The latest medical research on Immunology & Allergy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about immunology & allergy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effect of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Outcomes in Chronic Rhinosinusitis​.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has a significant negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Surgical treatment of CRS is indicated when medical therapy fails to achieve adequate symptom control. This review summarizes the latest information on the outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with relation to QoL, revision rates, olfaction, absenteeism, asthma control, use of systemic medications, quality of sleep and complications. We also provide an update regarding the factors that can impact outcomes.

CRS has classically been divided into two phenotypes depending on the presence or absence of nasal polyps. However, this is an oversimplification as many factors impact disease burden and outcome after treatment. It has been demonstrated that in many cases, ESS fails to meet the expectations of the patients. Evidence based patient counselling is key to help surgeons guide their patients in the best possible way to make well-informed decisions. Repeatedly it has been demonstrated that ESS improves QoL, improves olfaction, leads to better asthma control and less use of systemic antibiotics. However, various patient characteristics including phenotype, disease burden, comorbidities, age, gender and surgical technique can influence the outcome after ESSIt is of paramount importance to include a follow-up period when discussing revision rates. Based on available data, the genuine revision rate is probably 15-20% after five to ten years of follow-up. The revision rate is also affected by various factors and comorbidities.

FENOMA Study: Achieving Full Control in Patients with Severe Allergic Asthma.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

A Spanish real-world study in patients with severe persistent asthma who achieved asthma control after a one-year treatment with omalizumab highlighted the phenotypic heterogeneity of these patients (FENOMA study). In this subanalysis, we describe the clinical improvement in patients with severe allergic asthma in this study (positive skin test and IgE level 30-1500 IU/mL); n=240.

FENOMA was an observational, multicentre, retrospective study in 345 patients achieving asthma control according to Spanish guidelines (GEMA). Baseline demographic and asthma-related characteristics were collected. Outcomes analyzed were those included in asthma control definition plus changes in background treatments and in blood eosinophil count (%) and exhaled nitric oxide fraction [FeNO].

At baseline, patients were aged 45.4±15.0 years; 67% were women. Median (Q1;Q3) IgE levels were 302.5 (154.0; 553.5) IU/mL. After one-year treatment with omalizumab: 43.3% of patients had daytime symptoms vs 97.7% before treatment and 49.6% stopped taking oral corticosteroids. FEV1 increased a median of 12.0 (4.0; 23.0)%; P <0.0001. The number of non-severe asthma exacerbations decreased a median of -4.0 (-7.0; 2.0); P <0.0001. Median unplanned visits to primary care or specialists and days of school/workplace absenteeism decreased from 4.9 (2.0; 6.0), 1.0 (0.0; 3.0) and 0.0 (0.0; 14.0) to 0.0 (0.0; 1.0), 0.0 (0.0; 0.0) and 0.0 (0.0; 0.0), respectively. Median eosinophil blood count and FeNO decreased from 5.0 (3:0; 8.0)% to 3.0 (2.0; 5.5)% and from 36.0 (23:0; 53.0) ppb to 20.0 (13.0; 34.0) ppb, respectively.

This study highlights the asthma control achieved by patients with severe allergic asthma treated with omalizumab, with relevant benefits on the burden of the disease both on patients and the healthcare system.

Risk Factors and Treatment Types for Asthma Severity Among Adult Patients.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and treatment types for asthma severity among adult patients by applying a retrospective study design.

The symptoms of asthma and corresponding medication prescription were addressed by descriptive statistics, and an ordinal logistic regression model was applied to identify the risk factors of asthma severity based on the data obtained from chronic follow-up of 422 adult asthma patients from September 11, 2012, to July 8, 2016, at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital (UOGTH).

From 422 study units, the more commonly presenting asthma symptoms were coughing and wheezing expressed by 52.13% and 50.9%, respectively. For the treatment type given to the patients, oxygen and prednisolone were highly distributed drugs to the patients in chronic illness, medication and follow-up clinic of the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital (UOGTH) which were expressed by 73.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The proportional odd logit model was used to analyse asthma severity in patients; patients who were female (OR=1.68), a rural resident (OR=1.56), regular physical exercise (OR=2.39), allergen to pet (OR=3.17), had asthma in childhood (OR=2.27), had a family history (OR=1.89), and had depression (OR=2.31) were more likely to increase asthma severity than others, and patients who were in case with regular cooker, dry season was less likely to increase asthma severity.

Generally, the study presented the most common asthma symptoms and treatment types correspondingly. The study also showed that demographic, environmental, genetic, and health-related factors have a significant effect on asthma severity.

An Asthma Specialist's Consult Letter: What Do Parents Think About Receiving a Copy?

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

Written summaries about visits with general practitioners' have influenced increased patient knowledge, satisfaction, recollection, and compliance, and strengthened the doctor-patient relationship. All previous studies about this communication pre-dated the electronic medical record (EMR) era, and none examined views from parents of children with asthma. We explored parents' perceptions about receiving a hard copy summary Letter immediately following the visit, with the pediatric asthma specialist about findings and the care plan for their child.

A Parent Advisory Council helped inform this pilot study, an observational cross-sectional electronic survey. Each Letter included a comprehensive summary of the child's visit with the specialist.

Previous findings from patients about the benefits of receiving this Letter were strongly supported by data from 51 participants. Interestingly, more than 54% of respondents preferred receiving a hard copy Letter over an electronic copy, and 98% wanted other clinicians to adopt this practice.

Parents of children with asthma value and want timely written information of this nature from other clinicians.

These results can influence further asthma research to promote a change in the perceptions of clinicians, parents, and patients about timely access to health information in the EMR era.

Self-Management Plans in Patients with Hereditary Angioedema: Strategies, Outcomes and Integration into Clinical Care.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

Chronic conditions, whether genetic or acquired, impose a significant burden on health care systems with high utilisation of hospital and emergency...

Allergen Immunotherapy for Local Respiratory Allergy.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Local respiratory allergy (LRA) is an eosinophilic phenotype of chronic airway disease. Three entities have been described within the LRA spectrum: local allergic rhinitis (LAR) and local allergic asthma (LAA) in non-atopic patients, and dual allergic rhinitis (DAR) in atopic patients (coexistence of LAR and allergic rhinitis). In this article, we aim to review the current evidence on the therapeutic options for LRA.

No controlled study has assessed the effect of standard therapy (oral antihistamines, intranasal or inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators) in LRA subjects. Three randomized clinical trials and one observational study demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is able to control nasal and ocular symptoms, decrease the need for rescue medication, and improve quality of life in LAR individuals. Nasal or inhaled steroids can be expected to improve eosinophilic inflammation in LRA patients but cannot change the natural course of the disease. Moreover, the long-term and disease-modifying effects of AIT in LRA subjects need to be investigated.

Extranasal Manifestations of Allergy in the Head and Neck.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are well-described disease entities with broad exposure in clinical and research allergy forums. Associations between allergic inflammation and upper airway diseases of chronic laryngitis, otitis media, obstructive sleep apnea, and oral allergy syndrome are less well understood and described in the literature.

This review discusses the relationship between atopy and diseases of the upper airway, oral cavity, larynx, and ear. The similar respiratory mucosal lining the upper aerodigestive tract, with sensitized mast cells and inflammatory mediators in the submucosa, results in a variety of extranasal manifestations of allergic diseases in the head and neck which are less well characterized. Associations between allergic inflammation and upper airway diseases of chronic laryngitis, otitis media, obstructive sleep apnea, and oral allergy syndrome are less well understood and described in the literature. This review will summarize the relevant pathophysiology and symptomology, association with allergic sensitization, and clinical considerations of these disorders.

Local Allergic Rhinitis Revisited.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Even though it affects a considerable number of chronic rhinitis patients and a significant number of articles regarding prevalence, evolution, diagnosis, and treatment have been published, the condition remains still largely unrecognized and therefore misdiagnosed and mistreated.

LAR is a unique form of chronic rhinitis; it is neither classical allergic rhinitis (AR) nor non-allergic rhinitis (NAR). The symptoms, duration, severity, and complications of LAR are similar to those of AR and can affect adults and children. Thus, a portion of patients diagnosed with NAR or chronic rhinitis of unknown etiology may have LAR. The relationship between LAR inflammation and systemic allergic inflammation is unclear. Patients are frequently misdiagnosed with idiopathic NAR, and distinguishing between both entities is difficult without specific diagnostic tests. Underdiagnosis of LAR has implications on the management of these patients, as they are deprived of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) that has been demonstrated to modulate the immune mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on LAR and address unmet needs in the areas of disease diagnosis and treatment.

Phenotypes in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogenous disease process affecting a significant proportion of the population and impacting quality of life and productivity. Historically, CRS has been classified broadly into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Increased understanding regarding unique presentations of CRS subsets and their underlying inflammatory profiles has led to a new system for classifying CRS phenotypes.

Consideration of CRS phenotypes has traditionally been a key factor in determining treatment paradigms. Under a new phenotype classification system, physical findings will continue to drive treatment decisions, but with more precision. Recent rapidly accumulated knowledge indicates that the broad categorization of CRSwNP or CRSsNP is no longer clinically useful. Reorganization of CRS phenotypes and their underlying endotypes will lead to more targeted and efficacious therapy.

Association Between Mouth Breathing and Asthma: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the association between asthma and mouth breathing. We performed a systematic search in the PubMed, SCOPUS, Lilacs, Web of Science, Google Scholar and OpenThesis databases.

Asthma is defined as a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest oppression and/or cough, and limitation of expiratory airflow. Although several studies have examined the association between asthma and mouth breathing, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that synthesize the available bodies of evidence. We used the odds ratio as a measure of the association between asthma and mouth breathing. Summary estimates were calculated using random-effects models, and the risk of bias was estimated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for case-control studies and the National Institutes of Health tool for cross-sectional studies. Nine studies were included in the present systematic review. Data from 12,147 subjects were analyzed, of which 2083 were children and adolescents and 10,064 were adults. We found an association between mouth breathing and asthma in children and adolescents (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.78-3.39) and in adults (OR 4.60, 95% CI 1.49-14.20). However, limitations were found in the methodological description of the included studies, as well as high heterogeneity among studies evaluating adult populations. This meta-analysis showed an association between mouth breathing and asthma in children, adolescents and adults, but the results should be interpreted with caution. Further studies with standardized criteria for the investigation of mouth breathing are needed.

Ligand Binding of PR-10 Proteins with a Particular Focus on the Bet v 1 Allergen Family.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) proteins are highly conserved plant proteins, which are induced in response to abiotic and biotic stress factors. To date, no unique biological function could be assigned to them. Rather a more general role of PR-10 in plant development and defense mechanisms has been proposed. In addition, some PR-10 proteins act as allergens by triggering allergic symptoms in sensitized individuals. Regardless of the diversity of reported activities, all PR-10 proteins share a common fold characterized by a solvent-accessible hydrophobic cavity, which serves as a binding site for a myriad of small-molecule ligands, mostly phytohormones and flavonoids.

Most of available data relate to the ligand binding activity of allergenic PR-10, particularly for those belonging to Bet v 1 family of allergens. Bet v 1 and its homologues were shown to bind flavonoids with high affinity, but the specificity appears to differ between homologues from different species. The flavonoid Q3O-(Glc)-Gal was shown to specifically bind to hazelnut Cor a 1 but not to Bet v 1. Similarly, Q3OS bound only to the major isoform Bet v 1.0101 and not to other closely related isoforms. In contrast, Bet v 1 and hazelnut Cor a 1 showed very similar binding behavior towards other flavonoids such as quercetin, genistein, apigenin, daidzein, and resveratrol. Recent research findings highlighted the importance of more precise knowledge of ligand binding for understanding the functional diversification of PR-10 proteins.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Allergy: Increased Allergen Sensitization Versus Real Allergic Rhinitis Multimorbidity: a Systematic Review.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

The objective of this article is to provide a recent update of the association between allergic inflammation and chronic rhinosinusitis. The systematic approach of this review article critically evaluates the literature published over the past few years and summarizes the specific pathophysiologic pathway of chronic sinonasal inflammation that has been postulated.

From a systematic search of the Ovid Medline and Embase, 11 studies were included in a qualitative analysis of the association between systemic allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Of the 11 studies, four showed an association, three were inconclusive, and four did not show any association. From the systematic search, 50 studies suggested four possible pathophysiologic pathways that may explain the association of allergic inflammation and CRS, namely, (1) staphylococcal enterotoxin, (2) the innate immunity pathway, (3) mast cell-associated inflammation, and (4) dysbiosis of microbiota. The association of systematic allergy and CRS remains inconclusive. The recent advances in the study of the pathophysiologic pathway of CRS may lead to the possibility of a targeted treatment option for CRS.