The latest medical research on Intensive Care Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about intensive care medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Multimodality imaging to guide transcatheter treatment of severe degenerative tricuspid regurgitation with tricuspid valve-in-ring implantation and paravalvular leak closure.

Echocardiography

Tricuspid valve (TV) degeneration after surgical repair with an annuloplasty ring is problematic as redo operation carries high mortality. This can...

Multimodality imaging of IgG4 related coronary artery aneurysm.

Echocardiography

Involvement of the coronary arteries by immunoglobulin G4-related disease is rare. It can cause coronary artery aneurysm and arterial wall thickeni...

Tricuspid valve geometry in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation: A three-dimensional echocardiographic study.

Echocardiography

Tricuspid valve (TV) has a complex anatomy causing some difficulties in echocardiographic evaluation. In this study, we sought to assess the geometry of TV in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) by the implementation of 2- and 3-dimennsional (2D and 3D) echocardiography.

In a case-control study, the geometrical features of TV were evaluated in forty patients with functional TR using echocardiographic examinations, and those data compared with twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy individuals.

The mean age of patients was 50 ± 12 years, and 75% were female. All echocardiographic features of TV geometry were significantly greater in TR compared to control group. The 3D evaluation of TV annulus showed that the annulus shape was more circular in the TR compared to the control group. When compared patients with moderate and severe TR, there was a significant difference between groups regarding the size of the TV septolateral annulus diameter (3.5 ± 0.4 vs 3.9 ± 0.7 cm; P = .048), and the angle between mitral valve and TV annuluses (12.5 ± 4.3 vs 17 ± 9º; P = .048). Tenting areas measured by 2D echocardiography and obtained by TomTec software were significantly greater in severe TR compared to moderate TR group. The diameter of TV by 2D echocardiography was significantly higher in atrial fibrillation than that in sinus rhythm group among patients with TR.

The implementation of 3D echocardiography is useful in the determination of TV geometry in patients with functional TR. The accurate evaluation of anatomical features of TV might provide valuable tools in the evaluation of patients with functional TR.

Recruitment pattern of the diaphragm and extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles in response to different levels of pressure support.

Annals of Intensive Care

Inappropriate ventilator assist plays an important role in the development of diaphragm dysfunction. Ventilator under-assist may lead to muscle injury, while over-assist may result in muscle atrophy. This provides a good rationale to monitor respiratory drive in ventilated patients. Respiratory drive can be monitored by a nasogastric catheter, either with esophageal balloon to determine muscular pressure (gold standard) or with electrodes to measure electrical activity of the diaphragm. A disadvantage is that both techniques are invasive. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the role of surrogate markers for respiratory dive, such as extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscle activity. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of different inspiratory support levels on the recruitment pattern of extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles with respect to the diaphragm and to evaluate agreement between activity of extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles and the diaphragm.

Activity from the alae nasi, genioglossus, scalene, sternocleidomastoid and parasternal intercostals was recorded using surface electrodes. Electrical activity of the diaphragm was measured using a multi-electrode nasogastric catheter. Pressure support (PS) levels were reduced from 15 to 3 cmH2O every 5 min with steps of 3 cmH2O. The magnitude and timing of respiratory muscle activity were assessed.

We included 17 ventilated patients. Diaphragm and extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscle activity increased in response to lower PS levels (36 ± 6% increase for the diaphragm, 30 ± 6% parasternal intercostals, 41 ± 6% scalene, 40 ± 8% sternocleidomastoid, 43 ± 6% alae nasi and 30 ± 6% genioglossus). Changes in diaphragm activity correlated best with changes in alae nasi activity (r2 = 0.49; P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid activity. The agreement between diaphragm and extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscle activity was low due to a high individual variability. Onset of alae nasi activity preceded the onset of all other muscles.

Extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscle activity increases in response to lower inspiratory support levels. However, there is a poor correlation and agreement with the change in diaphragm activity, limiting the use of surface electromyography (EMG) recordings of extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles as a surrogate for electrical activity of the diaphragm.

Epidemiology and patient predictors of infection and sepsis in the prehospital setting.

Intensive Care Medicine

Paramedics are often the first healthcare contact for patients with infection and sepsis and may identify them earlier with improved knowledge of the clinical signs and symptoms that identify patients at higher risk.

A 1-year (April 2015 and March 2016) cohort of all adult patients transported by EMS in the province of Alberta, Canada, was linked to hospital administrative databases. The main outcomes were infection, or sepsis diagnosis among patients with infection, in the Emergency Department. We estimated the probability of these outcomes, conditional on signs and symptoms that are commonly available to paramedics.

Among 131,745 patients transported by EMS, the prevalence of infection was 9.7% and sepsis was 2.1%. The in-hospital mortality rate for patients with sepsis was 28%. The majority (62%) of patients with infections were classified by one of three dispatch categories ("breathing problems," "sick patient," or "inter-facility transfer"), and the probability of infection diagnosis was 17-20% for patients within these categories. Patients with elevated temperature measurements had the highest probability for infection diagnosis, but altered Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), low blood pressure, or abnormal respiratory rate had the highest probability for sepsis diagnosis.

Dispatch categories and elevated temperature identify patients with higher probability of infection, but abnormal GCS, low blood pressure, and abnormal respiratory rate identify patients with infection who have a higher probability of sepsis. These characteristics may be considered by paramedics to identify higher-risk patients prior to arrival at the hospital.

Nangibotide in patients with septic shock: a Phase 2a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Intensive Care Medicine

Nangibotide is a specific TREM-1 inhibitor that tempered deleterious host-pathogens interactions, restored vascular function, and improved survival, in animal septic shock models. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of nangibotide and its effects on clinical and pharmacodynamic parameters in septic shock patients.

This was a multicenter randomized, double-blind, two-stage study. Patients received either continuous infusion of nangibotide (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/h) or placebo. Treatment began < 24 h after shock onset and continued for up to 5 days. Safety primary outcomes were adverse events (AEs), whether serious or not, and death. Exploratory endpoints evaluated nangibotide effects on pharmacodynamics, organ function, and mortality, and were analyzed according to baseline sTREM-1 concentrations.

Forty-nine patients were randomized. All treatment emergent AEs (TEAEs) were collected until Day 28. No significant differences were observed in TEAEs between treatment groups. No drug withdrawal linked to TEAE nor appearance of anti-drug antibodies were reported. Nangibotide pharmacokinetics appeared to be dose-proportional and clearance was dose-independent. Nangibotide did not significantly affect pharmacodynamic markers. Decrease in SOFA score LS mean change (± SE) from baseline to Day 5 in pooled nangibotide groups versus placebo was - 0.7 (± 0.85) in the randomized population and - 1.5 (± 1.12) in patients with high baseline plasma sTREM-1 concentrations (non-significant). This pattern was similar to organ support end points.

No significant increases in TEAEs were detected in nangibotide-treated patients versus placebo. These results encourage further evaluation of nangibotide and further exploration of plasma sTREM-1 concentrations as a predictive efficacy biomarker.

Pre-procedural ultrasound-guided evaluation of left internal jugular vein and brachiocephalic vein: Experience on infants <1 year.

J Vasc Access

Pre-procedural evaluation of central veins prior to cannulation with ultrasound is essential to reduce the complication rates as well as to increas...

What to Do When Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) Is Unavailable

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 201, Issue 11, Page P25-P26, June 1, 2020.

The Care and Cleaning of Your PAP Device

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 201, Issue 11, Page P23-P24, June 1, 2020.

Erratum: Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Children Using Xpert Ultra on Different Respiratory Specimens

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 201, Issue 11, Page 1454-1454, June 1, 2020.

Comment on an American Thoracic Society Public Health Information Series Article

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 201, Issue 11, Page 1453-1453, June 1, 2020.

Reply to Jain et al.: Utility of Xpert Ultra on Different Respiratory Specimens in Children

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 201, Issue 11, Page 1452-1453, June 1, 2020.