The latest medical research on Breast
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about breast gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Iron Deficiency Anemia and Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls and Women in a Rural Area of Jatinangor, Indonesia.International Journal of Epidemiology
Iron deficiency anemia is a common problem among adolescent girls and women, with significant consequences on personal health. One of the causes of iron deficiency anemia is inadequate nutritional intake. This study explores iron-deficiency anemia and associated factors among adolescent girls and women in a rural area of Jatinangor, Indonesia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 95 adolescent girls and 85 women between April and November 2018. Cluster random sampling was used to select the participants from seven villages in the Jatinangor district. After obtaining informed consent, we collected sociodemographic data, menstrual histories, and related data, including nutritional intake using 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometrics were gathered to determine the body mass Index (BMI), and venous blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count and hemoglobin levels. Descriptive statistics followed by bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify anemia-associated factors.
The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among the girls was 21.1% and 9.4% among women, with an average hemoglobin level in adolescents of 10.75 g/dL (± 0.79) and in adults 11.20 g/dL (± 0.61), whereas MCV was 74.49±8.22 fL in adolescents and 7.61±8.62 fL in adults. The majority of our samples were not stunted in growth and were also within a normal weight range. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that protein intake (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.11-0.58) was a positively associated factor with anemia.
The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in this study represents a mild public health problem in the study sample. Based on the hemoglobin level, anemia, can be classified as moderate in adolescents and mild in adults. Low levels of MCH indicate iron-deficiency anemia. Sufficient protein intake did not prevent anemia due to macronutrient and micronutrient intake.
Effect of Surgical Findings on Prediction of Postoperative Ovarian Reserve in Patients with Ovarian Endometrioma.International Journal of Epidemiology
Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) classification for endometriosis is considered to have limited ability to predict fertility after surgery. This study evaluated the effect of surgical findings described by the rASRM classification on postoperative change in serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in endometriosis.
We retrospectively analyzed 112 patients with endometrioma who underwent laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. The ovarian score was defined as the sum of the endometrioma score from the size and depth of endometrioma and the adhesion score from the extent and types of ovarian adhesion described in the rASRM classification. The ovarian score was correlated with the AMH levels before surgery (AMH0), 3 (AMH3), and 6 months (AMH6) after surgery. To design a model for predicting AMH6, using ovarian score and AMH0, we calculated the unstandardized predictive value of AMH6/AMH0 (UPV) by linear regression analysis. The predicted AMH6 (pAMH6) could be calculated by multiplying the UPV by AMH0. When AMH6 is less than 1.0 ng/mL, it was defined as a poor ovarian reserve group (PORG), and the accuracy of the predictive model was validated.
The level of AMH declined more in rASRM stage IV compared to stage III after surgery. The ovarian score had a significant variable in the linear regression analysis with the ratio of AMH6/AMH0 (p = 0.001). The UPV was correlated with ovarian score negatively. The pAMH6 correlated with AMH6 positively and with age negatively. The pAMH6 showed sensitivity 0.564, specificity 0.909, positive predictive rate 0.786, and negative predictive rate 0.800 in the prediction of PORG (p < 0.001).
The pAMH6 predicted the PORG at 6 months after surgery. Based on the results of our study, the surgical findings, including the size and depth of the endometrioma and extent and types of adhesion could be useful indicators for ovarian reserve after surgery.
Modulation of Breast Cancer Cell FASN Expression by Obesity-Related Systemic Factors.Breast Cancer
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of exposure to obesity-related systemic factors on fatty acid synthase enzyme (FASN) expression in breast cancer cells.
MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to sera from patients having obesity or not having obesity and subjected to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Subsequent MTT and colony-forming assays using both MCF-7 and T-47D cells exposed to sera and treated with or without FASN inhibitor, TVB-3166, were used. MCF-7 cells were then treated with insulin and the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) processing inhibitor, betulin, prior to analysis of FASN expression by quantitative RT-qPCR and western blot. Insulin-induced SREBP-FASN promoter binding was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with an anti-SREBP antibody.
In response to sera exposure (body mass index [BMI] >30) there was an increase in FASN expression in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with the FASN inhibitor, TVB-3166, resulted in a decreased breast cancer cell survival and proliferation while increasing apoptosis upon sera exposure (BMI >30). Insulin-exposed MCF-7 cells exhibited an increased FASN messenger RNA and protein expression, which is abrogated upon SREBP inhibition. In addition, insulin exposure induced enhanced SREBP binding to the FASN promoter.
Our results implicate FASN as a potential mediator of obesity-induced breast cancer aggression and a therapeutic target of patients with obesity-induced breast cancer.
Cost-effectiveness of clinical breast examination screening programme among HER2-positive breast cancer patients: a modelling study.Breast Cancer
For many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), breast cancer (BC) screening based on mammography is not a viable option. Clinical breast examination (CBE) may represent a pragmatic and cost-effective alternative. This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of CBE screening programme among a patient group for whom its cost-effectiveness is likely to be least evident (HER2-positive patients) and discuss the wider implications for BC screening in LMICs.
A Markov model was used to examine clinical and economic outcomes over a life-time horizon from the patient, public payer, and healthcare sector perspective. HER2-positive patients entered the model at either disease-free survival or metastatic BC state. The downstaging effect of CBE determined the starting probabilities in the no-screening and screening scenarios. The model used a monthly cycle length, with half-cycle correction. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 1.5% annually.
Compared with no-screening, the cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year gained for the CBE screening programme was $1801, $2381, and $4179 from three mentioned perspectives, respectively. The finding of cost-effectiveness remained robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. The parameters to which ICERs are most sensitive are average age of cohorts, reduction in proportion of metastatic patients at diagnosis, cost of CBE, and BC detection rate of the programme.
For HER2-positive patients and compared with no-screening, CBE screening programme in Vietnam is cost-effective from all investigated perspectives. CBE is a 'good value' intervention and should be considered for implementation throughout Vietnam as well as in LMICs where mammography is not feasible.
Risk factors associated with chronic pain after mastectomy: a prospective study with a 5-year follow-up in Japan.Breast Cancer
Chronic pain is a major complication following breast surgery including breast reconstruction. We previously examined prospective patient-specific and medical/surgical factors that predict chronic pain a year after breast surgery in the Japanese population. Five-year survivorship is essential for breast cancer patients. This report is a 4-year follow-up study following the previous research.
A follow-up observation study was performed 5 years after breast operations. The subjects were patients who underwent breast surgery, including tissue expander/implant (TE/implant), DIEP procedures and mastectomy only. Pain at 5 years was assessed using the Japanese Version of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-JV). A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the relationships of clinical factors with chronic pain.
Questionnaires were completed by 132 subjects. No factor related to chronic pain was significantly related to the MPQ pain ratings. Among patient characteristics, a psychotic or neurological medical history was related to significantly lower visual analog scale (p = 0.02) and present pain index (p = 0.04) scores. A history of chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy was significantly associated with the frequency of use of pain medication postoperatively (p = 0.05) and effect on the social life of the patients (p = 0.02).
A psychotic or neurological history and a history of chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy were identified as risk factors for chronic pain after breast surgery, but the type of operation was not associated with chronic pain.
Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor is a biomarker poor prognostic factor and induces proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells through FOXM1.Breast Cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival due to significant genetic heterogeneity, drug resistance and lack of effective targeted therapeutics. Therefore, novel molecular targets and therapeutic strategies are needed to improve patient survival. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to induce growth stimulatory effects in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which 5-HT exerts its oncogenic effects in TNBC still are not well understood.
Normal breast epithelium (MCF10A) and two TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231, BT-546) and MCF-7 cells (ER +) were used to investigate effects of 5-HT7 receptor. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown and metergoline (5-HT7 antagonist) were used to inhibit the activity of 5-HT7. Cell proliferation and colony formation were evaluated using MTS cell viability and colony formation assays, respectively. Western blotting was used to investigate 5-HT7, FOXM1 and its downstream targets protein expressions.
We demonstrated that 5-HT induces cell proliferation of TNBC cells and expression of 5-HT7 receptor and FOXM1 oncogenic transcription factor. We found that expression of 5-HT7 receptor is up-regulated in TNBC cells and higher 5-HT7 receptor expression is associated with poor patient prognosis and shorter patient survival. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT7 receptor by siRNA and metergoline, respectively, suppressed TNBC cell proliferation and FOXM1 and its downstream mediators, including eEF2-Kinase (eEF2K) and cyclin-D1.
Our findings suggest for the first time that the 5-HT7 receptor promotes FOXM1, eEF2K and cyclin D1 signaling to support TNBC cell proliferation; thus, inhibition of 5-HT7 receptor/FOXM1 signaling may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting TNBC. 5-HT induces cell proliferation of TNBC cells through 5-HT7 receptor signaling. Also, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT7 by RNAi (siRNA) and metergoline HTR7 antagonist, respectively inhibits FOXM1 oncogenic transcription factor and suppresses TNBC cell proliferation.
Emergency Contraceptive Pill Use and its Impact on Condom Utilization Among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.International Journal of Epidemiology
Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) prevent unplanned pregnancy but not sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and the practice of ECP may affect condom use. This study, therefore, aimed to assess ECP use and its impact on condom utilization among female students of private universities in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia.
An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 female students in three different private universities from February 1 to 28, 2019. Study samples were selected through simple random sampling technique. Data collected from a structured self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with condom utilization, and statistical significance was set at 95% confidence interval (CI) using a p-value of <0.05 as a cutoff point.
The response rate was 95.3% (381/400). Overall, 51.4% (196/381; 95% CI = 45.1%, 57.7%) had awareness of ECP. Besides, 186 (48.8%) students reported history of sexual intercourse, of which 115 (61.8%) have ever practiced ECP and 96 (51.6%) have ever used condom. However, only 11 (5.9%) have ever utilized ECP and condom concurrently. Use of ECPs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.164, 0.632; p = 0.001), belief that condom prevents STI (AOR = 3.17; 95% CI = 1.045, 8.646; p = 0.041) and thought that ECP does not prevent STI (AOR = 2.217; 95% CI = 1.172, 4.59; p = 0.032) had statistically significant association with condom utilization.
The practice of ECP was average, while dual method contraception use was low in the study area. History of ECP use and beliefs that ECP is not effective to prevent STI or condom protects against STI were factors associated with condom use.
Artificial intelligence computer-aided detection enhances synthesized mammograms: comparison with original digital mammograms alone and in combination with tomosynthesis images in an experimental setting.Breast Cancer
It remains unclear whether original full-field digital mammograms (DMs) can be replaced with synthesized mammograms in both screening and diagnostic settings. To compare reader performance of artificial intelligence computer-aided detection synthesized mammograms (AI CAD SMs) with that of DM alone or in combination with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images in an experimental setting.
We compared the performance of multireader (n = 4) and reading multicase (n = 388), in 84 cancers, 83 biopsy-proven benign lesions, and 221 normal or benign cases with negative results after 1-year follow-up. Each reading was independently interpreted with four reading modes: DM, AI CAD SM, DM + DBT, and AI CAD SM + DBT. The accuracy of probability of malignancy (POM) and five-category ratings were evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the random-reader analysis.
The mean AUC values based on POM for DM, AI CAD SM, DM + DBT, and AI CAD SM + DBT were 0.871, 0.902, 0.895, and 0.909, respectively. The mean AUC of AI CAD SM was significantly higher (P = 0.002) than that of DM. For calcification lesions, the sensitivity of SM and DM did not differ significantly (P = 0.204). The mean AUC for AI CAD SM + DBT was higher than that of DM + DBT (P = 0.082). ROC curves based on the five-category ratings showed similar proximity of the overall performance levels.
AI CAD SM alone was superior to DM alone. Also, AI CAD SM + DBT was superior to DM + DBT but not statistically significant.
Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Vaccine Hesitancy Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Lubaga Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.International Journal of Epidemiology
While hepatitis B virus infection may be seen as a global threat within the medical and scientific community, primary prevention via vaccination remains the most effective approach towards breaking the chain of transmission of HBV infection. However, vaccination uptake in Uganda has been modest despite a very endemic national figure resulting from the vertical transmission of this infection. This study assessed the predictors of HBV vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic in Central Uganda.
A hospital-based cross-sectional study employing a five-sectioned pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted to obtain data from 385 consenting pregnant women. Responses for the antecedent variables were transformed into weighted aggregate scores using SPSS version 26. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to ascertain the predictors of HBV vaccine hesitancy with the cut-off for hypotheses set at 5% level of significance.
The majority of the respondents (59%) were between the ages of 18 and 28 years. Women with secondary educational attainment were predominant (42.3%). The respondents had mean scores of 5.97±6.61, 17.10±18.31, and 12.39±13.37, respectively, computed for knowledge of HBV infection, perception, and behavioral skills towards HBV prevention. Regarding vaccine hesitancy, three-quarters of the women (74%) hesitated to uptake HBV vaccine. While negative significant associations exist between marital status (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.22-1.01), knowledge (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.89), behavioral skills (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95) and vaccine hesitancy, level of education (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.08-3.27) and perception (AOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05-1.18) on the other hand, positively predicted vaccine hesitancy.
The findings reported an extremely high degree of HBV vaccine hesitancy among the expectant mothers discovered to be linked with marital status, educational attainment, HBV-specific knowledge, perception and behavioral skills. This necessitates targeted health education for married women with lower educational attainment to improve their knowledge which will in turn shape their perception and behavioral skills towards satisfactory uptake of HBV vaccine.
Risk factors for arm lymphedema following breast cancer surgery: a Japanese nationwide database study of 84,022 patients.Breast Cancer
Although arm lymphedema is a well-known complication following breast cancer surgery, previous studies involving a small population showed inconsistent results regarding the risk. Therefore, we examined the risk factors using a Japanese nationwide database.
Female patients who underwent breast cancer surgery from April, 2016, to March, 2020, were identified from a Japanese nationwide database. Multivariable survival analyses for 19 baseline factors (12 patient characteristics, four tumor characteristics, and three surgical procedures) were conducted to investigate risk factors associated with treatments for postoperative lymphedema (such as lymphatic bypass, compositive drainage therapy, hospitalization, and Kampo use) with a multilevel model to adjust for within-hospital clustering. We also conducted multivariable analysis for five postoperative factors (two local complications and three postoperative therapies) with adjustment for 19 baseline factors.
The study included 84,022 patients; 1547 (1.8%) received treatments for lymphedema during a median follow-up of 119 weeks (interquartile range, 59-187 weeks). Young age, obesity, smoking, collagen diseases, advanced cancer stage, total mastectomy, axillary dissection, postoperative bleeding, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were identified as risk factors. Postoperative chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 3.78 [95% confidence interval, 3.35-4.26]) and axillary dissection (2.46 [1.95-3.11]) showed the highest odds ratio among the risk factors. The cumulative probabilities in high-risk patients reached approximately 3% at 1 year and 6% at 4 years after surgery.
This study identified several risk factors for postoperative lymphedema in breast cancer surgery. The treatment initiation increased markedly within the first year and gradually after 1 year post-surgery.
Effect of Aerobic Exercises in Improving Premenstrual Symptoms Among Healthy Women: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.International Journal of Epidemiology
Premenstrual symptoms in women of reproductive age are associated with substantial distress and functional impairments. A healthy lifestyle is the first step to manage premenstrual symptoms. Recreational physical activities have been recommended as an alternative to medical management in easing premenstrual symptoms.
The objective of this systematic review is to analyze the effects of aerobic exercises in improving premenstrual symptoms among healthy women.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from inception to February 2022, were searched using keywords in electronic databases such as, SCOPUS, PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane and web of science. RCTs published in English, comparing the effects of aerobic exercise with other interventions or controls were included. PEDro scale and Cochrane collaboration tool for risk of bias was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Data from the included study and the participant's characteristics, interventions, outcome and results were extracted.
Five RCTs with 492 participants were included in this systematic review. Methodological quality assessed by PEDro (4.8/10) and Cochrane collaboration tool for risk of bias were moderate. Allocation concealment, blinding of participants and outcome assessors were the most common bias in all included studies. Walking, swimming and running were the common aerobic exercises performed in the RCTs. Aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical physiological symptoms among women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Aerobic exercises are effective in improving premenstrual symptoms. This review provides moderate evidence for improving hematological parameters during PMS. Further RCTs with long term follow up and quality of life would consolidate our findings.
Predictive value of immune genomic signatures from breast cancer cohorts containing data for both response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognosis after surgery.Breast Cancer
Previous studies of immune genomic signatures (IGSs) in breast cancer have attempted to predict the response to chemotherapy or prognosis and were performed using different patient cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive functions of various IGSs using the same patient cohort that included data for response to chemotherapy as well as the prognosis after surgery.
We applied five previously described IGS models in a public dataset of 508 breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The prognostic and predictive values of each model were evaluated, and their correlations were compared.
We observed a high proportion of expression concordance among the IGS models (r: 0.56-1). Higher scores of IGSs were detected in aggressive breast cancer subtypes (basal and HER2-enriched) (P < 0.001). Four of the five IGSs could predict chemotherapy responses and two could predict 5-year relapse-free survival in cases with hormone receptor-positive (HR +) tumors. However, the models showed no significant differences in their predictive abilities for hormone receptor-negative (HR-) tumors.
IGSs are, to some extent, useful for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy response; moreover, they show substantial agreement for specific breast cancer subtypes. However, it is necessary to identify more compelling biomarkers for both prognosis and response to chemotherapy in HR- and HER2 + cases.