The latest medical research on Breast

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about breast gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Clinicopathological Features and Treatment Outcomes of Male Breast Cancer in Pakistani Population: A 10-Year Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

Breast Cancer

Male breast cancer (MBC) accounts for 1% of global breast cancer cases. On account of its rarity, very few prospective clinical trials have been carried out on MBC. Pakistan has the highest incidence of breast cancer in Asia, but very limited data are available on MBC.

The objective is to determine the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment patterns of MBC in Pakistani population.

This is a retrospective cross-sectional study.

A retrospective cross-sectional study carried out using the cancer database of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Center. Men with a histologically proven breast cancer, stage 0 to III disease and requiring surgical intervention were included. The Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test were used for survival analysis.

Sixty-eight patients with MBC were included with a median age at diagnosis of 55 years. Most patients were stage II (47.1%). Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) was the commonest type (89.7%). Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 receptor positivity were 92.6%, 86.8%, and 32.4%, respectively. Mastectomy was performed in 95.6% of the cases. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 25 (36.8%) and 26 (38.2%) patients, respectively. Fifty-five (80.9%) patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Most of the patients (89.7%) received tamoxifen. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival was 88.2% and 80.9%, respectively. Patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a better overall and disease-free survival (P = .025).

Male breast cancer occurs at a relatively earlier age in Pakistani population as compared with Western men. Mastectomy is the preferred surgical option for MBC on account of the advanced disease and delayed presentation. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has a statistically significant effect on overall and disease-free survival, but in spite of these benefits, it remains underutilized.

Outcomes of whole breast radiation therapy in Asian breast cancer patients with prior cosmetic implants.

Breast Cancer

As breast augmentation has become more popular, an increasing number of women with augmented breasts require treatment for breast cancer. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of postoperative whole breast radiation therapy (WB-RT) in Asian patients with breast cancer who underwent prior cosmetic breast implantation.

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 61 patients with breast cancer who had prior cosmetic breast implants (prior-CBI) and underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and WB-RT between 2015 and 2020. The median implant volume was 238.8 cc, with a median interval of 84.7 months between the prior-CBI and BCS. WB-RT was administered with either conventional fractionation (CF-RT) at 50 Gy in 25 fractions (N = 36) or hypofractionation (HF-RT) at 42.6 Gy in 16 fractions (N = 25). The incidences of implant-related complications (IRC) and their contributing factors were analyzed.

After a median follow-up of 43.5 months, the 3-year cumulative incidences of IRC and implant loss were 17.2% and 4.9%, respectively. Among the four (6.6%) patients who opted for implant removal after RT, three were potentially related to RT-related capsular contracture. There was no difference in the 3-year cumulative IRC rates following CF-RT and HF-RT (12.2% and 26.7%, respectively; p = 0.120). The risk factors for IRC included a larger implant size (> 260 cc) and a higher ratio of breast tissue to implant volume.

This study demonstrated a favorable safety profile of WB-RT for treatment of breast cancer in Asian women with prior-CBI. The integration of HF-RT following BCS was thought to be a feasible approach.

Preliminary report on ultrashort perioperative partial-breast irradiation with multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

Perioperative partial-breast irradiation (PBI) with multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) is less invasive and more convenient than postoperative one. This study aimed to compare ultrashort perioperative MIB-PBI (uPBI) and conventional perioperative MIB-PBI (cPBI) performed during the same period of time.

Inclusion criteria of the study were patients aged ≥ 40 years and those with T0-2 (≤ 3 cm), N0-mi, and negative margins on mammography. The locoregional recurrence (LRR) and toxicity rates were compared between uPBI at a dose of 25.2 Gy in four fractions and cPBI at a dose of 32 Gy in eight fractions.

In total, 198 patients (151 with uPBI and 47 with cPBI) were evaluated. At a median follow-up of 20.1 months, one (0.66%) patient in the uPBI group had LRR. The 2-year ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival rates of the uPBI and cPBI groups were 98.7% and 100%, respectively. The highest toxicity grades were grade 1 in 23 (15.2%) and grade 2 in 2 (1.3%) patients in the uPBI group, and grade 1 in 8 (17.0%) and grade 2 in 1 (2.1%) patient in the cPBI group. None of the patients in the two groups presented with grade 3 and higher toxicities. The toxicity rates between the two groups did not significantly differ. Further, 22 (14.6%) patients in the uPBI group and 8 (17.0%) in the cPBI group, and 3 (2.0%) patients in the uPBI group and 1 (2.1%) in the cPBI had acute and late toxicities, respectively. The timing of toxicity development between the two groups did not significantly differ.

Although this preliminary report included a small sample size and had a short follow-up period, the local control and toxicity rates were similar between the uPBI and cPBI groups. Further research is warranted to investigate the ideal dose schedule of MIB-PBI.

Decision To Delivery Time and Its Predictors Among Mothers Who Underwent Emergency Cesarean Delivery At Selected Hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia, 2023: Prospective Cohort Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The decision to delivery time is the interval between the decision and the childbirth by emergency caesarean delivery. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that the decision to delivery time interval is less than 30 min. Additionally, the decision to delivery time varies across institutions and countries.

The aim of this study was to determine the decision to delivery time and its predictors among women who underwent emergency cesarean delivery at selected hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia, 2023.

An institutional-based prospective cohort study was conducted at selected hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia, among women who underwent emergency cesarean delivery from November 1 to January 30, 2023. A total of 285 participants were enrolled, and data collected using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. A systematic sampling technique was used. Data were entered into Epi-Data version 4.6 and then exported to STATA 15 for further analysis. The log rank test was utilized to compare group differences. The time is estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors.

From 285 participants, 56 (21.8%) women delivered within the recommended 30 min. The overall median survival time was undetermined and the restricted mean survival time was 48.9 min (95% CI: 47.4-50.5). The average decision to delivery time is affected among women who hesitate to accept consent (AHR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.02-1.25), cord prolapses (AHR: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.46-3.94), rank of surgeon (AHR: 0.42. 95% CI: 0.42-1.08), no free operation room table (AHR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.28-0.94), regional anesthesia (AHR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.25-1.28), and use of a bladder flap (AHR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85).

Overall decision to delivery times among women who underwent emergency cesarean section at selected hospitals were longer than the recommended time.

A novel approach correlating pathologic complete response with digital pathology and radiomics in triple-negative breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

This rapid communication highlights the correlations between digital pathology-whole slide imaging (WSI) and radiomics-magnetic resonance imaging (...

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anxiety Disorders Among Pregnant Women at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Anxiety disorders in pregnancy are common and represent a global concern. However, data regarding the magnitude of anxiety among pregnant women in Uganda are limited, and yet, these data could pave way for implementing effective mitigation measures. We determined the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors among pregnant women at Mulago Hospital Uganda.

A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Mulago Hospital between September and November 2015. Systematic sampling was used to enroll eligible women. An interviewer-administered demographic questionnaire and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for Antenatal Anxiety (HAMA-A) scale were used to assess demographic features and anxiety, respectively. Women with HAMA-A score ≥17 were considered to have anxiety disorder. Factors associated with anxiety disorders were determined using multivariate logistic regression.

A total of 501 pregnant women were enrolled into the study; the prevalence of anxiety disorders was 13% (n=65; 95% CI: 9.8-15.7%). Factors that were significantly associated with anxiety disorders were low income of the participants (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.06), bad relationship with spouse (AOR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.01-5.82) and history of hypertension in previous pregnancy (AOR = 4.17, 95% CI: 1.68-10.37).

Approximately one in ten women surveyed exhibited anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders were associated with low-income levels, bad spousal relationships, and a history of hypertension during previous pregnancies. Multidisciplinary approaches that integrate mental health support, social services, and partner involvement may help address anxiety disorders in pregnancy and contribute to improved maternal and child outcomes.

Prevalence and Factors Contributing to Fear of Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners: A Cross-Sectional Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a generalized psychological problem among cancer patients and their spouses. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of cancer recurrence fear among breast cancer patients and their spouses, as well as its predictive factors.

A total of 155 breast cancer patients and their partners between March 2022 to Feb 2023 were selected from Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University. The survey was investigated by fear of progression questionnaire-short form (FoP‑Q‑SF), fear of progression questionnaire-short form for partners (FoP-Q-SF/P), family resilience questionnaire (FaRE), and health literacy management scale (HeLMS). Predictors were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.

52.9% (n=82) of breast cancer patients and 51.6% (n=80) of their spouses experienced high levels of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). There was a positive correlation between the FCR of the patients and their spouses, while family resilience and health literacy were statistically significant negative predictive factors for breast cancer patients' fear of cancer recurrence.

In summary, the study found that the partner's FCR, health literacy and family resilience were closely related to the FCR in breast cancer patients. Therefore, healthcare workers can reduce the patient's FCR by reducing the FCR in spouses, improving patients' health literacy and family resilience in the future. In practical application, these findings hold significant implications for developing comprehensive care plans and interventions targeting FCR in breast cancer patients. By focusing on patients' partners and providing appropriate support and resources, healthcare professionals can promote patients' psychological well-being and overall health, leading to improved quality of life.

The Association Between Exercise During Pregnancy and the Risk of Preterm Birth.

International Journal of Epidemiology

We aimed to examine the association between exercise during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB).

This study was a baseline survey of the Jinan birth cohort. The study subjects were the mothers one month after giving birth, which were investigated by questionnaires retrospectively containing physical exercise (frequency, time, and primary exercise patterns) during pregnancy and each trimester. Individual time spent on exercise and energy expenditure were assessed based on the questionnaires. PTB was clinically defined as a newborn born on or before the last day of the 37th week. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression to assess the relationship between exercise during pregnancy and the risk of PTB. Variable selection for the multivariate models was guided by the directed acyclic graph. The median effect was analyzed by the sequential test.

The prevalence of PTB in this study was 4.38% (285/6501). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for the risk of PTB related to exercise during pregnancy was 0.74 (0.58-0.95). During the 1st and 2nd trimesters, the ORs (95% CI) for 2.5 to 7 hours of exercise per week were 0.77 (0.59-0.99) and 0.74 (0.57-0.96). During the 3rd trimester, the ORs (95% CI) for 2.5 to 7 hours and more than 7 hours of exercise per week were 0.74 (0.56-0.96) and 0.65 (0.44-0.94). After stratifying the subjects, the association was only found among subjects without pregnancy complications. Pregnancy complications partially mediated (52.40%) the relationship between exercise during pregnancy and PTB.

Exercise during pregnancy can reduce the risk of PTB for women without pregnancy complications. 2.5 to 7 hours of exercise (like walking) per week may be appropriate in three trimesters of pregnancy, and the time could be extended in the 3rd trimester.

Significant Prognostic Factor at Age Cut-off of 73 Years for Advanced Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma Patients: Insights from Real-World Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The objective of this research was to determine the age cut-off for worse prognosis and investigate age-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in patients with advanced ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (AOSC).

In this research, we included a cohort of 20,846 patients diagnosed with AOSC, along with RNA-seq data from 374 patients in publicly available databases. Then we used the X-tile software to determine the age cut-off and stratified the patients into young and old groups. We utilized propensity score matching (PSM) to balance baseline between the young and old groups. Furthermore, we conducted an enrichment analysis of DEGs between the two age groups using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and gene ontology (GO) to identify dysregulated pathways. To evaluate the potential prognostic value of the DEGs, we performed survival analysis, such as Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test.

We stratified the patients into young group (n=16,336) and old group (n=4510) based on the cut-off age of 73 years by X-tile software. Age over 73 years was identified as an independent risk factor for overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Next, we identified 436 DEGs and found that the neurotrophin signaling pathway and translation factor activity were associated with prognosis outcomes. Among the top 10 hub genes (RELA, NFKBIA, TRAF6, IRAK2, TAB3, AKT1, TBP, EIF2S2, MAPK10, and SUPT3H), RELA, TAB3, AKT1, TBP, and SUPT3H were found to be significantly associated with poor prognosis in old patients with AOSC.

Our study determined 73 years as the cutoff value for age in patients with AOSC. RELA, TAB3, AKT1, TBP, and SUPT3H were identified as age-related DEGs that could contribute to the poor prognosis of older patients with AOSC.

Current Situation and Mental Health of Pregnant Women During the Prevention and Control of Novel Coronavirus Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Investigation of Influencing Factors.

International Journal of Epidemiology

COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which became a global public health crisis. In the past 3 years, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic increase in the occurrence of psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress in global populations. Therefore, it is important to help pregnant women cope with major public emergencies and improve their physical and mental health.

To investigate the status and influencing factors of anxiety, insomnia, and psychological stress disorder in pregnant women with COVID-19 to provide a theoretical basis for psychological intervention in pregnant women in the case of public health emergency events.

A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 435 pregnant women from multiple tertiary hospitals in Zhengzhou from November 6 to December 6, 2022. The questionnaire contents included the general information of pregnant women, insomnia scale, generalized anxiety scale, and the revised version of the Accident Impact Scale.

There are 251 pregnant women with anxiety (57.7%, 95% CI: (53.0%-62.4%).There are 166 pregnant women with insomnia.(38.2%, 95% CI: 33.6%-42.7%), There are 314 pregnant women with stress disorder.(72.2%, 95% CI: 68.0%-76.4%). During the epidemic prevention and control period, whether pregnant women had a history of adverse pregnancy had a statistically significant difference in anxiety, insomnia and stress disorders.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women appeared to generally have anxiety, insomnia, and stress disorders. Poor pregnancy history is a protective factor for pregnant women with anxiety, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In the case of similar public health emergencies, attention bias modification (ABM) may be a potential intervention measure to provide potentially new ideas for alleviating the psychological disorders of pregnant women during this special period.

Clinical benefits of tomosynthesis-guided vacuum assisted breast biopsy: a comparison with stereotactic vacuum assisted biopsy.

Breast Cancer

Tomosynthesis-guided vacuum assisted breast biopsy (3D-VAB) has been used increasingly. The aim of our study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of 3D-VAB and stereotactic vacuum assisted biopsy (2D-VAB) on the number of tissue cores containing targeted calcifications and on the procedure time.

Consecutive 87 women who underwent biopsy at our hospital from April 2020 to March 2022 for calcifications mammographically suspicious of malignancy were included in this study: 57 patients with 3D-VAB and 30 patients with 2D-VAB.

Grouped or clustered calcified lesions were found in 39 and 21 patients among the 3D-VAB group and the 2D-VAB group, respectively. The mean number of tissue cores per biopsy containing targeted calcifications from the grouped or clustered calcified lesions was 3 and 2.3 specimens for the 3D-VAB group and for the 2D-VAB group, respectively. The mean procedure time for grouped or clustered calcifications was significantly shorter in the 3D-VAB group than in the 2D-VAB group (16.5 min vs. 27.4 min, P < 0.01). Comparing the procedure time between 3D-VAB and 2D-VAB based on calcification category, 3D-VAB had significantly shorter procedure time than 2D-VAB for both category 3 and category 4 calcification. For all patients, the mean procedure time was 18.1 min for the 3D-VAB group and 27.7 min for the 2D-VAB, thus being significantly shorter with 3D-VAB than 2D-VAB (P < 0.01).

Our study demonstrated that the clinical effectiveness of 3D-VAB is superior to that of 2D-VAB and that the significant reduction in examination time with 3D-VAB is expected to benefit patients.

Survival trends and patient characteristics between 2004 and 2016 for breast cancer in Japan based on the National Clinical Database-Breast Cancer Registry.

Breast Cancer

This is a prognostic report by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society on breast cancer extracted from the National Clinical Database-Breast Cancer Regi...