The latest medical research on Immunology & Allergy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about immunology & allergy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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TRIGGERED: could refocused cell signaling be key to NK cell-based HIV immunotherapeutics?


: Natural killer (NK) cells are one of the critical innate immune effector cells that directly kill tumors and virus-infected cells, and modulate o...

Psychometric evaluation of the medication adherence report scale in caregivers of low-income, urban, African American children with poorly controlled asthma.

J Asthma

Accurately assessing asthma medication usage among low-income, urban, African American children is essential to reduce asthma health disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the five-item Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), in a sample of caregivers of low-income, urban, African American youth with poorly controlled asthma.

Using baseline data from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of an environmental control educational intervention, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to ascertain the MARS factor structure. Construct validity was assessed using a regression model inclusive of caregiver-reported medication adherence, Asthma Medication Ratio (AMR), asthma control, and caregiver perception of asthma control as predictors of the MARS.

Caregivers were female (97%) and 27.4% had an annual income under $10,000. The mean MARS score was 21.88 ± 3.33 out of a possible range of 5-25, representing high adherence. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a five-item one-factor model marginally fit the data based on the fit indices: χ 2 (5) = 31.71, p < 0.001; RMSEA ≤ 0.161; CFI = 0.986; TLI = 0.971; and WRMR = 0.979. The MARS was associated with another caregiver-reported measure of medication adherence but not associated with AMR, asthma control, or caregiver perception of asthma control.

The MARS demonstrated marginal fit in CFA and may not be clinically indicated in light of the lack of associations with objective measures of asthma medication adherence and asthma control.

Situating household management of children's asthma in the context of social, economic, and environmental injustice.

J Asthma

Structural determinants of health are social, economic, and environmental forces that generate unequal opportunities for resources and unequally distribute exposure to risk. For example, economic constraint, racial discrimination and segregation, and environmental injustice shape population-level asthma prevalence and severity. Structural determinants are especially relevant to consider in clinical settings because they affect everyday household asthma management.

To examine how structural determinants shape everyday household management of pediatric asthma and offer a framework for providers to understand asthma management in social context.

We carried out narrative interviews with caregivers using an adapted McGill Illness Narrative Interview and using qualitative analysis techniques (e.g. inductive and deductive coding, constant comparison).

Caregivers highlighted three ways that structural determinants complicated asthma management at home: 1) housing situations, 2) competing household illnesses and issues, and 3) multi-household care.

By connecting social, economic, and environmental injustices to the everyday circumstances of asthma management, our study can help providers understand how social contexts challenge asthma management and can open conversations about barriers to adherence and strategies for supporting asthma management at home. We offer recommendations for medical system reform, clinical interactions, and policy advocacy.

Voice bubbling therapy for vocal cord dysfunction in difficult-to-treat asthma - a pilot study.

J Asthma

Dysfunctional breathing often coexists with asthma and complicates asthma control, especially in difficult-to-treat asthma. Voice bubbling therapy (VBT) by a specialized speech therapist may influence the breathing pattern. This pilot study investigated the effect of voice bubbling therapy (VBT) in participants with difficult-to-treat asthma, who fulfilled criteria for dysfunctional breathing pattern.

Twenty-four patients were randomized between VBT and usual care (UC). VBT is blowing into a glass (resonance) tube (28 cm in length, 0.9 cm inner diameter) which ends in a bowl of water (1.5 litre). Lung function, capillary blood gas and questionnaires were measured at baseline, at 6 and 18 weeks of follow up.

No difference in ACQ and quality of life was found after VBT compared to UC group. However, after six weeks of bubbling therapy, pCO2 levels measured in capillary blood gas were higher (baseline median (IQR) pCO2 = 33.00 (17.25 - 38.6) mmHg; week 6 pCO2 = 36.00 (29.00 - 42.3) mmHg) p = 0.01. Moreover, ΔpCO2 (baseline - 18 weeks of follow up) was significantly correlated with ΔAQLQ (rs = 0.78, p = 0.02).

VBT in participants with difficult-to-treat asthma resulted in a higher average pCO2 level, indicating the treatment may improve hyperventilation. However, this did not improve asthma control or quality of life. VBT may have value for a better management of asthma related symptoms.

Genome-wide association study of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer and Interleukin-6 levels in multi-ethnic HIV+ cohorts.


Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, and C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are associated with increased incidence of comorbid disease and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). Prior studies suggest a genetic basis for these biomarker elevations in the general population. The study objectives are to identify the genetic basis for these biomarkers among PLWH.

Baseline levels of hsCRP, D-dimer and IL-6, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined for 7,768 participants in three HIV treatment trials. Single variant analysis was performed for each biomarker on samples from each of three ethnic groups (African [AFR], Admixed American [AMR], European [EUR]) within each trial including covariates relevant to biomarker levels. For each ethnic group, the results were pooled across trials, then further pooled across ethnicities.

The transethnic analysis identified three, two and one known loci associated with hsCRP, D-dimer and IL-6 levels, respectively, and two novel loci, FGB and GCNT1, associated with D-dimer levels. Lead SNPs exhibited similar effects across ethnicities. Additionally, three novel, ethnic-specific loci were identified: CATSPERG associated with D-dimer in AFR and PROX1-AS1 and TRAPPC9 associated with IL-6 in AFR and AMR, respectively.

Eleven loci associated with three biomarker levels were identified in PLWH from the three studies including six loci known in the general population and five novel loci associated with D-dimer and IL-6 levels. These findings support the hypothesis that host genetics may partially contribute to chronic inflammation in PLWH and help to identify potential targets for intervention of serious non-AIDS complications.

The impact of clinical and psychological factors on asthma control: the experience of a single asthma center in Poland.

J Asthma

The Asthma Control Test (ACT) is commonly used to identify patients with uncontrolled asthma. The goal of this study was to determine whether clinical parameters such as asthma history and medications, exacerbation rate, comorbidities, lung function, and socioeconomic status are risk factors for uncontrolled asthma assessed with the ACT, and to evaluate the psychological status of controlled and uncontrolled asthmatics.

Adult asthmatics (n = 104) were recruited from a single asthma center, Poland. Asthma control was assessed with the ACT, using <20 as the cut-off point for uncontrolled asthma. Data on clinical factors were collected and spirometry was performed. Patients completed the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOTR), and Eysenck's Personality Inventory (EPI).

Asthma was uncontrolled in 42.3% of patients. Asthma exacerbations in the preceding 12 months and high inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) doses were identified as independent risk factors for uncontrolled asthma. Uncontrolled asthmatics had a significantly worse psychological status than controlled asthmatics. The groups did not differ in terms of personality traits, but in the controlled asthma group numerous significant correlations between psychological factors and personality traits were observed. In the uncontrolled asthma group, however, the occurrence of correlations between personality traits and other psychological variables was rarer.

The study identified independent risk factors for uncontrolled asthma, namely, exacerbations in the recent 12 months and treatment with high-dose ICS. Uncontrolled asthmatics have a significantly worse psychological status than controlled asthmatics, irrespective of personality traits.

Unexpected interactions between dolutegravir and folate: randomised trial evidence from South Africa.


Dolutegravir exposure at conception was associated with a preliminary signal of increased infant neural tube defect (NTD) risk. As low maternal folate levels are linked with NTDs, we aimed to assess serum folate concentrations in women starting dolutegravir.

We compared changes in mean serum folate and occurrence of low serum folate (<14.0 nmol/L) at weeks 0, 12 and 24 across study arms. In ADVANCE, 1,053 treatment-naïve participants were randomised to initiate tenofovir-alafenamide/emtricitabine + dolutegravir (TAF/FTC+DTG), tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF)/FTC+DTG, or TDF/FTC/efavirenz (EFV).

Analysis includes 406 females, mean age 31.5 years and baseline CD4 count 356 cells/mm. At baseline, folate concentrations were similar across treatment arms. However, serum folate increased over 12 weeks in the TAF/FTC+DTG arm (+4.0 ± 8.1 nmol/L), while folate concentrations decreased slightly in the TDF/FTC+DTG arm (-1.8 ± 8.9 nmol/L) and decreased in the TDF/FTC/EFV arm (-5.9 ± 8.1 nmol/L). Women taking TDF/FTC/EFV had low folate concentrations at both 12 and 24 weeks compared with the other arms (p < 0.001). Of 26 women who became pregnant on study before week 24, folate concentrations increased between baseline and 12 weeks by a mean 2.4 ± 7.1 nmol/L in the TAF/FTC+DTG arm and 2.3 ± 8.4 nmol/L in the TDF/FTC+DTG arm, but decreased by -3.3 ± 8.1 with TDF/FTC/EFV arm.

Unexpectedly, no declines were noted in the dolutegravir-containing arms, and concentrations were considerably higher than in the efavirenz arm. The possibility that dolutegravir may block cellular uptake of folate warrants investigation.

Clinical Characteristics and Proposed Wheat-Cofactor Challenge Protocol with a High Diagnostic Yield in Adult-Onset IgE-Mediated Wheat Allergy.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

IgE-mediated wheat allergy in adults can be childhood or adulthood onset. Adult-onset wheat allergy has been reported, but data on clinical characteristics and practical food challenge protocols are scarce.

We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of adult-onset wheat allergy, laboratory results, and outcomes of a modified 3-day challenge protocol using a combination of aspirin, wheat, and exercise.

Patients with histories compatible with adult-onset wheat allergy were recruited from Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. Clinical history, skin prick tests (SPTs), and specific IgE (sIgE) levels were ascertained. Patients with no food challenge contraindications were asked to volunteer for wheat challenge. A modified 3-day protocol using 300 mg of acetylsalicylic acid, 60-75 g of wheat flour, and exercise was used for confirmatory diagnosis of conventional wheat allergy (WA) and wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA).

Thirty-three patients were recruited. The mean age of onset was 29.7 years (SD 10.5). SPTs yielded positivity rates of 9.1%, 84.8%, and 81.8% in commercial wheat, in-house gliadin, and in-house glutenin extracts, respectively. sIgE yielded a positivity rate of 61% and 88% in wheat and ω5-gliadin, respectively. Eighteen patients underwent oral wheat challenges. Of these, 17 patients (94.4%) had positive challenges leading to definite diagnoses of WA (35%), and WDEIA (65%). One WDEIA patient developed hypotensive anaphylaxis in the protocol.

WDEIA was the most common phenotype. Our modified 3-day protocol could differentiate WA and WDEIA and yielded a high positivity rate (94.4%). It should be used cautiously as severe reactions can occur.

Childhood Asthma Awareness in Saudi Arabia: Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that is characterized by reversible airway obstruction due to bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It is one of the most common chronic diseases. In Saudi Arabia, asthma affects 2 million people with asthma frequency in children markedly higher than adults with regional variations ranging from 9% to 33.7%.

The aim of this study is to measure asthma awareness and knowledge of study participants during the ongoing annual Saudi asthma awareness campaigns and compare them with previous survey data conducted in 2014.

A cross-sectional study was carried out in the form of a survey distributed across three major cities in Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam, during the National Asthma Awareness Campaign in major regional shopping centers in April 2019. Asthma knowledge scores across different demographic groups were generated from surveyed data. Descriptive and correlative statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with changes in asthma knowledge. Scores were compared to previous survey results.

The mean score for asthma knowledge was 15.6 out of 25. Asthma knowledge significantly correlated with age (P=0.002), asthma status of the participants (P=0.001), having children with asthma (P=0.005) or knowing friends or family with asthma (P=0.029) but not with other socioeconomic factors such as gender, marital status, occupation, level of education and number of children in the family (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the asthma scores from 2014 (M= 63%, SD=26) to 2019 (M= 70%, SD= 26) conditions; t (24) = -2.106, p=0.046.

Further educational campaigns are necessary to enhance and measure general public awareness of asthma, its differential diagnosis against other respiratory infections, environmental triggers, risk factors as well as treatment options.

Biomarkers for Overweight in Adult-Onset Asthma.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

Overweight and obesity are associated with one of the severe phenotypes of asthma, with an increased rate of exacerbations, low level of lung function, and reduced response to corticosteroid therapy. The present study focused on identifying useful biomarkers of severity in overweight patients with adult-onset asthma using real-world data.

A total of 56 patients with adult-onset asthma who visited Saga University Hospital between 2018 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2. Blood eosinophils, cytokines, and chemokines were compared between non-overweight asthma and overweight asthma patients.

Overweight asthma patients had a higher annual exacerbation rate, lower pulmonary function even when treated frequently with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, and a significantly lower percentage of eosinophils and lower eosinophil count compared to non-overweight asthma patients (p<0.01, p=0.03). Moreover, the percentage of eosinophils was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (ρ=-0.38, p<0.01) (Figure 1). On serum cytokine and chemokine analyses, the overweight asthma group included significantly more patients with a lower level of tissue growth factor α (TGF-α) (1.1 pg/mL) and higher levels of hsIL-6 (2.5 pg/mL), RANTES/CCL5 (298.5 pg/mL), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) (63.7 pg/mL), than the non-overweight asthma group (p=0.02, p<0.01, p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively).

The present study showed that overweight patients with adult-onset asthma were characterized by a higher rate of annual exacerbations and worse lung function despite treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and lower blood eosinophil counts than non-overweight patients with asthma. On blood cytokine and chemokine analyses, a low level of TGF-α and high levels of hsIL-6, RANTES/CCL5, and VEGF-A might be biomarkers reflecting the pathophysiology in overweight patients with asthma.

Significant decline in heavily treatment experienced persons with HIV with limited antiretroviral treatment options in the US, 2000-2017.


Historically, a high burden of resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in heavily treatment experienced (HTE) persons with HIV (PWH) resulted in limited treatment options (LTO). We evaluated the prevalence, risk factors, and virologic control of HTE PWH with LTO throughout the modern ART era.

We computed the annual prevalence of HTE PWH with LTO defined as having ≤2 available classes with ≤2 active drugs per class based on genotypic data and cumulative antiretroviral resistance. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to examine risk of LTO by 3-year study entry periods adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics.

Among 27,133 ART-experienced PWH, 916 were classified as having LTO. The prevalence of PWH with LTO was 5.2-7.5% in 2000-2006, decreased to 1.8% in 2007, and remained < 1% after 2012. Persons entering the study in 2009-2011 had an 80% lower risk of LTO compared with those entering in 2006-2008 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.42). We found a significant increase in undetectable HIV viral loads among PWH ever classified as having LTO from < 30% in 2001 to >80% in 2011, comparable to persons who never had LTO.

Results of this large multicenter study show a dramatic decline in the prevalence of PWH with LTO to < 1% with the availability of more potent drugs and a marked increase in virologic suppression in the current ART era.

Antiretroviral therapy reduces but does not normalize immune and vascular inflammatory markers in adults with chronic HIV infection in Kenya.


Markers of monocyte/macrophage activation and vascular inflammation are associated with HIV-related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality. We compared these markers among African people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative adults, and examined risk factors associated with elevated biomarkers (>75% percentile) in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

We measured serum concentrations of a gut integrity biomarker (I-FABP), monocyte/macrophage activation biomarkers (soluble CD14 and CD163), and vascular inflammation biomarkers (soluble/circulating intercellular[sICAM-1] and vascular[sVCAM-1] cell adhesion molecules-1). We assessed the relationship of these inflammatory parameters with HIV, using logistic regression adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors.

Among the 541 participants, median age was 43 years and half were female. Among 275 PLWH, median CD4+T-cell count and duration of ART use was 509 cells/mm and 8 years respectively. PLWH had significantly higher prevalence of elevated inflammatory biomarkers compared to HIV-negative individuals even after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. Compared to subjects without HIV, the prevalence of elevated biomarkers was highest among persons with detectable viral load and CD4+T-cell counts≤200 cells/mm. In a sub-analysis among PLWH, nadir CD4+T-cell count≤200 cells/mm was associated with elevated sCD14; dyslipidemia with elevated sCD14, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1; and overweight/obesity with reduced sCD14. Longer ART exposure (>4 years) was associated with reduced sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1.

HIV and not traditional CVD risk factors is a primary contributor of monocyte/macrophage activation and inflammation despite ART. Anti-inflammatory therapies in addition to ART may be necessary to reduce these immune dysregulations and improve health outcomes of African PLWH.