The latest medical research on Transplant

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about transplant gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Contribution of diafiltration and adsorption to vancomycin clearance in a continuous hemodiafiltration circuit model in vitro.

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Vancomycin (VCM) is eliminated mainly by diafiltration under continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF), but the contribution of adsorption to CHDF clearance (CLCHDF ) of VCM using a polyacrylonitrile and sodium methallyl sulfonate copolymer membrane coated with polyethylenimine (AN69ST) or a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) membrane is unknown. This study sought to investigate the contribution of diafiltration and adsorption to the CLCHDF of VCM using AN69ST and PMMA membranes in vitro.

An in vitro CHDF circuit model was developed. The initial concentration of VCM was 50 μg/mL and human serum albumin (HSA) was prepared at a concentration of 0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/dL. The effluent flow rate (Qe) was set at 800, 1500, or 3000 mL/h. The CLCHDF , diafiltration rate, and adsorption rate of VCM were calculated.

Total CLCHDF of VCM using the AN69ST membrane increased and decreased with increasing Qe and HSA concentration, respectively. Diafiltration and adsorption rates were 82.1 ± 9.8% and 12.1 ± 6.1% under all conditions, respectively. Total CLCHDF using the PMMA membrane increased with increasing Qe. Diafiltration and adsorption rates were 89.2 ± 20.4% and 4.6 ± 17.0% under all conditions, respectively. The observed CLCHDF values significantly correlated with the predicted CLCHDF , calculated according to a previous study as the product of Qe and the plasma unbound fraction.

Diafiltration predominantly contributed to CLCHDF of VCM using AN69ST and PMMA membranes. When diafiltration rather than adsorption mainly contributes to the CLCHDF of VCM, the CLCHDF could be predicted from the Qe and HSA concentration, at least in vitro.

The Hemodynamics of Small Arterial Return Cannulae for Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical support for critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock. Typically, the size of the arterial return cannula is chosen to maximize flow. However, smaller arterial cannulae may reduce cannula-related complications and be easier to insert. This in vitro study quantified the hemodynamic effect of different arterial return cannula sizes in a simulated acute heart failure patient.

Baseline support levels were simulated with a 17 Fr arterial cannula in an ECMO circuit attached to a cardiovascular simulator with targeted partial (2.0 L/min ECMO flow, 60-65 mmHg mean aortic pressure - MAP) and targeted full ECMO support (3.5 L/min ECMO flow and 70-75 mmHg MAP). Return cannula size was varied (13-21 Fr), and hemodynamics were recorded while keeping ECMO pump speed constant and adjusting pump speed to restore desired support levels.

Minimal differences in hemodynamics were found between cannula sizes in partial support mode. A maximum pump speed change of +600 rpm was required to reach the support target and arterial cannula inlet pressure varied from 79 (21 Fr) to 224 mmHg (13 Fr). The 15 Fr arterial cannula could provide the target full ECMO support at the targeted hemodynamics; however, the 13 Fr cannula could not due to the high resistance associated with the small diameter.

A 15 Fr arterial return cannula provided targeted partial and full ECMO support to a simulated acute heart failure patient. Balancing reduced cannula size and ECMO support level may improve patient outcomes by reducing cannula-related adverse events.

First clinical-grade porcine kidney xenotransplant using a human decedent model.

American Journal of

A radical solution is needed for the organ supply crisis, and the domestic pig is a promising organ source. In preparation for a clinical trial of ...

Applying the ethical framework for donation after circulatory death to thoracic normothermic regional perfusion procedures.

American Journal of

The novel approach of thoracic normothermic regional perfusion (TA-NRP) for in-situ preservation of organs prior to removal presents a new series o...

Human Herpesvirus 6 Reactivation Associated With Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in a Renal Transplant Recipient.

Exp Clin Transplant

Human herpesvirus 6 infection is common after organ transplant. Generally, infection is asymptomatic or is associated with a mild illness. However,...

Factors Affecting Knowledge Levels and Protective Behaviors to Prevent the Development of Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients as a High-Risk Group.

Exp Clin Transplant

Organ transplant recipients are at high risk of skin cancer due to immunosuppressant therapy. This study investigated the factors affecting organ transplant recipients' knowledge and protective behaviors to prevent the development of skin cancer.

This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of kidney (n = 82) and liver (n = 31) transplant recipients seen at our hospitals in Turkey from June 2019 to February 2020. A sociodemographic and clinical characteristics form, the Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge scale, the Sun Protection Behavior questionnaire, and the General Self-Efficacy scale were used to collect data.

The mean age of organ transplant recipients was 46.63 ± 13.24 years. Self-efficacy and awareness that transplant increases the risk of skin cancer are 2 characteristics that affected the participants' knowledge level. The type of graft (kidney) affected participants' behavior in avoiding outdoor exposure between the hours of 10 am and 4 pm. Green/blue eye color and self-efficacy affected the participants' hatwearing behavior. These details showed that, as the patients' sensitivity and self-efficacy increased, their levels of knowledge and sun protection behaviors were positively affected.

The knowledge level of patients was affected by (1) awareness that transplant is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer and (2) high levels of self-efficacy. We observed that (1) organ transplant recipients with high self-efficacy and kidney transplant recipients were more likely to avoid outdoor exposure between 10 am and 4 pm and that (2) organ transplant recipients with green/blue eyes and high levels of self-efficacy were more likely to wear a hat when outdoors. Organ transplant teams should provide education and counseling about skin cancer and sun protection in the follow-up care of transplant recipients.

A Single-Center Study of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Recurrence in Recipients of Liver Transplant for Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Cirrhosis.

Exp Clin Transplant

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a growing indication for liver transplant. We examined multiple granular elements to determine risk factors for recurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or recurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

This is a retrospective, single-center study of patients who underwent liver transplant for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Demographic differences were assessed with the Wilcoxon and Pearson tests for continuous and discrete variables, respectively. We used a linear mixed effects model to estimate mean changes in body mass index and laboratory measurements. Time to graft loss was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model.

From 1998 to 2017, there were 275 patients at our center who underwent liver transplant as treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis. Of these patients, 31 (11%) were diagnosed with recurrent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 60 (22%) had recurrent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with or without recurrence of either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were similar with regard to Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, body mass index, sex, ethnicity, comorbidity, and donor characteristics, including donor macrosteatosis. Exposures to several medication classes were examined, but there was no association with recurrence of either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Changes in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels over time were correlated with recurrence of either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease versus levels observed in the groups with no recurrent disease. There was no difference in graft survival for the groups with recurrence of either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Recurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and recurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis were not associated with increased mortality after liver transplant. There were notable steady increases in body mass index after transplant for all patients who received liver transplant as treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome: A Rare Case of Anemia After Liver Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant

Passenger lymphocyte syndrome is a rare presentation of posttransplant anemia caused by donor antibodies that target recipient red blood cells. We ...

A Case Report of Ventricular Fibrillation Survival by Left Ventricular Assist Device for Hours.

Exp Clin Transplant

In recent years, the population of patients implanted with a left ventricular assist device has been increasing. Ventricular arrhythmias are the mo...

Role of Cytomegalovirus in the Development of Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders With or Without Epstein-Barr Virus Infection.

Exp Clin Transplant

Many studies have revealed the role of Epstein-Barr virus infection, in combination with chronic immunosuppression, as the main factor in the development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder malignancy. Although many studies have been published on other confounding factors involved in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, the role of coinfection with both cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus has not been investigated. We evaluated the role of cytomegalovirus infection as a risk factor in transplant recipients who were simultaneously infected with Epstein-Barr virus.

In the current retrospective study, 143 recipients of various solid-organ transplants at Namazi Hospital from April 2018 to March 2019 were assessed for coinfection with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with the TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. We collected clinical and pathology details from their medical records.

Of the 143 patients, 81 (57%) were male. Children under 5 years old were the largest group with 32% prevalence, and the most common organ transplant in this study was liver transplant. The prevalence of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus coinfection was 12.6% (18/143 patients), of whom 50% experienced posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (9/18 patients) during 18 months after transplant. The incidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was significantly higher among patients coinfected with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus than among patients without coinfection. We observed a significant correlation between cytomegalovirus viral loads, as well as Epstein-Barr virus genome load, in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder development.

Coinfection with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, as well as the genome load of each virus, can serve as a strong predictive factor of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solidorgan transplant recipients.

Prognostic Significance of Elevated Troponin in Adult Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Exp Clin Transplant

Cardiac troponin is a highly specific biomarker of myocardial injury that is of prognostic significance in a range of cardiovascular diseases. However, the prognostic value of elevated troponin in cardiac transplant recipients is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of elevated cardiac troponin in predicting adverse recipient outcomes following heart transplant.

We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and the Cochrane Library from inception until December 2020 and included studies reporting associations between elevated recipient troponin and outcomes after cardiac transplant. We generated summary odds ratios for associations with short- and long-term adverse events and used descriptive analyses where meta-analyses were inappropriate.

We included 15 studies involving 1830 patients undergoing cardiac transplant. The risk of primary graft failure was greater in recipients with elevated troponin than in those without (odds ratio = 3.09; 95% CI, 1.08-8.87). Considerable interstudy heterogeneity (I2 statistic 98%) was partially explained by variations in study design, troponin subtype, and overall risk of bias. Descriptive analyses suggested associations between elevated recipient troponin and long-term adverse cardiac events, coronary artery disease, and mortality.

Elevated cardiac troponin in cardiac transplant recipients may be prognostic for primary graft failure, adverse cardiac events, coronary artery disease, and mortality. Further high-quality, prospective, and multicenter research is needed to demonstrate the clinical applicability of these findings.

Effect of Ozone Added to University of Wisconsin Solution on Preservation Damage in Perfused Liver.

Exp Clin Transplant

Ischemia is defined as the inability of the tissue to provide oxygen and other metabolites by the circulation and the removal of residual products. The University of Wisconsin solution is widely used to preserve ischemia and to preserve organs for transplant. Ozone is used in various areas of ischemia damage due to its antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of ozone added to University of Wisconsin solution on perfused liver preservation injury.

Our study included 24 Sprague Dawley rats with an average weight of 300 to 350 g. Animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1 (Ringer lactate), group 2 (Ringer lactate + ozone), group 3 (University of Wisconsin solution), and group 4 (University of Wisconsin + ozone). Solutions were perfused from the liver portal vein and aorta. After perfusion, rats were killed and liver biopsies were taken at 0, 6, and 12 hours of storage for pathological examination. For biochemical analysis, samples were collected from liver specimen storage solutions at 0, 6, and 12 hours.

Mean alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase levels in group 3 were 77/82 U/L at hour 0, 680/461 U/L at hour 6, and 1027/682 U/L at hour 12. In group 4, these levels were 35/31 U/L at hour 0, 415/295 U/L at hour 6, and 546/372 U/L at hour 12.

In terms of liver function values, we observed favorable result with University of Wisconsin solution with added ozone. Therefore, we suggest that the addition of ozone to the University of Wisconsin solution may be effective in preventing liver preservation damage.