The latest medical research on Orthopaedic Surgery

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Femoral Stem Cementation in Hip Arthroplasty: The Know-How of a "Lost" Art.

Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine

To describe the (1) indications, (2) preoperative precautions, and (3) stepwise technical details of modern femoral stem cemented fixation.

Femoral stem cementation provides excellent implant longevity with a low periprosthetic fracture rate among patients with compromised bone quality or aberrant anatomy. Unfamiliarity with the details of modern cementation techniques among trainees who may lack frequent exposure to cementing femoral stems may preclude them from offering this viable option to suitable patients in later stages of their careers. As such, maximizing benefit from cemented femoral stem fixation among suitable candidates is contingent upon the meticulous use of modern cementation techniques. In addition to proper patient selection, modern cementation techniques emphasize the use of (1) pulsatile lavage of the femoral canal, (2) utilization of epinephrine-soaked swabs, (3) vacuum cement mixing, (4) retrograde cement introduction, (5) cement pressurization, and (6) the use of stem centralizers. Furthermore, identifying and optimizing the preoperative status of at-risk patients with pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise, in addition to intraoperative vigilance, are essential for mitigating the risk of developing bone cement implantation syndrome. Further research is required to assess the utility of cemented femoral stem fixation among younger patients.

Association of calcium intake, lactose intolerance and physical activity with bone health assessed via quantitative ultrasound among young adults of a Malaysian university.

Archives of Osteoporosis

Lactose intolerance has been proposed to cause poor bone health. This study found the prevalence of lactose intolerance was high among Malaysian young adults, but not associated with bone health status, unlike calcium intake. This is the first study that investigated the association of lactose intolerance and bone health status in Malaysia.

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance, calcium intake and physical activity level and to investigate the association between these variables with bone health status among young adults.

This cross-sectional study consisted of 300 Malay, Chinese and Indian students from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia with mean age of 22.5 ± 3.2 years. Determination of lactose tolerance status was performed using hydrogen breath test, lactose tolerance test and visual analogue scales. Calcium intake and physical activity level were evaluated using Food Frequency Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Bone health status was assessed on calcaneal bone, using quantitative ultrasound.

Lactose intolerance was highly reported among the Malay subjects (72%) followed by Chinese (59%) and Indians (42%). The mean calcium intake was 542.9 ± 365.2 mg/day whilst the mean physical activity was 2757.6 ± 2007.2 MET-min/week. The bone assessment showed that 91% of the subjects had a low risk of developing osteoporosis. Only calcium intake showed a significant association with bone health status (β = 0.006; p = 0.033), whilst no association was shown for lactose intolerance and physical activity level.

Malaysian young adults showed a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. Calcium intake is associated with increased bone health status. In contrast, lactose intolerance and physical activity level did not directly influence bone health status. Nutrition education promoting adequate calcium intake should be implemented among young adults due to high lactose intolerance prevalence and low calcium intake among subjects.

Hip fracture and mortality: study of specific causes of death and risk factors.

Archives of Osteoporosis

The leading causes of mortality in our study were pneumonia, diseases of the circulatory system, and dementias. In patients with hip fractures, the emphasis should be placed not only on measures to prevent falls and osteoporosis, but also on preventing functional decline and pneumonia.

To describe the specific causes of death in patients who died up to 2 years after sustaining a hip fracture, how many of those deaths were directly related to the hip fracture, and the risk factors for mortality.

A retrospective review of the clinical data of all patients admitted with hip fractures between December 2009 and September 2015. Cause of death was classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD10) RESULTS: In the first 2 years after hip fracture, 911 patients (32.7%) died. The leading causes of mortality were pneumonia 177 (19.4%), diseases of the circulatory system 146 (16%), and dementias 126 (13.9%). Thirty patients (3.2%) died from causes directly related to hip fracture or surgery. Mortality risk factors with a higher relative risk were advanced age, male sex, higher comorbidity, delirium, and medical complications during admission.

Pneumonia and circulatory system diseases were the commonest causes of death in our study. In patients with hip fractures, emphasis should be placed on preventing functional decline and pneumonia. In a few patients, death was directly related to the hip fracture, although decompensation of chronic illness as a result of hip fracture and fracture-related functional decline may have been indirect causes. Patients with worse conditions at admission had the highest risk of mortality.

Bone Disease in CKD in Children.

Calcified Tissue International

This manuscript discusses mineral and bone disorders of chronic kidney disease (MBD-CKD) in pediatric patients with special emphasis on the underly...

Security of 3D-printed polylactide acid piece sterilization in the operating room: a sterility test.

Euro Journal of Trauma and Emergency

3D-printing technology has become very popular the last 10 years, and their advantages have been widely proved. However, its safety in the operating room after sterilization has not been evaluated. Thus, the use of 3D printing is still questioned. The aim of this work is to evaluate the security of polylactic acid (PLA) to print surgical models after its sterilization.

One hundred and eighty-six PLA plates and 6 negative controls without microorganisms were seeded. After 10 days of culture, the PLA plates were randomized into three groups: A, B, and C. Group A underwent a sterilization process using an autoclave program at 134 °C. Group B was seeded in different culture media and group C was used to make crystal violet stains on the biofilms formed on the PLA. Mechanical properties of PLA after autoclave sterilization including, the breaking load, deformation and breaking load per surface were calculated.

Hundred percent of the group B showed monomicrobial growth. Stains performed on group C PLA showed biofilms in all PLA pieces. After sterilization, no pathogen growth was observed in group A during the culture observation period showing 100% sterilization effectiveness. A filling percentage of 5% obtained a breaking load of 6.36 MPa, and its elastic limit occurred after an elongation of 167.4%. A 10% infill was mechanically safe.

This is the first 3D-printing protocol described to print and sterilize 3D biomodels using an autoclave showing its biological safety and its mechanical resistance.

MIPO versus nailing for humeral shaft fractures: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomised clinical trials and observational studies.

Euro Journal of Trauma and Emergency

There is no consensus on the optimal operative technique for humeral shaft fractures. This meta-analysis aims to compare minimal-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with nail fixation for humeral shaft fractures regarding healing, complications and functional results.

PubMed/Medline/Embase/CENTRAL/CINAHL were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCT) and observational studies comparing MIPO with nailing for humeral shaft fractures. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using random effects models and presented as weighted odds ratio (OR), risk difference (RD), mean difference (MD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Analyses were repeated stratified by study design (RCTs and observational studies).

A total of 2 RCTs (87 patients) and 5 observational studies (595 patients) were included. The effects estimated in observational studies and RCTs were similar in direction and magnitude for all outcomes except operation duration. MIPO has a lower risk for non-union (RD 7%; OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) and re-intervention (RD 13%; OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8). Functional shoulder (SMD 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-1.8) and elbow scores (SMD 0.4, 95% CI 0-0.8) were better among patients treated with MIPO. The risk for radial nerve palsy following surgery was equal (RD 2%; OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.2) and nerve function recovered spontaneously in all patients in both groups. No difference was detected with regard to infection, time to union and operation duration.

MIPO has a considerable lower risk for non-union and re-intervention, leads to better shoulder function and, to a lesser extent, better elbow function compared to nailing. Although nailing appears to be a viable option, the evidence suggests that MIPO should be the preferred treatment of choice. The learning curve of minimal-invasive plating should, however, be taken into account when interpreting these results.

State of the art: proximal junctional kyphosis-diagnosis, management and prevention.

Spine Deformity

Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common problem that may occur following the surgical treatment of adult patients with spinal deformity. It ...

Gait analysis in the elderly patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

Int Orthop

This study aims to analyze the gait characteristics of the elderly patients with lumbar spinal stenosis by an intelligent device for energy expenditure and activity (IDEEA) to assist clinical work.

A total of 98 subjects were included in this study from January 2017 to December 2018. A total of 49 elderly outpatients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis in unilateral lower extremity were included as the experimental group, and another 49 healthy subjects matched with gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as the control group. The gait data of the subjects (including single support, double support, SLS/DLS, swing duration, step duration, cycle duration, pulling accel, swing power, ground impact, foot fall, foot off, push off, speed, cadence, step length, and stride length) were collected to compare between the experience group and control group, the affected leg and the healthy leg in experimental group.

The results of this study presented that small intermittent claudication occurred in all patients. The time of single support was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Double support, step duration, and pulling accel were increased (p < 0.05), and the Push off, speed, step length, and Stride length were decreased (p < 0.05) in the experimental group compared with the control group.

Small intermittent claudication was the basic gait composition of the elderly patients with lumbar spinal stenosis that can reflect the abnormal gait characteristics by IDEEA.

Mobilization versus displacement on lateral stress radiographs for determining operative fixation of minimally displaced lateral compression type I (LC1) pelvic ring injuries.

Int Orthop

Operative fixation of minimally displaced lateral compression type I (LC1) pelvic ring injuries is considered by some if the patient is unable to mobilize or displacement is seen on stress radiographs. The purpose of this study was to compare these methods of determining operative fixation.

A retrospective study of a prospectively gathered registry of LC1 injuries was performed before and after the adoption of a mobilization protocol. Fixation was considered if the patient was unable to mobilize 15 feet on the second day of admission. Prior to this protocol, all patients with displacement of ≥ 10 mm on stress radiographs were offered fixation. All patients received lateral stress radiographs (LSR), an anteroposterior pelvis radiograph in the lateral decubitus positions without sedation, to assess stability.

There were 21 and 18 patients treated under the stress radiograph and mobilization protocols. Displacement ≥ 10 mm was present in 12 (57%) and six (33%) patients in the LSR and mobilization groups. Under the mobilization protocol, patients with ≥ 10 mm of displacement on LSR all had incomplete sacral fractures and were less likely to mobilize (2 (33%) vs. 11 (92%); 95% confidence interval of the difference (CID) - 86 to - 9%). The mobilization protocol did not identify all cases of occult instability and resulted in an increased time to surgery compared to the LSR protocol (5 vs. 2 days, 95% CID 1 to 5).

Under the mobilization protocol, unstable LC1 injuries were less likely to mobilize and the time to surgery was increased.

Classification of endplate lesions in the lumbar spine and association with risk factors, biochemistry, and genetics.

European Spine Journal

To detect the associations between the degree of the endplate (EP) lesions with the presence of risk factors, biochemical and genetic markers previously observed in low back pain (LBP) patients with EP defects in comparison with hernia/discopathy patients and healthy controls.

In this observational retrospective study, T2-weighted sagittal MRI images (n = 223 LBP patients) were scored for EP lesions by two independent observers. Total MRI score and number of affected levels (L1/L2-L5/S1) have been considered for the correlation with demographic, behavioral, clinical, biochemical (25(OH)D, CTx-I and CTx-II levels, n = 69 males) and VDR variables.

Males showed higher BMI and total MRI score than females. Patients bearing TT compared to tt VDR genotypes showed significant higher total MRI scores. Among males (n = 125), TT, bb and aa genotypes showed increased total MRI scores. Higher total MRI score directly correlates with higher levels of CTx-I and CTx-II (n = 69 males).

The markers previously identified as associated with the presence of EP lesions have been confirmed as related to their severity and could be used to follow the pathology progression.

Natural ghrelin in advanced cancer patients with cachexia, a case series.

Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

Natural ghrelin, a peptide growth hormone secretagogue, has a therapeutic potential in cachexia. We designed a dose-finding trial of subcutaneous natural ghrelin to improve nutritional intake (NI) in advanced cancer patients.

Advanced cancer patients with cachexia management (symptom management, physiotherapy, nutritional, and psychosocial support) started with ghrelin at 32 μg/kg body weight, followed by 50% dose increases. Patients self-injected ghrelin twice daily for 4 days followed by a wash-out period. After reaching the primary endpoint, maximal NI (minimal dose for maximal NI), a maintenance period followed during which patients injected 10 doses of ghrelin per week. Safety parameters, NI, and cachexia outcomes (symptoms, narratives, muscle mass, and strength) were measured over 6 weeks.

Ten patients with metastatic solid tumours were included, and six (100% male, mean age 61.8 ± 8.5 SD) received ghrelin. Minimal dose for maximal NI was reached in four patients. Three patients reached the end-of study visit. Ghrelin was well tolerated with variable results on appetite and eating-related symptoms but a positive effect in the narratives. Mean Functional Assessment of Appetite & Cachexia Therapy score was 6.8 points lower at final measurement compared with baseline, t(5) = 5.98, P < .01. Muscle mass was stable in two patients and increased in one patient, and muscle strength was stable in three patients. Subjective tolerability was high. Patients showed a fluctuating trajectory, and median survival was 88 days (51-412 days).

Ghrelin was safe in advanced patients with cancer cachexia without dose-limiting toxicity and well tolerated. The intervention was very complex, and the number of patients included was small. There was a positive effect on nutritional intake and patient narratives.

Short- and Intermediate-Term Results of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

Foot and Ankle International

Earlier randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported only midterm (3-4 months) results of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) as a treatment for noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy (NAT). This study compared the effectiveness of an eccentric loading program followed by stretching exercises combined with ESWT (study group) or sham ESWT (control group) for treating chronic NAT in both the short and long term.

This double-blind RCT was conducted between 2018 and 2020. Adult patients with unilateral NAT who failed standard conservative treatment were randomly allocated to either group. Function and pain were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 16 months using the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire (VISA-A) and visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. Mixed-design analysis of variance and nonparametric statistics were performed. Twenty-two men and 28 women aged 18 to 40 years were allocated into 2 equally matched groups.

Function and pain scores in the study group were not significantly different from control group scores at baseline (VISA-A: 22.2 ± 6.5 vs 21.0 ± 5.2 and VAS: 8 ± 1 vs 8 ± 1, respectively). Both groups significantly improved posttreatment (VISA-A: 85 ± 6.2 vs 53.4 ± 7.7 and VAS: 1 ± 2 vs 7 ± 2, respectively). At the 16-month follow-up, outcome scores declined slightly but significantly in the study group (VISA-A: 80 ± 5.3; VAS: 3 ± 2) and improved in the control group (VISA-A: 67 ± 5.6; VAS: 5 ± 1). However, both groups were significantly better than baseline. At both time points, the study group had significantly superior scores (statistically and clinically) than the control group (P = .0001).

Combining calf eccentric loading with stretching exercises resulted in significant improvements in the pain and functional scores in patients with NAT. Adding ESWT to this combined protocol resulted in significantly greater improvements in both the short and long term.

Level I, randomized controlled trial.