The latest medical research on Intensive Care Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about intensive care medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Detecting the prevalence of bacterial colonization on tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA and scanning electron microscopy.

J Vasc Access

Tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters (TCC) get colonized by microorganisms, increasing risk for catheter related bacteremia (CRB). Our objective was to detect the prevalence of bacterial colonization of TCC by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA and by determining the intraluminal adherent biological material (ABM) coverage.

A total of 45 TCC were investigated. The 16S rRNA qPCR technique was used to detect bacterial colonization after scraping the intraluminal ABM. Proximal, middle, and distal TCC were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the percentage (%) of intraluminal ABM coverage. All catheters were cultured following sonication.

A total of 45 TCC were removed: 7 due to CRB, 3 for suspected CRB and 35 were removed for non-infectious etiologies. Bacterial colonization was detected in 27 TCC by documenting 16S rRNA qPCR (+) results (60%). Seven of these 16S rRNA qPCR (+) catheters were removed due to CRB. There was no difference in demographic, clinical, or laboratory values between the 16S rRNA (+) versus (-) TCC. The 16S rRNA qPCR (-) outcome was highly associated with CRB-free status with negative predictive value of 100%. Bacterial colonization was documented in 10 TCC using catheter cultures (22%), which was significantly less compared to qPCR method (p = 0.0002). ABM were detected in all catheter pieces, with mean intraluminal surface coverage (ABMC) of 68.4 ± 26.1%. ABM was unlikely to be microbial biofilm in at least 36% of removed TCC as their 16S rRNA qPCR and catheter culture results were both negative.

Detecting bacterial colonization of TCC was significantly higher with 16S rRNA qPCR compared to catheter cultures. The 16S rRNA qPCR (-) cannot be predicted and was strongly associated with absence of CRB. Intraluminal ABM was not associated with microbial presence in about 1/3 of the TCC. These pieces of evidence may help to improve prophylactic strategies against CRB.

LMA® Gastro™: A paediatric experience.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

The laryngeal mask airway, the LMA® Gastro™ (Teleflex Medical, Athlone, Ireland), is a novel airway device which permits upper gastrointestinal (GI...

Long-term outcomes of patients admitted to an intensive care unit with intentional self-harm.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

Self-harm is one of the most common reasons for admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). While most patients with self-harm survive the ICU admis...

Transthoracic Right Heart Echocardiography for the Intensivist.

Journal of Intensive Care Medicine

The impact of critical illness on the right ventricle (RV) can be profound and RV dysfunction is associated with mortality. Intensivists are becoming more facile with bedside echocardiography, however, pedagogy has largely focused on left ventricular function. Here we review measurements of right heart function by way of echocardiographic modalities and list clinical scenarios where the RV dysfunction is a salient feature.

RV dysfunction is heterogeneously defined across many domains and its diagnosis is not always clinically apparent. The RV is affected by conditions commonly seen in the ICU such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, RV ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension. Basic ultrasonographic modalities such as 2D imaging, M-mode, tissue Doppler, pulsed-wave Doppler, and continuous Doppler provide clinicians with metrics to assess RV function and response to therapy.

The right ventricle is impacted by various critical illnesses with substantial mortality and mortality. Focused bedside echocardiographic exams with attention to the right heart may provide intensivists insight into RV function and provide guidance for patient management.

Monitoring skin blood flow to rapidly identify alterations in tissue perfusion during fluid removal using continuous veno-venous hemofiltration in patients with circulatory shock.

Annals of Intensive Care

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) can be used to reduce fluid overload and tissue edema, but excessive fluid removal may impair tissue perfusion. Skin blood flow (SBF) alters rapidly in shock, so its measurement may be useful to help monitor tissue perfusion.

In a prospective, observational study in a 35-bed department of intensive care, all patients with shock who required fluid removal with CVVH were considered for inclusion. SBF was measured on the index finger using skin laser Doppler (Periflux 5000, Perimed, Järfälla, Sweden) for 3 min at baseline (before starting fluid removal, T0), and 1, 3 and 6 h after starting fluid removal. The same fluid removal rate was maintained throughout the study period. Patients were grouped according to absence (Group A) or presence (Group B) of altered tissue perfusion, defined as a 10% increase in blood lactate from T0 to T6 with the T6 lactate ≥ 1.5 mmol/l. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed and areas under the curve (AUROC) calculated to identify variables predictive of altered tissue perfusion. Data are reported as medians [25th-75th percentiles].

We studied 42 patients (31 septic shock, 11 cardiogenic shock); median SOFA score at inclusion was 9 [8-12]. At T0, there were no significant differences in hemodynamic variables, norepinephrine dose, lactate concentration, ScvO2 or ultrafiltration rate between groups A and B. Cardiac index and MAP did not change over time, but SBF decreased in both groups (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. The baseline SBF was lower (58[35-118] vs 119[57-178] perfusion units [PU], p = 0.03) and the decrease in SBF from T0 to T1 (ΔSBF%) higher (53[39-63] vs 21[12-24]%, p = 0.01) in group B than in group A. Baseline SBF and ΔSBF% predicted altered tissue perfusion with AUROCs of 0.83 and 0.96, respectively, with cut-offs for SBF of ≤ 57 PU (sensitivity 78%, specificity 87%) and ∆SBF% of ≥ 45% (sensitivity 92%, specificity 99%).

Baseline SBF and its early reduction after initiation of fluid removal using CVVH can predict worsened tissue perfusion, reflected by an increase in blood lactate levels.

Outcome of acute kidney injury: how to make a difference?

Annals of Intensive Care

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most frequent organ failure encountered among intensive care unit patients. In addition to the well-known immediate complications (hydroelectrolytic disorders, hypervolemia, drug overdose), the occurrence of long-term complications and/or chronic comorbidities related to AKI has long been underestimated. The aim of this manuscript is to briefly review the short- and long-term consequences of AKI and discuss strategies likely to improve outcome of AKI.

We reviewed the literature, focusing on the consequences of AKI in all its aspects and the management of AKI. We addressed the importance of clinical management for improving outcomes AKI. Finally, we have also proposed candidate future strategies and management perspectives.

AKI must be considered as a systemic disease. Due to its short- and long-term impact, measures to prevent AKI and limit the consequences of AKI are expected to improve global outcomes of patients suffering from critical illnesses.

Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 203, Issue 8, Page P20-P21, April 15, 2021.

Erratum: Home Oxygen Therapy for Adults with Chronic Lung Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 203, Issue 8, Page 1045-1046, April 15, 2021.

Retraction: Isoniazid and Rifapentine Treatment Eradicates Persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Macaques

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 203, Issue 8, Page 1045-1045, April 15, 2021.

Reply to Aberegg and Wolfe: Aspergillosis in the ICU: Hidden Enemy or Bogeyman?

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 203, Issue 8, Page 1044-1045, April 15, 2021.

Aspergillosis in the ICU: Hidden Enemy or Bogeyman?

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 203, Issue 8, Page 1043-1044, April 15, 2021.

Reply to Philip et al.: Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Inhalation as well as Exhalation Matters for COVID-19

ATS ICU

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 203, Issue 8, Page 1042-1043, April 15, 2021.