The latest medical research on Breast

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about breast gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Through Breastfeeding Improving Awareness and Education: A Short Narrative Review.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Despite critical progress registered in the reduction of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV worldwide, transmission through breastfeeding s...

Management of Non-Mass Enhancement at Breast Magnetic Resonance in Screening Settings Referred for Magnetic Resonance-Guided Biopsy.

Breast Cancer

According to the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS), one of the main limitations of MRI is diagnosing the non-mass enhancement (NME). The NME lesion is challenging since it is unique to the MRI lexicon. This study aims to report our experience with NME lesions diagnosed by MRI referred for MRI-guided biopsies and discuss the management and follow-up of these lesions.

We retrospectively evaluated all MRI-guide breast biopsies. We included all patients referred for NME breast MRI-guided biopsy in screening settings. All patients had a negative second-look mammography or ultrasonography. We correlated the distribution and internal enhancement pattern (IEP) of the NME lesions with histology. Invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of no special type and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were considered malignant lesions.

From January-2018 to July-2021, we included 96 women with a total of 96 lesions in the study. There were 90 benign and 6 malignant lesions with DCIS prevalence (5/6 cancers). The most frequent benign lesion type was fibrocystic changes. There were no NME lesions with diffuse or multiple area distribution features referred to MRI-guided biopsy. The positive-predictive values (PPV) were respectively 0.0%, 2.5%, 9.0%, and 11.0% for linear, focal, regional, and segmental distribution describers, and 0.0, 3.0%, 7.9%, and 50% for homogenous, heterogeneous, clumped, and clustered-ring enhancement patterns.

We observe the high potential risk for malignancy in the clustered-ring enhancement followed by the clumped pattern. Segmental distribution presented the highest predictive-positive values.

Characteristics, treatment trends, and long-term outcomes of Japanese patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

Breast Cancer

To clarify the characteristics, treatment trends, and long-term outcomes of patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

PABC includes breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy (PBC) and breast cancer diagnosed within 1 year after childbirth or during lactation (LBC). We compared clinical characteristics of 126 patients with LBC and 49 patients with PBC who underwent surgery at our hospital from 1946 to 2018. Survival was compared between patients with LBC and those with PBC in terms of breast cancer-specific disease-free survival (BC-DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Patients with LBC were more likely to have family history, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, and to receive chemotherapy than patients with PBC. Patients with LBC showed poorer BS-DFS and OS than patients with PBC. Among patients with LBC, those treated after 2005 were older at surgery, had a smaller tumor size, received more systemic therapy, and had a more favorable prognosis than patients treated before 2004. Family history, breast cancer within 1 year after childbirth, and surgery before 2004 as well as cStage, lymph node metastasis, and lymphatic invasion were significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with LBC. In the multivariate analysis for BC-DFS and OS among patients with PABC, LBC vs PBC did not remain as an independent prognostic factor while cStage remained.

Patients with LBC had a poorer prognosis than those with PBC, most likely due to disease progression rather than biological characteristics. Early detection and optimization of systemic treatments are critical for improving the outcomes of patients with LBC.

Effect of patient decision aids on decisional conflict and regret associated with breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Breast Cancer

ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT03105076; April 7, 2017 ( http://www.

In this two-group, outcome assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial, 151 patients diagnosed as having breast cancer were assigned to the PDA (SDM with PDA) group or the standard (SDM without PDA) group. Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed to identify variables affecting the treatment choice. The patients' decision-making difficulties were evaluated using the four-item SURE scale during preoperative hospitalization, and decisional conflicts were examined using the five-item Decision Regret scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 1 month after surgery.

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PDAs did not assist the patients with breast cancer in making breast surgery-related decisions. Clinicians should focus on SDM grounded in evidence-based medicine with care and help patients consider their individual preferences.

Comparative study of the usefulness of adjunctive tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening by mammography and ultrasound in Japan.

Breast Cancer

There are few studies have conducted digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in addition to digital mammography (2DDM) and ultrasound (US) for screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of synergistic effects of DBT and US screening for Japanese.

5023 examinations of the opportunistic screening using 2DDM and US (2D group: 2581) or 2DDM and US plus DBT (3 group: 2442) were performed at our facility from May 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019. This study was not RCT, and the backgrounds of the two groups were different.

The recall rate was 3.1% in the 2D group and 2.6% for the 3D group (p = 0.27). The number of detected cancer cases was 6 (0.23%) in the 2D group and 12 (0.49%) in the 3D group (p = 0.16). The positive predictive value (PPV) was 7.4% for the 2D group and 19.0% for the 3D group (p = 0.045). There was one invasive ductal carcinoma case which had no findings in 2DDM and US, but had a slight distortion in the images of DBT.

We examined and reported whether DBT was useful for breast cancer screening combined with mammography and US. Compared to the 2D group, the 3D group showed better results of PPV with significant difference. However, due to the non-randomized design and difference between the two groups, the results should be interpreted in caution. Adding DBT in 2DDM and US screening would be acceptable only if the benefits and disadvantages are explained to the women undergoing the screening.

Predictive Value of Serum Cholic Acid and Lithocholic Acid for the Diagnosis in an Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Population with High Levels of Total Bile Acids and the Correlation with Placental Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α.

International Journal of Epidemiology

This study aimed to investigate the ability of serum cholic acid (CA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in the diagnosis and perinatal prognosis assessment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), and the relationship between both indicators and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α).

Between March 2020 and March 2021, pregnant women with high levels of total bile acid (TBA) in the late pregnancy with TBA ≥10 μmol/L and TBA <10 μmol/L (control group) were included for the retrospective study. Those with TBA ≥10 μmol/L were divided into the ICP group and the asymptomatic hypercholanaemia of pregnancy (AHP) group based on ICP symptoms. The comparison of the bile acid profiles, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were conducted successively.

Nine types of bile acids were significantly higher in ICP and AHP than in the control group, while CA and LCA serum levels in the AHP group were significantly lower than those in the ICP group (P < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that LCA, CA, and LCA+CA were all diagnostic indicators for ICP, and LCA+CA displayed the greatest diagnostic value (area under the curve (AUC), 0.923). Subgroup analysis using the LCA+CA cut-off point (3.28 μmol/L) as the subgroup indicator proved that the incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes and the placental HIF-1α positivity were significantly higher in the high LCA+CA group than in the low LCA+CA group (P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations of HIF-1α expression levels to LCA, CA and LCA+CA (r = 0.473, 0.537, 0.619, respectively. P < 0.05 in all).

This study confirmed that CA and LCA have a predictive diagnostic value for ICP in pregnant women, and the combined evaluation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, and LCA+CA positively correlates to placental HIF-1α expression levels.

The potential role of nicotine in breast cancer initiation, development, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy.

Breast Cancer

A large body of research studying the relationship between tobacco and cancer has led to the knowledge that smoking cigarettes adversely affects ca...

Phytochemical-conjugated bio-safe gold nanoparticles in breast cancer: a comprehensive update.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and is rated among one of the three common malignancies worldwide in combination with colon an...

Associations of adiposity and weight change with recurrence and survival in breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast Cancer

Adiposity and weight change among patients with breast cancer are associated with mortality, but there is limited evidence on the associations with distant recurrence or other causes of death or on central adiposity. Moreover, the relationship with breast cancer subtypes and by menopause status is unclear.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of breast cancer patients investigating the associations of general and central adiposity (body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC], respectively), before and after diagnosis, and weight change, with all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM), and recurrence.

173 studies (519,544 patients, 60,249 deaths overall, and 25,751 breast cancer deaths) were included. For BMI  < 1 year post diagnosis, compared with normal weight women, the summary relative risk (RR) for obese women was 1.21 (1.15-1.27) for all-cause mortality, 1.22 (1.13-1.32) for BCSM, 1.12 (1.06-1.18) for recurrence, and 1.19 (1.11-1.28) for distant recurrence. Obesity was associated with all-cause mortality and BCSM in patients with ER+ or HER2+ tumors, whereas no clear association was observed in patients with triple-negative tumors. Similar associations were observed by menopausal status. Stronger associations were observed in East Asians than Europeans. Central adiposity was associated with all-cause mortality, while large weight gain was associated with all-cause mortality, BCSM, and recurrence.

Higher adiposity is associated with all-cause mortality, BCSM, recurrence, and distant recurrence in breast cancer patients, with similar associations by menopausal status and some evidence of heterogeneity by subtypes. Weight gain is also associated with recurrence and survival among breast cancer patients.

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #36: The Mastitis Spectrum, Revised 2022.

Breastfeed Med

A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impa...

mHealth Phone Intervention to Reduce Maternal Deaths and Morbidity in Cameroon: Protocol for Translational Adaptation.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The purpose of this NIH-funded protocol is to adapt (Aim 1) and pilot test (Aim 2) an mHealth intervention to improve maternal and child health in Cameroon. We will adapt the 24/7 University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Information Service via Telephone (MIST) provider support system to mMIST (mobile MIST) for peripheral providers who provide healthcare to pregnant and postpartum women and newborns in Cameroon.

In Aim 1, we apply qualitative and participatory methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders) to inform the adaptation of mMIST for use in Cameroon. We use the sequential phases of the ADAPT-ITT framework to iteratively adapt mMIST incorporating qualitative findings and tailoring for local contexts. In Aim 2, we test the adapted intervention for feasibility and acceptability in Ndop, Cameroon.

This study is ongoing at the time that this protocol is published.

The adaptation, refinement, and pilot testing of mMIST will be used to inform a larger-scale stepped wedged cluster randomized controlled effectiveness trial. If successful, this mHealth intervention could be a powerful tool enabling providers in low-resource settings to deliver improved pregnancy care, thereby reducing maternal and fetal deaths.

Serum IL-6 Level Predicts the Prognosis and Diagnosis in Cervical Cancer Patients.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be associated with the prognosis of cancers. As for cervical cancer (CC), previous studies investigated the association between IL-6 expression in CC tumor tissue and CC prognosis; however, no studies assessed the effects of serum IL-6 levels on the survival of CC. This study aimed to explore the effects of serum IL-6 levels on prognosis in patients with CC.

In total, 327 patients with CC and 355 controls were recruited from this hospital from May 2015 to May 2016. Serum IL-6 levels were measured before treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was utilized to estimate survival rates. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with the prognosis of CC.

We found that the serum IL-6 level in the CC group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The diagnostic value of serum IL-6 level in detecting CC patients was moderate, and the specificity and sensitivity were 77.46% and 47.09%, respectively. Data suggested that the serum IL-6 level was significantly linked with the smoking status, FIGO stage, tumor size, treatment methods, and HPV infection. The univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that FIGO stage IIB-IIIC, lymph node metastasis, and high serum IL-6 levels were negatively associated with the OS and DFS in patients with CC.

Serum IL-6 has a moderate diagnostic ability for detecting CC and may be a potential CC biomarker. High serum IL-6 level is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with CC and could be a prognosis indicator for CC patients.