to rescue varied by as little as 1.1-fold (range, 12.7%-14.3%) in some networks to as much as 4.9-fold (range, 7.6%-37.3%) in others. Similarly, complication rates varied by 1.1-fold (range, 21%-23%) to 4.3-fold (range, 6%-26%) across all networks.

Surgical outcomes vary widely across hospitals affiliated with the US News & World Report Honor Roll hospitals. Public reporting mechanisms should provide patients with information on the quality of all network-affiliated hospitals. Networks should monitor variations in outcomes to characterize and improve the extent to which a uniform standard of care is being delivered.

Uptake of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Resections Within the Veterans Affairs for Known or Suspected Lung Cancer.

JAMA Surgery

Minimally invasive lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer has become more prevalent. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has lower rates of morbidity, better long-term survival, and equivalent oncologic outcomes compared with thoracotomy. However, little has been published on the use and outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within Veterans Affairs. There is a public assumption that the the Veterans Affairs is slow to adopt new procedures and technologies.

To determine the uptake of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within the Veterans Affairs for patients with known or suspected lung cancer.

In this retrospective cohort study of national Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse data from January 2002 to December 2015, a total of 11 004 veterans underwent lung resection for known or suspected lung cancer. Data were analyzed from March to November 2018.

Open or video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy or wedge resection.

Patient demographic characteristics and procedure and diagnosis International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were abstracted from Corporate Data Warehouse data.

Of the 11 004 included veterans, 10 587 (96.2%) were male, and the median (interquartile range) age was 66.0 (61.0-72.0) years. Of 11 004 included procedures, 8526 (77.5%) were lobectomies and 2478 (22.5%) were wedge resections. The proportion of video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections increased steadily from 15.6% in 2002 to 50.6% in 2015. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use by Veterans Integrated Service Networks ranged from 0% to 81.7%, and higher Veterans Integrated Service Network volume was correlated with higher video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use (Pearson r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P < .001). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery use and rate of uptake varied widely across Veteran Affairs regions (P < .001 by Wilcoxon signed rank test).

Paralleling academic hospitals, most lung resections are now performed in the Veterans Affairs using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. More research is needed to identify reasons behind the heterogeneous uptake of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery across Veterans Affairs regions.

Does the direct anterior approach allow earlier recovery of walking following total hip arthroplasty? A randomized prospective trial using accelerometry.

Orthop Traumatol Surg

In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the anterior approach is attractive, being intermuscular, with theoretic functional benefit. Such benefit has been frequently claimed, but there are few data from randomized comparative studies using more precise metrics than patient satisfaction. We therefore conducted a randomized trial comparing early functional results between anterior and posterior approaches on gait analysis and functional scores.

The study hypothesis was that there is no difference between the two approaches in terms of early recovery of walking.

II, low-power prospective randomized study.

One hundred patients were randomized to the anterior approach (AA: n=50) and posterior approach (PA: n=50) groups. Hospital stay was comparable between groups: PA, 2.8±1.78 days [range, 2.29-3.31 days]; AA, 2.84±1.25 days [range, 2.48-3.2 days] (p=0.8). Operative time was significantly longer in AA: 70.1±11 minutes vs. 56.7±11.79 (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in locomotor parameters (p 0.122 to 0.987) or functional scores (p 0.052 to 0.968) over the 3-month follow-up. There was no difference in cup inclination: PA, 39.6±6.87° [range, 37.65-41.55°] vs. AA, 37.74±4.2° [range, 36.55-38.93°] (p=0.09). There were 8/50 cases (16%) of neurapraxia of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh in the AA group; rates for other complications did not differ between groups.

Early functional results and especially objective locomotor parameters following THA were comparable between anterior and posterior approaches at 3 to 12 weeks. The approach should be chosen according to the surgeon's experience.

The 45 degrees arthroscope: A forgotten scope in knee surgery.

Orthop Traumatol Surg

The majority of knee arthroscopic procedures are performed with 30° scope while the 70° arthroscope is mainly used for surgery of posterior compart...

What factors predict ceramic liner malseating after ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty?

Orthop Traumatol Surg

There is a lack of evidence about the risk factors associated with the malseating of the acetabular liner after ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) total hip arthroplasty (THA). Therefore, we performed a complementary retrospective case-control study to determine the factors predicting the malseating of the acetabular liner after CoC THA and to evaluate the relationship between malseating and (1) osteoarthritis, (2) particularly in terms of the new radiographic parameter "bone sclerotic length" of the acetabular bone.

Osteoarthritis, particularly bone sclerotic length, was an independent risk factor for malseating of ceramic liners.

Case control study III, case control retrospective design.

Preoperative less hip flexion (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), osteoarthritis (HR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.02-9.70) and the bone sclerotic length (HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.35-2.48) were independent risk factors determining the malseating of ceramic liners. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a bone sclerotic length of 24.6mm was defined as the cut-off point for the malseating of the ceramic liner.

Age, preoperative less flextion, osteoarthritis, and the bone sclerotic were independent risk factors determining malseating of ceramic liners. The acetabular shell can also deform upon insertion of the cup with sclerotic bone of the acetabulum and prevent correct seating of liners. Therefore, these factors must be taken into consideration when seating the ceramic liner.

Morphological changes in the femoral and tibial bone tunnels after anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a calcium phosphate-hybridized tendon graft in 2years of follow-up.

Orthop Traumatol Surg

A calcium phosphate (CaP)-hybridized tendon graft improves tendon-to-bone healing. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the progression of morphological changes in the femoral and tibial bone tunnels after anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the CaP-hybridized tendon graft versus an untreated tendon graft during 2 years of follow-up.

We hypothesized that the CaP-hybridized tendon graft would prevent the progression of bone tunnel enlargement compared with the untreated tendon graft.

Level II, Low-powered prospective randomized trial.

In the CaP group, the femoral bone tunnel did not expand during 2 years of follow-up. In the conventional group, the femoral bone tunnel diameters at postoperative 1 year and 2 years were enlarged compared with postoperative 1 week, and the proximal and distal walls of the femoral bone tunnel shifted proximally and distally, respectively. The femoral bone tunnel in the CaP group was smaller than that in the conventional group at 1 year postoperatively. Although the tibial bone tunnels expanded for up to 1 year postoperatively in both groups, the expanded bone tunnel reduced during 2 years of follow-up only in the CaP group.

In anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, the femoral bone tunnel in the CaP group did not expand or progress with time compared with the conventional group, while the tibial bone tunnel in the CaP group expanded for up to 1 year postoperatively and then reduced for up to 2 years postoperatively. The CaP-hybridized tendon can prevent the progression of bone tunnel enlargement.

Induced membrane technique in the treatment of infectious bone defect: A clinical analysis.

Orthop Traumatol Surg

At present, it is still a challenge for repairing a wide range of bone defect caused by various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of induced membrane technique in the treatment of infectious bone defect.

The clinical data of twenty-one patients with infectious bone defect that received induced membrane technique treatment from January 2008 to August 2017 were collected for this study. The complications were recorded, and the bone defect healing and the recovery of joint function were evaluated by Paley method. The adjacent joint activities were also evaluated.

One month after the first stage of surgery, one case had wound dehiscence, and others healed well without infection. Six cases had induced membrane injury during the second stage of surgery, and 4 of them received induced membrane wrapping reconstruction. At the last follow-up, bone defect healing was excellent, the joint function was restored (the rate of excellent and good was 90.5%). The joint range of motion recovered well and the rate of excellent and good was 81.0%.

Induction membrane technique in the treatment of infectious bone defect has advantages of simple operation, rapid healing of bone defects, and low recurrence rate of infection.

Experiences with using e-learning tools in orthopedics in an uncontrolled field study application.

Orthop Traumatol Surg

E-learning is widely used in undergraduate medical education and often in blended learning settings for students learning at home. This study should assess the educative value of e-learning tools in orthopedics and traumatology when used under "field" conditions, in comparison with a controlled laboratory-like setting.

III, case-control study.

Among 84 included UCS students and 130 RCT students, podcast learners showed a significantly higher gain of knowledge compared to text learners independent of the learning setting (UCS p<0.011; RCT p<0.001). There were no significant differences in the gain of knowledge for the two different learning tools when comparing each the UCS and RCT settings. Evaluations showed positive ratings for both tools, while podcasts were on the average rated higher than texts were. Significantly more UCS participants (n=46) compared to the RCT (n=34) showed signs of disengagement with the study (p<0.05).

The findings suggest that it is possible to achieve a similar gain of knowledge with e-learning tools in uncontrolled settings and in RCTs. The role of e-learning materials in voluntary and formative learning settings is of value and should be explored in future studies.

Autologous Conditioned Plasma for tendon healing following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Prospective comparative assessment with magnetic resonance arthrography at 6 months' follow-up.

Orthop Traumatol Surg

Despite improvements in technique and materials for rotator cuff repair, mean re-tear rates remain close to 30%. The aim of the present study was to assess injection of Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP™, Arthrex) for tendon healing after arthroscopic repair. The study hypothesis was that ACP™ improves the tendon-healing rate.

III; case-control study.

Two of the 58 patients refused MR arthrography and 7 were lost to follow-up. Forty-nine patients (26 ACP™, 23 controls) were analyzed: 20 male, 29 female; mean age, 61±7.3 years. There were no significant intergroup differences in healing rate at 6 months (ACP™ 73.1% vs. 78.3% controls; p=0.75), shoulder pain (2±1.8 vs. 2.6±1.7, respectively; p=0.24), or Constant score (77±13.5/100 vs. 72.4±12.3, respectively; p=0.18).

Associating ACP™ did not improve healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Sample size, however, had been calculated for a large expected difference, leading to lack of power.