The latest medical research on Immunology & Allergy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about immunology & allergy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparative Review of Asthma in Farmers and Horses.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Farmers are routinely exposed to organic dusts and aeroallergens that can have adverse respiratory health effects including asthma. Horses are farm-reared large animals with similar exposures and can develop equine asthma syndrome (EAS). This review aims to compare the etiology, pathophysiology, and immunology of asthma in horses compared to farmers and highlights the horse as a potential translational animal model for organic dust-induced asthma in humans.

Severe EAS shares many clinical and pathological features with various phenotypes of human asthma including allergic, non-allergic, late onset, and severe asthma. EAS disease features include variable airflow obstruction, cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation/remodeling, neutrophilic infiltrates, excess mucus production, and chronic innate immune activation. Severe EAS is a naturally occurring and biologically relevant, translational animal disease model that could contribute to a more thorough understanding of the environmental and immunologic factors contributing to organic dust-induced asthma in humans.

Efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe asthma.

J Asthma

To investigate the efficacy and safety of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) in clinical practice in adults with severe, refractory asthma.

Prospective, single-center, open, observational study comprising patients with uncontrolled asthma (asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) >1.5) and/or frequent exacerbations despite treatment with at least high dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a second controller. Efficacy outcomes was change from baseline 4, 8, 12 and 24 months in FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) score and asthma quality of life score (mini-AQLQ). Results are presented as median with interquartile ranges (IQR). The following were recorded as adverse events: Un-scheduled health care contacts, rescue courses of oral corticosteroid (OCS) and/or antibiotics for exacerbation for exacerbations/respiratory tract infections (RTI).

Six-teen patients were enrolled (9 males, median age 50 years; 14 followed for 24 months). Compared to baseline, an improvement in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, mini-AQLQ and ACQ was observed, i.e. FEV1 (IQR) 1.98 L (1.65-2.45) vs. 2.45 L (2.09-2.93) (p = 0.006), FVC (IQR) 3.23 L (2.76-4.05) vs. 3.75 L (3.22-4.36) (p = 0.041), FEV1/FVC 0.60 (IQR: 0.55-0.70) vs. 0.66 (IQR: 0.63-0.71) (p = 0.016), mini-AQLQ 4.0 (IQR: 3.2-4.9) vs. 5.6 (IQR 4.5-6.5) (p = 0.008, and ACQ 2.9 (IQR: 2.1-3.7) versus 1.5 (IQR 1.0-2.4) (p = 0.004). On the other hand, an increase was observed in unscheduled visits (p = 0.005), as well as use of OCS and antibiotics (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003, respectively).

BT in adults with severe asthma improved ACQ, mini-AQLQ and lung function, but resulted in an increased frequency of unscheduled doctor-visits and rescue courses of OCS and antibiotics.

Role of food insecurity in prescription delay among adults with asthma: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

J Asthma

Food insecurity remains a major public health concern in the United States. Studies have noted that food insecurity can lead to lower healthcare utilization and poorer health status. Despite the continuous burden of asthma, little research has shown whether food insecurity serves as a social determinant to poor asthma care. In this study, we specifically focused on whether food insecurity can lead to delay in prescription medication for adults with asthma in California.

We utilized the California Health Interview Survey. Survey weighted descriptive, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. A total of 11,645 observations, representing an average annual population size of 1,085,481 was included in this study.

Nearly 15% and 8% of participants were food insecure and had current asthma, respectively. Based on adjusted odds ratio, food insecure adults were 148% more likely to report delay in asthma prescription, as compared to those who were food secure (adjusted odds ratio =2.48; 95% CI: 1.58, 3.89).

Given the delay in prescription, and thus appropriate health care, demonstrated in our study, targeted measures at point of care should be implemented to identify such at-risk patients early and provide resources for food aid to ensure optimal health outcomes.

Brexit and UK citizens with HIV residing in Spain: A matter of public health.


Explore the implications of Brexit from the perspectives of British citizens with HIV residing in Spain (BHIV-RS).

We have studied the healthcare regulatory framework at the European and Spanish levels. This regulatory framework guarantees the right to healthcare in any country of the EU on equal terms with the citizens of the hosting country.

If the Withdrawal Agreement is agreed, then reciprocal healthcare rights of BHIV-RS will continue. Without Withdrawal Agreement BHIV-RS will have to rely on any rights which they may be able to claim under the Spanish system unless there is a bilateral agreement. In Spain, access to ART is free and granted by NHS but, constitutionally, who is entitled and their healthcare benefits can be limited, as happened in 2012 with migrants.

The events documented in relation to migrants provide a cautionary tale. While some BHIV-RS may have access to ART through private health insurance for the most part of them obtaining ART can be difficult and expensive particularly if they have related co-morbidities. A likely consequence would be the worsening of individual health (late presentations for HIV diagnosis increases the risk of dying) and public health (increases the transmission rate).

Switching from efavirenz to rilpivirine improves sleep quality and self-perceived cognition but has no impact on neurocognitive performances: Results from a randomized controlled trial.


Efavirenz (EFV) association with neurocognitive (NC) impairment is debated. Whether switching away from EFV improves NC performances is still controversial.

In a randomized open-label controlled trial, patients under effective treatment with tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC) and EFV, who had altered NC assessment (Z-transformed score below -1 in ≥1 cognitive domains), depression, anxiety or low sleep-quality, were randomized 1:1 to immediate or delayed (24-weeks) switch to TDF/FTC/rilpivirine (RPV). Treatment efficacy, NC function, symptoms and quality of life were evaluated 12, 24 and 48 weeks after randomization.

74 patients were randomized to immediate (36 patients) or delayed switch (38 patients). At baseline, 63% and 25% of patients had z-scores below -1 in ≥1 NC or 2 domains, 31.1%, 17.6% and 44.6% had significant depression or anxiety symptoms or low sleep-quality. At week 24 (primary end-point), overall NC improvement was observed, with no statistically significant differences between arms, neither considering the global z-score (between arms difference +0.1; P=0.458), nor domain-specific z-scores. Patients switching away from EFV had significant greater improvement of sleep quality index (between arms difference -1.5; P = 0.011), self-reported cognitive failures (-6.2; P = 0.001) and CNS symptoms score (-5; P = 0.002), but not of anxiety or depression. No protocol defined virological failure, grade ≥3 lab abnormalities or drug-related serious adverse events were reported.

Our results do not support the hypothesis that switching to RPV improves cognitive function in patient under stable treatment with EFV. Nonetheless, improvements in neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep quality and self-perceived cognition were observed.

High soluble CD163 levels correlate with disease progression and inflammation in kenyan children with perinatal hiv-infection.


CD163 is a hemoglobin scavenger receptor on monocytes and macrophages, cleaved to soluble CD163 (sCD163) in the plasma following activation. In HIV+ adults, sCD163 is linked to non-AIDS morbidity and predicts mortality, but there is limited data in children. We investigated sCD163 levels in HIV+ children and their correlations with disease progression, immune activation and gut mucosal damage.

We quantified sCD163 levels in Kenyan children aged 0-20 years with perinatal HIV infection, including 74 ART-naive (ART-) and 64 virally suppressed on ART (ART+), and 79 HIV unexposed-uninfected controls (HIV-). The cohort was divided into age groups 0-5 (younger) and 5-20 (older) years. Correlations between sCD163 and HIV viral load, %CD8, CD4:CD8 ratio, markers of T cell activation and proliferation, and gut mucosal damage were also assessed.

ART- children have higher sCD163 levels compared to HIV- and ART+ children (p ≤ 0.01); ART+ have equivalent sCD163 levels to HIV- children. In a prospective analysis, sCD163 levels decreased in older ART- children after 12 months of treatment (p < 0.0001). Regardless of age, sCD163 levels correlate with clinical disease progression measured by %CD4 T cells, CD4:CD8 T cell ratios and HIV viral load. Soluble CD163 levels directly correlate with T cell activation markers CD38, HLA-DR, and Ki67 (p ≤ 0.01).

High plasma sCD163 levels in HIV+ children correlate with advancing disease and T cell activation. ART initiation normalizes sCD163 levels and may alleviate HIV-related morbidities and improve long-term pediatric outcomes.

No overall change in the rate of weight gain after switching to an integrase-inhibitor in virologically suppressed adults with HIV.


Excessive weight gain has been reported with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). We evaluated weight changes in virologically-suppressed adults with HIV who switched from non-INSTI regimens to raltegravir- or dolutegravir-containing antiretroviral therapy.

Adults who switched to raltegravir or dolutegravir before or between January-2015 and October-2017 were identified. Virologically-suppressed, treatment-experienced (≥2 years) individuals, ≥6 months on INSTI, with weight measurements ≤2years pre- and post-switch were included. Our analysis used a random effects model with linear slope pre- and post-INSTI with adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, pre-switch-regimen (protease inhibitor vs. non-protease inhibitor), and raltegravir vs. dolutegravir use.

378 individuals, 81.2% male, 70.1% white ethnicity, median age of 49 years, median of four weight measurements per participant, and median weight and body mass index (BMI) at switch, of 76.6 kg, and 25.3 kg/m respectively were included. Weight increased by an average of 0.63 kg/year (95% CI 0.17-1.09) pre-switch with no overall change in rate of weight gain post-switch [+0.05 kg/year (-0.61-0.71, p = 0.88)]. In our adjusted model, a transition from minimal weight change to weight gain post-switch was isolated to older individuals though this lacked statistical significance [e.g. +1.59 kg/year (-0.26-3.45) if aged 65 years]. Our findings did not differ by gender, ethnicity, pre-switch regimen, or raltegravir vs. dolutegravir. Similar results were seen for BMI and after adjusting for fixed nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone.

We found no clear evidence of an overall increase in rate of weight gain following switch to INSTI in virologically-suppressed individuals.

Adherence to tuberculosis preventive therapy measured by urine metabolite testing among people with HIV.


Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV is effective, widely recommended, and increasingly prescribed, but completion rates are less than ideal, and adherence is not typically monitored. We sought to quantify adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using a urine metabolite assay.

Two cross-sectional surveys SETTING:: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009; and Northwest Province, South Africa, 2018-2019 PARTICIPANTS:: 203 Brazilian and 93 South African patients attending HIV clinics with active prescriptions for isoniazid preventive therapy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Self-reported isoniazid adherence, paired with semiquantitative measurement of urine isoniazid metabolites.

By self-report, 90% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 86-93%) reported having taken a dose of isoniazid on the day of enrollment or the preceding day, and 91% (95% CI 87-94%) reported missing an average of one dose or fewer per week. By urine testing, only 65% (95% CI 59-70%) of all patients, and 69% (95% CI 63-74%) of those who reported having taken isoniazid on the current or preceding day, had detectable urine metabolites (expected in 95% of patients at 24 hours). Longer time since starting preventive therapy was independently associated with a negative urine test for isoniazid metabolites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.11 per month of isoniazid, 95% CI 1.05-1.18).

Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among patients with HIV in Brazil and South Africa is inadequate, is overestimated by self-report, and declines with time on treatment. Shorter regimens for TB preventive therapy may improve adherence and completion, but adherence support for all patients may be necessary.

Human papillomavirus infection and cervical dysplasia in HIV-positive women: potential role of the vaginal microbiota.


To assess the associations between microbiological markers of vaginal dysbiosis and 1) incident/cleared/type-swap/persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection; and 2) incident/cured/cleared/persistent high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) while controlling for persistent hrHPV infection.

Participants were examined for hrHPV type (InnoLipA), cervical dysplasia (histology), and vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition (V3-V4 Illumina HiSeq 2x300 bp) at baseline and endline, a median of 16 months later.

Women with incident hrHPV compared to those who remained hrHPV-negative were less likely to have an optimal Lactobacillus crispatus/jensenii-dominated VMB type at endline (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 0.125, p = 0.019) but not at baseline. Having different hrHPV types at both visits was associated with multiple anaerobic dysbiosis markers at baseline (e.g. increased BV-anaerobes relative abundance: RRR = 3.246, p = 0.026). Compared to women without CIN2+ but with hrHPV at both visits, women with incident CIN2+ had increased Simpson diversity (RRR = 7.352, p = 0.028) and non-significant trends in other anaerobic dysbiosis markers at endline but not baseline. These associations persisted after controlling for age, hormonal contraception, and CD4+ count. Current hormonal contraceptive use (predominantly progestin-only injectables) was associated with increased CIN2+ risk over-and-above persistent hrHPV infection and independent of VMB composition.

hrHPV infection (and/or increased sexual risk-taking) may cause anaerobic vaginal dysbiosis, but a bidirectional relationship is also possible. In this population, dysbiosis did not increase CIN2+ risk, but CIN2+ increased dysbiosis risk. The CIN2+ risk associated with progestin-only injectable use requires further evaluation.

Antiretroviral therapy adherence among treatment-naive HIV-infected patients: A retrospective cohort study.


To determine the incidence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among treatment-naive HIV infected patients and to evaluate the impact of single-tablet regimen (STR) on ART adherence among this population.

We used a nationally representative sample of IQVIA LRx Lifelink individual level pharmacy claims database during 2011-16, and defined adult patients with index date (first complete ART regimen prescription fill date) after June 30, 2011 as treatment-naive. We estimated ART adherence, measured as the proportion of days covered (PDC) during one year following the index date. We conducted multivariable analysis to identify the factors associated with optimum adherence (≥90% PDC). We also compared adherence between patients prescribed STR and multiple-tablet regimens (MTR) among those prescribed integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens.

Overall 42.9% of the patients were optimally adherent. Adherence was significantly lower among blacks, Hispanics and patients in low income communities. Adjusting for the covariates, patients on STR had higher incidence of optimum adherence compared to those on MTR among patients on INSTI-based regimens [49% vs 24%, Relative Risk (RR), 2.16 (95% CI: 1.96-2.26)], but no significant difference was observed among those on NNRTI-based regimen [45% vs 45%, RR, 1.12 (95% CI: 0.99-1.26)].

Low ART adherence observed among treatment naïve patients in this nationally representative study suggests the need for public health interventions to improve adherence among this population.

Co-morbidities of HIV infection: role of Nef-induced impairment of cholesterol metabolism and lipid raft functionality.


: Combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV infection, turning it from a death sentence to a manageabl...

Growth curve modelling to determine distinct BMI trajectory groups in HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.


Obesity is a major long-term concern in HIV-positive patients due to the pathogenic link between obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs). We aim to characterize changes in BMI over time on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and investigate the association between weight gain and survival in South Africa.

A prospective cohort study among HIV-positive adults on first-line ART between April 2004 and 2015 in Johannesburg, South Africa. We used latent-class growth modelling (adjusted for age, sex and CD4 cell count) to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of change in BMI over time.

Eleven thousand, two hundred and sixty-three patients were included. The best fit model involved two linear and two quadratic trajectories. Thirty-five percent of patients were categorized into group one (mean BMI at ART initiation, 20.4 kg/m; mean BMI after 8 years of follow-up, 20.9 kg/m), 38% into group two (24.5-26.2 kg/m), 21% into group three (29.5-32.6 kg/m) and 6% into group four (36.5-40.0 kg/m). Over the 8 years of follow-up, 6% of our cohort went down in BMI standard category, while 45% went up. The largest increase occurred in the first 12 months on ART. In years 2 through 8, we saw a more gradual increase in BMI.

The largest gain in BMI in HIV patients occurred in the first year on ART. During follow-up, over 50% of our population changed BMI categories putting them at an increased risk for NCDs. Consistent counselling on nutritional and lifestyle changes could help improve ART patients' long-term health outcomes.