The latest medical research on Orthopaedic Surgery

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Association of Treatment Inequity and Ancestry With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Survival.

JAMA Surgery

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a higher incidence and worse outcomes among black patients than white patients, potentially owing to a combination of socioeconomic, biological, and treatment differences. The role that these differences play remains unknown.

To determine the level of survival disparity between black and white patients in a modern PDAC cohort and whether treatment inequity is associated with such a disparity.

This cohort study used data on 278 936 patients with PDAC with database-defined race from the National Cancer Database from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2015. The median follow-up for censored patients was 24 months. The National Cancer Database, comprising academic and community facilities, includes about 70% of new cancer diagnoses in the United States. Race-stratified receipt of therapy was the primary variable of interest. Multivariable analyses included additional demographic and clinical parameters. Data analysis was initially completed on November 30, 2018, and revised data analysis was completed on June 27, 2019.

Overall survival was the primary outcome, analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.

The cohort included 278 936 patients (137 121 women and 141 815 men; mean [SD] age, 68.72 [11.57] years); after excluding patients from other racial categories, 243 820 of the 278 936 patients (87.4%) were white and 35 116 of the 278 936 patients (12.6%) were black. Unadjusted median overall survival was longer for white patients than for black patients (6.6 vs 6.0 months; P < .001). Black patients presented at younger ages than white patients (15 819 of 35 116 [45.0%] vs 83 846 of 243 820 [34.4%] younger than 65 years; P < .001) and with more advanced disease (20 853 of 31 600 [66.0%] vs 135 317 of 220 224 [61.4%] with stage III or IV disease; P < .001). Black patients received fewer surgical procedures than white patients for potentially resectable stage II disease (4226 of 8097 [52.2%] vs 39 214 of 65 124 [60.2%]; P < .001) and slightly less chemotherapy for advanced disease (2756 of 4067 [67.8%] vs 17 296 of 25 227 [68.6%] for stage III disease [P = .001]; 8208 of 16 104 [51.0%] vs 58 603 of 105 616 [55.5%] for stage IV disease [P < .001]). Decreased survival for black patients persisted in multivariable modeling controlled for sociodemographic parameters (hazard ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.05]). Conversely, modeling that controlled specifically for clinical parameters such as disease stage and treatment revealed a modest survival advantage (hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96]) among black patients. Resection was the factor most strongly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.38-0.39]).

Black patients with PDAC present at younger ages and with more advanced disease than white patients, suggesting that differences in tumor biology may exist. Black patients receive less treatment stage for stage and fewer surgical procedures for resectable cancers than white patients; these findings may be only partly associated with socioeconomic differences. When disease stage and treatment were controlled for, black patients had no decrease in survival.

Association of High Mortality With Postoperative Myocardial Infarction After Major Vascular Surgery Despite Use of Evidence-Based Therapies.

JAMA Surgery

Patients undergoing vascular surgery are at high risk of postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI). Postoperative myocardial infarction is independently associated with significant risk of in-hospital mortality.

To examine the association of patient and procedural characteristics with the risk of POMI after vascular surgery and determine the association of evidence-based therapies with longer-term outcomes.

A retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data within a statewide quality improvement collaborative database between January 2012 and December 2017. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and perioperative medications were captured. Patients were grouped according to occurrence of POMI. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with POMI. The collaborative collects data from private and academic hospitals in Michigan. Patients undergoing major vascular surgery, defined as endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral bypass, carotid endarterectomy, or carotid artery stenting were included. Analysis began December 2018.

The presence of a POMI and 1-year mortality.

Of 26 231 patients identified, 16 989 (65.8%) were men and the overall mean (SD) age was 69.35 (9.89) years. A total of 410 individuals (1.6%) experienced a POMI. Factors associated with higher rates of POMI were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.032 [95% CI, 1.019-1.045]; P < .001), diabetes (OR, 1.514 [95% CI, 1.201-1.907]; P < .001), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.519 [95% CI, 1.163-1.983]; P = .002), valvular disease (OR, 1.447 [95% CI, 1.024-2.046]; P = .04), coronary artery disease (OR, 1.381 [95% CI, 1.058-1.803]; P = .02), and preoperative P2Y12 antagonist use (OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.08-1.725]; P = .009). Procedurally, open abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 4.53 [95% CI, 2.73-7.517]; P < .001) and peripheral bypass (OR, 2.375 [95% CI, 1.818-3.102]; P < .001) were associated with the highest risk of POMI. After POMI, patients were discharged and received evidence-based therapy with high fidelity, including β-blockade (296 [82.7%]) and antiplatelet therapy (336 [95.7%]). A high portion of patients with POMI were dead at 1 year compared with patients without POMI (113 [37.42%] vs 993 [5.05%]; χ2 = 589.3; P < .001).

Despite high rates of discharge with evidence-based therapies, the long-term burden of POMI is substantial, with a high mortality rate in the following year. Patients with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and valvular disease warrant additional consideration in the preoperative period. Further, aggressive strategies to treat patients who experience a POMI are needed to reduce the risk of postoperative mortality.

Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Review of a Disruptive Technology in Aortic Valve Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Medically treated symptomatic severe aortic stenosis has poor outcomes, and in the past 6 decades, it has successfully been treated with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, one-third of patients with indications for SAVR are not offered surgery because of the high risk of complications. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), initially developed as a less invasive treatment for inoperable patients, has successfully been used in healthier patient cohorts. In 2017, TAVR became the most common approach for aortic valve replacement in the United States.

During the past decade, the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER) trials (for balloon-expandable valves) and the CoreValve trials (for self-expandable valves) investigated the performance of TAVR in progressively lower-risk patient cohorts. The initial trials demonstrated TAVR to be superior (PARTNER B) and noninferior (CoreValve Extreme Risk) to optimal medical therapy in inoperable patients. Subsequent trials showed both balloon-expandable and self-expandable valves to have good results in high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk surgical patients when compared with SAVR. However, owing to the fundamentally different nature of the procedure, some complications have been more prevalent with TAVR, most notably moderate or severe paravalvular leak, conduction abnormalities necessitating permanent pacemaker placement, and vascular complications. When present, these complications have been associated with worse outcomes.

The results of the groundbreaking TAVR trials from the past decade have led to a revolution in the treatment of aortic stenosis. There are now 3 US Food and Drug Administration-approved TAVR devices, and with the encouraging results from the latest low-risk trials, TAVR is likely going to become the dominant treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. New devices on the horizon are looking to improve the complication rates of TAVR, and ongoing trials are looking to further expand the indications of TAVR and answer 1 of the main remaining questions, ie, long-term durability of percutaneously placed devices.

Effect of Cognitive Aids on Adherence to Best Practice in the Treatment of Deteriorating Surgical Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial in a Simulation Setting.

JAMA Surgery

Failure to rescue causes significant morbidity and mortality in the surgical population. Human error is often the underlying cause of failure to rescue. Human error can be reduced by the use of cognitive aids.

To test the effectiveness of cognitive aids on adherence to best practice in the management of deteriorating postoperative surgical ward patients.

Randomized clinical trial in a simulation setting. Surgical teams consisted of 1 surgeon and 2 nurses from a surgical ward from 4 different hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were analyzed between February 2, 2017, and December 18, 2018.

The teams were randomized to manage 3 simulated deteriorating patient scenarios with or without the use of cognitive aids.

The primary outcome of the study was failure to adhere to best practice, expressed as the percentage of omitted critical management steps. The secondary outcome of the study was the perceived usability of the cognitive aids.

Of the total participants, 93 were women and 51 were men. Twenty-five surgical teams performed 75 patient scenarios with cognitive aids, and 25 teams performed 75 patient scenarios without cognitive aids. Using the cognitive aids resulted in a reduction of omitted critical management steps from 33% to 10%, which is a 70% (P < .001) reduction. This effect remained significant (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, -0.228 to -0.061; P = .001) in a multivariate analysis. Overall usability (scale of 0-10) of the cognitive aids was scored at a median of 8.7 (interquartile range, 8-9).

Failure to comply with best practice management of postoperative complications is associated with worse outcomes. In this simulation study, adherence to best practice in the management of postoperative complications improves significantly by the use of cognitive aids. Cognitive aids for deteriorating surgical patients therefore have the potential to reduce failure to rescue and improve patient outcome. identifier: NCT03812861.

Long-term Functional, Psychological, Emotional, and Social Outcomes in Survivors of Firearm Injuries.

JAMA Surgery

The outcomes of firearm injuries in the United States are devastating. Although firearm mortality and costs have been investigated, the long-term outcomes after surviving a gunshot wound (GSW) remain unstudied.

To determine the long-term functional, psychological, emotional, and social outcomes among survivors of firearm injuries.

This prospective cohort study assessed patient-reported outcomes among GSW survivors from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2017, at a single urban level I trauma center. Attempts were made to contact all adult patients (aged ≥18 years) discharged alive during the study period. A total of 3088 patients were identified; 516 (16.7%) who died during hospitalization and 45 (1.5%) who died after discharge were excluded. Telephone contact was made with 263 (10.4%) of the remaining patients, and 80 (30.4%) declined study participation. The final study sample consisted of 183 participants. Data were analyzed from June 1, 2018, through June 20, 2019.

A GSW sustained from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2017.

Scores on 8 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments (Global Physical Health, Global Mental Health, Physical Function, Emotional Support, Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, Pain Intensity, Alcohol Use, and Severity of Substance Use) and the Primary Care PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) Screen for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

Of the 263 patients who survived a GSW and were contacted, 183 (69.6%) participated. Participants were more likely to be admitted to the hospital compared with those who declined (150 [82.0%] vs 54 [67.5%]; P = .01). Participants had a median time from GSW of 5.9 years (range, 4.7-8.1 years) and were primarily young (median age, 27 years [range, 21-36 years]), black (168 [91.8%]), male (169 [92.3%]), and employed before GSW (pre-GSW, 139 [76.0%]; post-GSW, 113 [62.1%]; decrease, 14.3%; P = .004). Combined alcohol and substance use increased by 13.2% (pre-GSW use, 56 [30.8%]; post-GSW use, 80 [44.0%]). Participants had mean (SD) scores below population norms (50 [10]) for Global Physical Health (45 [11]; P < .001), Global Mental Health (48 [11]; P = .03), and Physical Function (45 [12]; P < .001) PROMIS metrics. Eighty-nine participants (48.6%) had a positive screen for probable PTSD. Patients who required intensive care unit admission (n = 64) had worse mean (SD) Physical Function scores (42 [13] vs 46 [11]; P = .045) than those not requiring the intensive care unit. Survivors no more than 5 years after injury had greater PTSD risk (38 of 63 [60.3%] vs 51 of 119 [42.9%]; P = .03) but better mean (SD) Global Physical Health scores (47 [11] vs 43 [11]; P = .04) than those more than 5 years after injury.

This study's results suggest that the lasting effects of firearm injury reach far beyond mortality and economic burden. Survivors of GSWs may have negative outcomes for years after injury. These findings suggest that early identification and initiation of long-term longitudinal care is paramount.

Association of Preoperative Patient Frailty and Operative Stress With Postoperative Mortality.

JAMA Surgery

Patients with frailty have higher risk for postoperative mortality and complications; however, most research has focused on small groups of high-risk procedures. The associations among frailty, operative stress, and mortality are poorly understood.

To assess the association between frailty and mortality at varying levels of operative stress as measured by the Operative Stress Score, a novel measure created for this study.

This retrospective cohort study included veterans in the Veterans Administration Surgical Quality Improvement Program from April 1, 2010, through March 31, 2014, who underwent a noncardiac surgical procedure at Veterans Health Administration Hospitals and had information available on vital status (whether the patient was alive or deceased) at 1 year postoperatively. A Delphi consensus method was used to stratify surgical procedures into 5 categories of physiologic stress.

Frailty as measured by the Risk Analysis Index and operative stress as measured by the Operative Stress Score.

Postoperative mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days.

Of 432 828 unique patients (401 453 males [92.8%]; mean (SD) age, 61.0 [12.9] years), 36 579 (8.5%) were frail and 9113 (2.1%) were very frail. The 30-day mortality rate among patients who were frail and underwent the lowest-stress surgical procedures (eg, cystoscopy) was 1.55% (95% CI, 1.20%-1.97%) and among patients with frailty who underwent the moderate-stress surgical procedures (eg, laparoscopic cholecystectomy) was 5.13% (95% CI, 4.79%-5.48%); these rates exceeded the 1% mortality rate often used to define high-risk surgery. Among patients who were very frail, 30-day mortality rates were higher after the lowest-stress surgical procedures (10.34%; 95% CI, 7.73%-13.48%) and after the moderate-stress surgical procedures (18.74%; 95% CI, 17.72%-19.80%). For patients who were frail and very frail, mortality continued to increase at 90 and 180 days, reaching 43.00% (95% CI, 41.69%-44.32%) for very frail patients at 180 days after moderate-stress surgical procedures.

We developed a novel operative stress score to quantify physiologic stress for surgical procedures. Patients who were frail and very frail had high rates of postoperative mortality across all levels of the Operative Stress Score. These findings suggest that frailty screening should be applied universally because low- and moderate-stress procedures may be high risk among patients who are frail.

A Consensus Framework for the Humanitarian Surgical Response to Armed Conflict in 21st Century Warfare.

JAMA Surgery

Armed conflict in the 21st century poses new challenges to a humanitarian surgical response, including changing security requirements, access to patients, and communities in need, limited deployable surgical assets, resource constraints, and the requirement to address both traumatic injuries as well as emergency surgical needs of the population. At the same time, recent improvements in trauma care and systems have reduced injury-related mortality. This combination of new challenges and medical capabilities warrants reconsideration of long-standing humanitarian surgery protocols.

To describe a consensus framework for surgical care designed to respond to this emerging need.

An international group of 35 representatives from humanitarian agencies, US military, and academic trauma programs was invited to the Stanford Humanitarian Surgical Response in Conflict Working Group to engage in a structured process to review extant trauma protocols and make recommendations for revision.

The working group's method adapted core elements of a modified Delphi process combined with consensus development conference from August 3 to August 5, 2018.

Lessons from civilian and military trauma systems as well as recent battlefield experiences in humanitarian settings were integrated into a tiered continuum of response from point of injury through rehabilitation. The framework addresses the security and medical requirements as well as ethical and legal principles that guide humanitarian action. The consensus framework includes trained, lay first responders; far-forward resuscitation/stabilization centers; rapid damage control surgical access; and definitive care facilities. The system also includes nontrauma surgical care, injury prevention, quality improvement, data collection, and predeployment training requirements.

Evidence suggests that modern trauma systems save lives. However, the requirements of providing this standard of care in insecure conflict settings places new burdens on humanitarian systems that must provide both emergency and trauma surgical care. This consensus framework integrates advances in trauma care and surgical systems in response to a changing security environment. It is possible to reduce disparities and improve the standard of care in these settings.

Association of Postoperative Infection With Risk of Long-term Infection and Mortality.

JAMA Surgery

Surgical site infection has been shown to decrease survival in veterans by up to 42%. The association of 30-day postoperative infections with long-term infections in the overall surgical population remains unknown.

To determine whether exposure to 30-day postoperative infection is associated with increased incidence of infection and mortality during postoperative days 31 to 365.

In this retrospective observational cohort study, veterans undergoing major surgery through the Veterans Health Administration from January 2008 to December 2015 were included. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance baseline characteristics of the control and exposure groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of long-term infection and mortality. Data were analyzed from September 2018 to May 2019.

Any 30-day postoperative infection (exposure group) vs no 30-day infection (control group).

Number of days between index surgery and the occurrence of death or the patient's first infection during postoperative days 31 to 365. Patients who died before having a long-term infection were censored for the infection outcome.

Of the 659 486 included patients, 604 534 (91.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 59.7 (13.6) years. Among these patients, 23 815 (3.6%) had a 30-day infection, 43 796 (6.6%) had a long-term infection, and 24 810 (3.8%) died during follow-up. The most frequent 30-day infections were surgical site infection (9574 [40.2%]), urinary tract infection (6545 [27.5%]), pneumonia (3515 [14.8%]), and bloodstream infection (1906 [8.0%]). Long-term infection types included urinary tract infection (21 420 [48.7%]), skin and soft tissue infection (14 348 [32.6%]), bloodstream infection (3862 [8.8%]), and pneumonia (2543 [5.8%]). Patients in the exposure group had a higher observed incidence of long-term infection (5187 of 23 815 [21.8%]) and mortality (3067 of 23 815 [12.9%]) compared with those without 30-day infection (38 789 of 635 671 [6.1%] and 21 743 of 635 671 [3.4%], respectively). The estimated hazard ratio for long-term infection was 3.17 (95% CI, 3.05-3.28) and for mortality was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.79-1.99).

At any given point during the follow-up period, patients with 30-day postoperative infection had a 3.2-fold higher risk of 1-year infection and a 1.9-fold higher risk of mortality compared with those who had no 30-day infection. Cost-benefit calculations for surgical infection prevention programs should include the increased risk and costs of long-term infection and death. Preventive efforts in the first 30 days postoperatively may improve long-term patient outcomes.

Association of Autofluorescence-Based Detection of the Parathyroid Glands During Total Thyroidectomy With Postoperative Hypocalcemia Risk: Results of the PARAFLUO Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Because inadvertent damage of parathyroid glands can lead to postoperative hypocalcemia, their identification and preservation, which can be challenging, are pivotal during total thyroidectomy.

To determine if intraoperative imaging systems using near-infrared autofluorescence (NIRAF) light to identify parathyroid glands could improve parathyroid preservation and reduce postoperative hypocalcemia.

This randomized clinical trial was conducted from September 2016 to October 2018, with a 6-month follow-up at 3 referral hospitals in France. Adult patients who met eligibility criteria and underwent total thyroidectomy were randomized. The exclusion criteria were preexisting parathyroid diseases.

Use of intraoperative NIRAF imaging system during total thyroidectomy.

The primary outcome was the rate of postoperative hypocalcemia (a corrected calcium <8.0 mg/dL [to convert to mmol/L, multiply by 0.25] at postoperative day 1 or 2). The main secondary outcomes were the rates of parathyroid gland autotransplantation and inadvertent parathyroid gland resection.

A total of 245 of 529 eligible patients underwent randomization. Overall, 241 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome (mean [SD] age, 53.6 [13.6] years; 191 women [79.3%]): 121 who underwent NIRAF-assisted thyroidectomy and 120 who underwent conventional thyroidectomy (control group). The temporary postoperative hypocalcemia rate was 9.1% (11 of 121 patients) in the NIRAF group and 21.7% (26 of 120 patients) in the control group (between-group difference, 12.6% [95% CI, 5.0%-20.1%]; P = .007). There was no significant difference in permanent hypocalcemia rates (0% in the NIRAF group and 1.6% [2 of 120 patients] in the control group). Multivariate analyses accounting for center and surgeon heterogeneity and adjusting for confounders, found that use of NIRAF reduced the risk of hypocalcemia with an odds ratio of 0.35 (95% CI, 0.15-0.83; P = .02). Analysis of secondary outcomes showed that fewer patients experienced parathyroid autotransplantation in the NIRAF group than in the control group: respectively, 4 patients (3.3% [95% CI, 0.1%-6.6%) vs 16 patients (13.3% [95% CI, 7.3%-19.4%]; P = .009). The number of inadvertently resected parathyroid glands was significantly lower in the NIRAF group than in the control group: 3 patients (2.5% [95% CI, 0.0%-5.2%]) vs 14 patients (11.7% [95% CI, 5.9%-17.4%], respectively; P = .006).

The use of NIRAF for the identification of the parathyroid glands may help improve the early postoperative hypocalcemia rate significantly and increase parathyroid preservation after total thyroidectomy. identifier: NCT02892253.

Chondromalacia Patella among Military Recruits with Anterior Knee Pain: Prevalence and Association with Patellofemoral Malalignment.

Indian Journal of Orthopaedics

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chondromalacia patella (CMP) and to evaluate its relation with trochlear morphometric and patellofemoral alignment measurements as well as with edema in superolateral region of Hoffa's fat pad (SHFP) in military recruits with anterior knee pain (AKP).

Knee magnetic resonance imaging examinations of 288 military recruits with AKP were retrospectively evaluated. Patellar cartilage lesions were graded using modified Noyes system. Quantitative measurements of trochlear morphology (sulcus angle, trochlear sulcus depth, and lateral trochlear inclination [LTI]) and patellofemoral alignment (patellar translation [PT], lateral patellofemoral angle (LPA), Insall-Salvati index, and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance) were made. The SHFP region was assessed for the presence of edema. Mean values of measurements in knees with and without CMP and in knees with early and advanced stage CMP were compared.

We found CMP in 169 (58.7%) patients. Patients with CMP demonstrated a significantly greater sulcus angle (P = 0.012), smaller LTI (P = 0.004), greater PT (P = 0.01), smaller LPA (P = 0.036), greater Insall-Salvati ratio (P = 0.034), and higher incidence of SHFP edema (P = 0.001) compared to those without CMP. While none of the measurements were associated with the severity of cartilage damage, the incidence of SHFP edema was significantly correlated with the severity of CMP (P = 0.001).

CMP is a common disorder among military recruits with AKP. Patellofemoral malalignment is an important contributory factor in the development of CMP, and the presence of edema in SHFP may be a strong indicator of underlying severe CMP in this population.

Monofilament Cerclage Wiring Fixation with Locking Plates for Distal Femoral Fracture: Is it Appropriate?

Indian Journal of Orthopaedics

We aimed to determine the efficacy of cerclage wiring by comparing the clinical and radiological results between internal fixation with locking plates after distal femoral fracture reduction with or without cerclage wiring.

One hundred and one patients who received open reduction internal fixation for distal femoral fractures of oblique, spiral, and spiral wedge type between 2007 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Only locking plate fixation was performed in 46 patients, and locking plate fixation with additional cerclage wiring was performed in 55 patients (Group CW). Demographic, clinical, and radiologic factors were evaluated in both the groups. Age, gender, bone mineral density, bone graft, and the presence of concomitant fractures were measured as demographic factors. The range of motion of knee joint, Lysholm knee score, visual analog scale score, procedure time, and C-arm time were measured as clinical factors preoperatively and at the final followup. We also evaluated the duration of bone union and knee joint alignment radiologically.

There were no demographic differences between the two groups. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical and radiological parameters. However, the procedure time used was significantly longer in Group LP than in Group CW (108.4 vs. 95.2 min; P = 0.027). The C-arm time was longer in Group LP (2.8 vs. 1.2 s; P = 0.017).

Open reduction and locking plate fixation with additional cerclage wiring is a useful method for the reduction of complicated distal femoral fractures, without increased complications such as nonunion.

Level III, retrospective cohort design, treatment study.

Cement Pedestal Spacer Technique for Infected Two-stage Revision Knee Arthroplasty: Description and Comparison of Complications.

Indian Journal of Orthopaedics

Infection following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a significant complication, with an incidence of up to 2% in primary TKA and 4%-8% in revision cases. Two-stage revision is the gold standard treatment for long-lasting infections of TKA. The purpose of this study was to describe the cement pedestal spacer technique used in infected two-stage revision knee arthroplasty and compare complications against conventional fixed and mobile cement spacers.

A retrospective review was conducted in all cases who underwent two-stage TKA revision for infection between 2009 and 2015. These cases were separated into groups depending on the cement spacer utilized (fixed, mobile nonpedestal, and mobile spacers with cement pedestal). The cement pedestal technique involves press fitting a cement cylinder into the femur before definitive spacer insertion.

Forty four patients underwent two-stage revision TKA. Fewest complications were observed in the pedestal group, with no spacers having subluxed/tilted. The longest followup was also observed in the pedestal group (mean 52.5 months). Mobile spacers with no cement pedestal displayed the highest reinfection rate (16.7%) and the greatest number of cases with complications (malalignment, subluxation, tilting, and spacer fracture). All patients in the pedestal group were ambulatory after the first-stage revision.

The cement pedestal technique minimizes complications by optimizing component positioning and balancing. It also safely extends the indication for an articulated spacer into a set of cases with more extensive bone loss and allows for extended monitoring of inflammatory markers.