The latest medical research on Orthopaedic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about orthopaedic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Bariatric Surgery and Long-term Survival in Patients With Obesity and End-stage Kidney Disease.

JAMA Surgery

Obesity rates in patients with end-stage kidney disease are rising, contribute to excess morbidity, and limit access to kidney transplant. Despite this, there continues to be controversy around the use of bariatric surgery in this patient population.

To determine whether bariatric surgery is associated with improvement in long-term survival among patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease.

Retrospective cohort study and secondary analysis of previously collected data from the United States Renal Data System registry (2006-2015). We used Cox proportional hazards analysis to evaluate differences in outcomes for patients receiving bariatric surgery (n = 1597) compared with a matched cohort of nonsurgical patients (n = 4750) receiving usual care. Data were analyzed between September 3, 2019, and November 13, 2019.

Receipt of bariatric surgery.

All-cause mortality at 5 years. Secondary outcomes included disease-specific mortality and incidence of kidney transplant.

Surgical and nonsurgical control patients had similar age, demographics, and comorbid disease burden. The mean (SD) age was 49.8 (11.2) years for surgical patients vs 51.7 (11.1) years for nonsurgical patients. Six hundred fifteen surgical patients (38.5%) were black vs 1833 nonsurgical patients (38.6%). Surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality at 5 years compared with usual care (cumulative incidence, 25.6% vs 39.8%; hazard ratio, 0.69, 95% CI, 0.60-0.78). This was driven by lower mortality from cardiovascular causes at 5 years for patients undergoing bariatric surgery compared with nonsurgical control patients (cumulative incidence, 8.4% vs 17.2%; hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.65). Bariatric surgery was also associated with an increase in kidney transplant at 5 years (cumulative incidence, 33.0% vs 20.4%; hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09). However, at 1 year, bariatric surgery was associated with higher all-cause mortality compared with usual care (cumulative incidence, 8.6% vs 7.7%; hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.85).

Among patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease, bariatric surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality compared with usual care. Bariatric surgery was also associated with an increase in kidney transplant. Bariatric surgery may warrant further consideration in the treatment of patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease.

Gastrointestinal Complications After Pancreatoduodenectomy With Epidural vs Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Morbidity is still high in pancreatic surgery, driven mainly by gastrointestinal complications such as pancreatic fistula. Perioperative thoracic epidural analgesia (EDA) and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) are frequently used for pain control after pancreatic surgery. Evidence from a post hoc analysis suggests that PCIA is associated with fewer gastrointestinal complications.

To determine whether postoperative PCIA decreases the occurrence of gastrointestinal complications after pancreatic surgery compared with EDA.

In this adaptive, pragmatic, international, multicenter, superiority randomized clinical trial conducted from June 30, 2015, to October 1, 2017, 371 patients at 9 European pancreatic surgery centers who were scheduled for elective pancreatoduodenectomy were randomized to receive PCIA (n = 185) or EDA (n = 186); 248 patients (124 in each group) were analyzed. Data were analyzed from February 22 to April 25, 2019, using modified intention to treat and per protocol.

Patients in the PCIA group received general anesthesia and postoperative PCIA with intravenous opioids with the help of a patient-controlled analgesia device. In the EDA group, patients received general anesthesia and intraoperative and postoperative EDA.

The primary end point was a composite of pancreatic fistula, bile leakage, delayed gastric emptying, gastrointestinal bleeding, or postoperative ileus within 30 days after surgery. Secondary end points included 30-day mortality, other complications, postoperative pain levels, intraoperative or postoperative use of vasopressor therapy, and fluid substitution.

Among the 248 patients analyzed (147 men; mean [SD] age, 64.9 [10.7] years), the primary composite end point did not differ between the PCIA group (61 [49.2%]) and EDA group (57 [46.0%]) (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.71-1.95 P = .54). Neither individual components of the primary end point nor 30-day mortality, postoperative pain levels, or intraoperative and postoperative substitution of fluids differed significantly between groups. Patients receiving EDA gained more weight by postoperative day 4 than patients receiving PCIA (mean [SD], 4.6 [3.8] vs 3.4 [3.6] kg; P = .03) and received more vasopressors (46 [37.1%] vs 31 [25.0%]; P = .04). Failure of EDA occurred in 23 patients (18.5%).

This study found that the choice between PCIA and EDA for pain control after pancreatic surgery should not be based on concerns regarding gastrointestinal complications because the 2 procedures are comparable with regard to effectiveness and safety. However, EDA was associated with several shortcomings.

German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00007784.

Association of Video Completed by Audio in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy With Improvements in Operative Reporting.

JAMA Surgery

All events that transpire during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) cannot be adequately reproduced in the operative note. Video recording is already known to add important information regarding this operation.

It is hypothesized that additional audio recordings can provide an even better procedural understanding by capturing the surgeons' considerations.

The Simultaneous Video and Audio Recording of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Procedures (SONAR) trial is a multicenter prospective observational trial conducted in the Netherlands in which operators were requested to dictate essential steps of LC. Elective LCs of patients 18 years and older were eligible for inclusion. Data collection occurred from September 18, 2018, to November 13, 2018.

Adequacy rates for video recordings and operative note were compared. Adequacy was defined as the competent depiction of a surgical step and expressed as the number of adequate steps divided by the total applicable steps for all cases. In case of discrepancies, in which a step was adequately observed in the video recording but inadequately reported in the operative note, an expert panel analyzed the added value of the audio recording to resolve the discrepancy.

A total of 79 patients (49 women [62.0%]; mean [SD] age, 54.3 [15.9] years) were included. Video recordings resulted in higher adequacy for the inspection of the gallbladder (note, 39 of 79 cases [49.4%] vs video, 79 of 79 cases [100%]; P < .001), the inspection of the liver condition (note, 17 of 79 [21.5%] vs video, 78 of 79 cases [98.7%]; P < .001), and the circumferential dissection of the cystic duct and the cystic artery (note, 25 of 77 [32.5%] vs video, 62 of 77 [80.5%]; P < .001). The total adequacy was higher for the video recordings (note, 849 of 1089 observations [78.0%] vs video, 1005 of 1089 observations [92.3%]; P < .001). In the cases of discrepancies between video and note, additional audio recordings lowered discrepancy rates for the inspection of the gallbladder (without audio, 40 of 79 cases [50.6%] vs with audio, 17 of 79 cases [21.5%]; P < .001), the inspection of the liver condition (without audio, 61 of 79 [77.2%] vs with audio, 37 of 79 [46.8%]; P < .001), the circumferential dissection of the cystic duct and the cystic artery (without audio, 43 of 77 cases [55.8%] vs with audio, 17 of 77 cases [22.1%]; P < .001), and similarly for the removal of the first accessory trocar (without audio, 27 of 79 [34.2%] vs with audio, 16 of 79 [20.3%]; P = .02), the second accessory trocar (without audio, 24 of 79 [30.4%] vs with audio, 11 of 79 [13.9%]; P < .001), and the third accessory trocar (without audio, 27 of 79 [34.2%] vs with audio, 14 of 79 [17.7%]; P < .001). The total discrepancy was lower with audio adjustment (without audio, 254 of 1089 observations [23.3%] vs with audio, 128 of 1089 observations [11.8%]; P < .001).

Audio recording during LC significantly improves the adequacy of depicting essential surgical steps and exhibits lower discrepancies between video and operative note.

Association of Mentorship and a Formal Robotic Proficiency Skills Curriculum With Subsequent Generations' Learning Curve and Safety for Robotic Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

JAMA Surgery

Learning curves are unavoidable for practicing surgeons when adopting new technologies. However, patient outcomes are worse in the early stages of a learning curve vs after mastery. Therefore, it is critical to find a way to decrease these learning curves without compromising patient safety.

To evaluate the association of mentorship and a formal proficiency-based skills curriculum with the learning curves of 3 generations of surgeons and to determine the association with increased patient safety.

All consecutive robotic pancreaticoduodenectomies (RPDs) performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2008 and 2017 were included in this study. Surgeons were split into generations based on their access to mentorship and a proficiency-based skills curriculum. The generations are (1) no mentorship or curriculum, (2) mentorship but no curriculum, and (3) mentorship and curriculum. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to create risk-adjusted learning curves by surgical generation and to analyze factors associated with operating room time, complications, and fellows completing the full resection. The participants include surgical oncology attending surgeons and fellows who participated in an RPD at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2008 and 2017.

The primary outcome was operating room time (ORT). Secondary outcomes were postoperative pancreatic fistula and Clavien-Dindo classification higher than grade 2.

We identified 514 RPDs completed between 2008 and 2017, of which 258 (50.2%) were completed by first-generation surgeons, 151 (29.3%) were completed by the second generation, and 82 (15.9%) were completed by the third generation. There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to age (66.3-67.3 years; P = .52) or female sex (n = 34 [41.5%] vs n = 121 [46.9%]; P = .60). There was a significant decrease in ORT (P < .001), from 450.8 minutes for the first-generation surgeons to 348.6 minutes for the third generation. Additionally, across generations, Clavien-Dindo classification higher than grade 2 (n = 74 [28.7%] vs n = 30 [9.9%] vs n = 12 [14.6%]; P = .01), conversion rates (n = 18 [7.0%] vs n = 7 [4.6%] vs n = 0; P = .006), and estimated blood loss (426 mL vs 288.6 mL vs 254.7 mL; P < .001) decreased significantly with subsequent generations. There were no significant differences in postoperative pancreatic fistula.

In this study, ORT, conversion rates, and estimated blood loss decreased across generations without a concomitant rise in adverse patient outcomes. These findings suggest that a proficiency-based curriculum coupled with mentorship allows for the safe introduction of less experienced surgeons to RPD without compromising patient safety.

Effects of Gender Bias and Stereotypes in Surgical Training: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Factors contributing to underrepresentation of women in surgery are incompletely understood. Pro-male bias and stereotype threat appear to contribute to gender imbalance in surgery.

To evaluate the association between pro-male gender bias and career engagement and the effect of stereotype threat on skill performance among trainees in academic surgery.

A 2-phase study with a double-blind, randomized clinical trial component was conducted in 3 academic general surgery training programs. Residents were recruited between August 1 and August 15, 2018, and the study was completed at the end of that academic year. In phase 1, surveys administered 5 to 6 months apart investigated the association of gender bias with career engagement. In phase 2, residents were randomized 1:1 using permuted-block design stratified by site, training level, and gender to receive either a trigger of or protection against stereotype threat. Immediately after the interventions, residents completed the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) assessment followed by a final survey. A total of 131 general surgery residents were recruited; of these 96 individuals with academic career interests met eligibility criteria; 86 residents completed phase 1. Eighty-five residents were randomized in phase 2, and 4 residents in each arm were lost to follow-up.

Residents read abstracts that either reported that women had worse laparoscopic skill performance than men (trigger of stereotype threat [A]) or had no difference in performance (protection against stereotype threat [B]).

Association between perception of pro-male gender bias and career engagement survey scores (phase 1) and stereotype threat intervention and FLS scores (phase 2) were the outcomes. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted.

Seventy-seven residents (38 women [49.4%]) completed both phases of the study. The association between pro-male gender bias and career engagement differed by gender (interaction coefficient, -1.19; 95% CI, -1.90 to -0.49; P = .02); higher perception of bias was associated with higher engagement among men (coefficient, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.19-2.24; P = .04), but no significant association was observed among women (coefficient, -0.25; 95% CI, -1.59 to 1.08; P = .50). There was no evidence of a difference in FLS score between interventions (mean [SD], A: 395 [150] vs B: 367 [157]; P = .51). The response to stereotype threat activation was similar in men and women (interaction coefficient, 15.1; 95% CI, -124.5 to 154.7; P = .39). The association between stereotype threat activation and FLS score differed by gender across levels of susceptibility to stereotype threat (interaction coefficient, -35.3; 95% CI, -47.0 to -23.6; P = .006). Higher susceptibility to stereotype threat was associated with lower FLS scores among women who received a stereotype threat trigger (coefficient, -43.4; 95% CI, -48.0 to -38.9; P = .001).

Perception of pro-male bias and gender stereotypes may influence career engagement and skill performance, respectively, among surgical trainees.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03623009.

Quantifying Sex-Based Disparities in Liver Allocation.

JAMA Surgery

Differences in local organ supply and demand have introduced geographic inequities in the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score-based liver allocation system, prompting national debate and patient-initiated lawsuits. No study to our knowledge has quantified the sex disparities in allocation associated with clinical vs geographic characteristics.

To estimate the proportion of sex disparity in wait list mortality and deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) associated with clinical and geographic characteristics.

This retrospective cohort study used adult (age ≥18 years) liver-only transplant listings reported to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network from June 18, 2013, through March 1, 2018.

Liver transplant waiting list.

Primary outcomes included wait list mortality and DDLT. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed, and inverse odds ratio weighting was used to estimate the proportion of disparity across geographic location, MELD score, and candidate anthropometric and liver measurements.

Among 81 357 adults wait-listed for liver transplant only, 36.1% were women (mean [SD] age, 54.7 [11.3] years; interquartile range, 49.0-63.0 years) and 63.9% were men (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [10.1] years; interquartile range, 51.0-63.0 years). Compared with men, women were 8.6% more likely to die while on the waiting list (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) and were 14.4% less likely to receive a DDLT (aHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.84-0.88). In the geographic domain, organ procurement organization was the only variable that was significantly associated with increased disparity between female sex and wait list mortality (22.1% increase; aHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.30); no measure of the geographic domain was associated with DDLT. Laboratory and allocation MELD scores were associated with increases in disparities in wait list mortality: 1.14 (95% CI, 1.09-1.19; 50.1% increase among women) and DDLT: 0.87 (95% CI, 0.86-0.88; 10.3% increase among women). Candidate anthropometric and liver measurements had the strongest association with disparities between men and women in wait list mortality (125.8% increase among women) and DDLT (49.0% increase among women).

Our findings suggest that addressing geographic disparities alone may not mitigate sex-based disparities, which were associated with the inability of the MELD score to accurately estimate disease severity in women and to account for candidate anthropometric and liver measurements in this study.

Clinical Efficacy of Combined Surgical Patient Safety System and the World Health Organization's Checklists in Surgery: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Checklists have been shown to improve patient outcomes in surgery. The intraoperatively used World Health Organization surgical safety checklist (WHO SSC) is now mandatory in many countries. The only evidenced checklist to address preoperative and postoperative care is the Surgical Patient Safety System (SURPASS), which has been found to be effective in improving patient outcomes. To date, the WHO SSC and SURPASS have not been studied jointly within the perioperative pathway.

To investigate the association of combined use of the preoperative and postoperative SURPASS and the WHO SSC in perioperative care with morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay.

In a stepped-wedge cluster nonrandomized clinical trial, the preoperative and postoperative SURPASS checklists were implemented in 3 surgical departments (neurosurgery, orthopedics, and gynecology) in a Norwegian tertiary hospital, serving as their own controls. Three surgical units offered additional parallel controls. Data were collected from November 1, 2012, to March 31, 2015, including surgical procedures without any restrictions to patient age. Data were analyzed from September 25, 2018, to March 29, 2019.

Individualized preoperative and postoperative SURPASS checklists were added to the intraoperative WHO SSC.

Primary outcomes were in-hospital complications, emergency reoperations, unplanned 30-day readmissions, and 30-day mortality. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay (LOS).

In total, 9009 procedures (5601 women [62.2%]; mean [SD] patient age, 51.7 [22.2] years) were included, with 5117 intervention procedures (mean [SD] patient age, 51.8 [22.4] years; 2913 women [56.9%]) compared with 3892 controls (mean [SD] patient age, 51.5 [21.8] years; 2688 women [69.1%]). Parallel control units included 9678 procedures (mean [SD] patient age, 57.4 [22.2] years; 4124 women [42.6%]). In addition to the WHO SSC, adjusted analyses showed that adherence to the preoperative SURPASS checklists was associated with reduced complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.98; P = .04) and reoperations (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.76; P = .004). Adherence to the postoperative SURPASS checklists was associated with decreased readmissions (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64; P = .001). No changes were observed in mortality or LOS. In parallel control units, complications increased (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; P = .04), whereas reoperations, readmissions, and mortality remained unchanged.

In this nonrandomized clinical trial, adding preoperative and postoperative SURPASS to the WHO SSC was associated with a reduction in the rate of complications, reoperations, and readmissions.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01872195.

Risk of Emergency Surgery or Death After Initial Nonoperative Management of Complicated Diverticulitis in Scotland and Switzerland.

JAMA Surgery

National guidelines on interval resection for prevention of recurrence after complicated diverticulitis are inconsistent. Although US and German guidelines favor interval colonic resection to prevent a perceived high risk of recurrence, UK guidelines do not.

To investigate patient management and outcomes after an index inpatient episode of nonoperatively managed complicated diverticulitis in Switzerland and Scotland and determine whether interval resection was associated with the rate of disease-specific emergency surgery or death in either country.

This secondary analysis of anonymized complete national inpatient data sets included all patients with an inpatient episode of successfully nonoperatively managed complicated diverticulitis in Switzerland and Scotland from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015. The 2 countries have contrasting health care systems: Switzerland is insurance funded, while Scotland is state funded. Statistical analysis was conducted from February 1, 2018, to October 17, 2019.

The primary end point defined a priori before the analysis was adverse outcome, defined as any disease-specific emergency surgical intervention or inpatient death after the initial successful nonsurgical inpatient management of an episode of complicated diverticulitis, including complications from interval elective surgery.

The study cohort comprised 13 861 inpatients in Switzerland (6967 women) and 5129 inpatients in Scotland (2804 women) with an index episode of complicated acute diverticulitis managed nonoperatively. The primary end point was observed in 698 Swiss patients (5.0%) and 255 Scottish patients (5.0%) (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81-1.19). Elective interval colonic resection was undertaken in 3280 Swiss patients (23.7%; median follow-up, 53 months [interquartile range, 24-90 months]) and 231 Scottish patients (4.5%; median follow-up, 57 months [interquartile range, 27-91 months]). Death after urgent readmission for recurrent diverticulitis occurred in 104 patients (0.8%) in Switzerland and 65 patients (1.3%) in Scotland. None of the investigated confounders had a significant association with the outcome apart from comorbidity.

This study found no difference in the rate of adverse outcome (emergency surgery and/or inpatient death) despite a 5-fold difference in interval resection rates.

Postoperative Mortality of Indigenous Populations Compared With Nonindigenous Populations: A Systematic Review.

JAMA Surgery

A range of factors have been identified as possible contributors to racial/ethnic differences in postoperative mortality that are also likely to hold true for indigenous populations. Yet despite its severity as an outcome, death in the period following a surgical procedure is underresearched for indigenous populations.

To describe postoperative mortality experiences for minority indigenous populations compared with numerically dominant nonindigenous populations and examine the factors that drive any differences observed.

This review was conducted according to PRIMSA guidelines and registered on PROSPERO. Articles were identified through searches of the Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases, with manual review of references and gray literature searches conducted. Eligible articles included those that reported associations between ethnicity/indigeneity and mortality up to 90 days following surgery and published in English between January 1, 1990, and March 26, 2019. Data on the study design, setting, participants (including indigeneity), and results were extracted. A modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to determine study quality.

A total of 442 abstracts were screened, 92 articles were reviewed in full text, and 21 articles (from 20 studies) and 7 reports underwent data extraction. All included studies were cohort studies (3 prospective and the remainder retrospective) investigating a wide range of surgical procedures in the US, Australia, or New Zealand. Seven studies were from single facilities, while the remainder used data from national databases. Sample sizes ranged, with indigenous sample sizes ranging from 20 to 3052 patients and a number of studies reporting less than 10 indigenous deaths. The postoperative mortality experience for minority indigenous populations compared with the nonindigenous populations was mixed. There was evidence from several studies that indigenous populations may be more likely to die following cardiac procedures. However, the available evidence has overall poor study quality, with methods to identify the indigenous populations being a major limitation of most of the studies.

Postoperative mortality experiences for indigenous populations should not be interpreted in isolation from the broader context of inequities across the health care pathway and must take into account the quality of data used for indigenous identification.

Association of Surgical Skill Assessment With Clinical Outcomes in Cancer Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Complex surgical interventions are inherently prone to variation yet they are not objectively measured. The reasons for outcome differences following cancer surgery are unclear.

To quantify surgical skill within advanced laparoscopic procedures and its association with histopathological and clinical outcomes.

This analysis of data and video from the Australasian Laparoscopic Cancer of Rectum (ALaCaRT) and 2-dimensional/3-dimensional (2D3D) multicenter randomized laparoscopic total mesorectal excision trials, which were conducted at 28 centers in Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand, was performed from 2018 to 2019 and included 176 patients with clinical T1 to T3 rectal adenocarcinoma 15 cm or less from the anal verge. Case videos underwent blinded objective analysis using a bespoke performance assessment tool developed with a 62-international expert Delphi exercise and workshop, interview, and pilot phases.

Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision undertaken with curative intent by 34 credentialed surgeons.

Histopathological (plane of mesorectal dissection, ALaCaRT composite end point success [mesorectal fascial plane, circumferential margin, ≥1 mm; distal margin, ≥1 mm]) and 30-day morbidity. End points were analyzed using surgeon quartiles defined by tool scores.

The laparoscopic total mesorectal excision performance tool was produced and shown to be reliable and valid for the specialist level (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.832-0.926; P < .001). A substantial variation in tool scores was recorded (range, 25-48). Scores were associated with the number of intraoperative errors, plane of mesorectal dissection, and short-term patient morbidity, including the number and severity of complications. Upper quartile-scoring surgeons obtained excellent results compared with the lower quartile (mesorectal fascial plane: 93% vs 59%; number needed to treat [NNT], 2.9, P = .002; ALaCaRT end point success, 83% vs 58%; NNT, 4; P = .03; 30-day morbidity, 23% vs 50%; NNT, 3.7; P = .03).

Intraoperative surgical skill can be objectively and reliably measured in complex cancer interventions. Substantial variation in technical performance among credentialed surgeons is seen and significantly associated with clinical and pathological outcomes.

Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Surgical vs Nonsurgical Treatment of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: A Systematic Review.

JAMA Surgery

Secondary lymphedema is a debilitating complication of breast cancer therapy and affects more than 1 in 5 breast cancer survivors. Patient-reported outcomes may be more important in predicting long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than clinician-measured outcomes.

To summarize published evidence on HRQoL outcomes for vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) and complex decongestive therapy (CDT) used in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema.

A literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase was conducted to identify articles on HRQoL in patients undergoing lymphedema treatment with CDT or VLNT published from January 1980 through April 2019. Studies using validated measurement instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema relative to baseline were included. This review is reported according to the PRISMA guidelines.

A total of 16 articles were included in this review. Evidence regarding VLNT was reviewed from 2 studies involving 65 patients, and HRQoL was evaluated using the Lymphoedema Quality of Life Study questionnaire. Data on VLNT indicated favorable HRQoL outcomes at 12-month postoperative follow-up. Evidence regarding CDT was reviewed from 14 studies involving 569 patients, and HRQoL was evaluated using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Functional Living Index-Cancer measures. Data on CDT demonstrated variable association with HRQoL, and a majority of articles reported improvement in at least 1 subscale. The use of diverse patient-reported outcome measures and variability in CDT protocol limited interpretation of results in this population and between treatment modalities.

According to this review, in deciding among breast cancer-related lymphedema treatment modalities, HRQoL outcomes are an important consideration that cannot be compared based on currently available data. Health-related quality-of-life outcomes obtained through coordinated use of preference-based health utility measures may be required to compare outcomes among patients undergoing surgical and nonsurgical treatments of breast cancer-related lymphedema. Additional studies are needed to better understand the best lymphedema treatment options and direct evidence-based care.

Association of the Risk of a Venous Thromboembolic Event in Emergency vs Elective General Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Trauma patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), partly because of greater inflammation. However, it is unknown if this association is present in patients who undergo emergency general surgery (EGS).

To investigate whether emergency case status is independently associated with VTE compared with elective case status and to test the hypothesis that emergency cases would have a higher risk of VTE.

This retrospective cohort study used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2016, for all cholecystectomies, ventral hernia repairs (VHRs), and partial colectomies (PCs) to obtain a sample of commonly encountered emergency procedures that have elective counterparts. Emergency surgeries were then compared with elective surgeries. The dates of analysis were January 1 to 31, 2019.

The primary outcome was VTE at 30 days. A multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, body mass index, bleeding disorder, disseminated cancer, laparoscopy approach, and surgery type was performed.

There were 604 537 adults undergoing surgical procedures over 12 years (mean [SD] age, 55.3 [16.6] years; 61.4% women), including 285 847 cholecystectomies, 158 500 VHRs, and 160 190 PCs. The rate of VTE within 30 days was 1.9% for EGS and 0.8% for elective surgery, a statistically significant difference. Overall, 4607 patients (0.8%) had deep vein thrombosis, and 2648 patients (0.4%) had pulmonary embolism. A total of 6624 VTEs (1.1%) occurred in the cohort. As expected, when VTE risk was examined by surgery type, the risk increased with invasiveness (0.5% for cholecystectomy, 0.8% for VHR, and 2.4% for PC; P < .001). On multivariable analysis, EGS was independently associated with VTE (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% CI, 1.61-1.79). Also associated with VTE were open surgery (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 3.15-3.63) and PC (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.73-1.99).

In this cohort study, emergency surgery and increased invasiveness appeared to be independently associated with VTE compared with elective surgery. Further study on methods to improve VTE chemoprophylaxis is highly recommended for emergency and more extensive operations to reduce the risk of potentially lethal VTE.