The latest medical research on Brain Injury Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about brain injury medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Describing Nonfatal Intimate Partner Strangulation Presentation and Evaluation in a Community-Based Hospital: Partnerships Between the Emergency Department and In-House Advocates.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

To describe characteristics of strangulation, and associated medical care, documentation, and injuries of women after nonfatal intimate partner strangulation (NF-IPS) who present for care to a community-based emergency department (ED) with an associated intimate partner violence (IPV) advocacy program between 2008 and 2016.

A retrospective review of 345 female ED patients' medical records who sought care at a community hospital ED following a physical assault including strangulation by an intimate partner was conducted. Demographics, characteristics related to reported signs and symptoms, injuries, and subsequent imaging, diagnoses, and discharge information were abstracted.

Commonly reported symptoms were neck pain (67.2%) and headache (45.8%), with fewer patients reporting more severe symptoms such as loss of consciousness (22.6%), dysphagia (25.0%), or dysphonia (26.7%). Rates of patients disclosing strangulation to the entire multidisciplinary team and dedicated neck imaging appeared to improve between 2008 and 2014. Among the 45 patients with noted head and neck findings, 2 patients were found to have an internal carotid artery dissection, 2 patients were found to have strokes, and 1 patient was found to have an intracranial hemorrhage.

Survivors of NF-IPS may present to community-based hospitals, and existing imaging guidelines can support clinicians in identifying serious internal injury such as carotid artery dissection and stroke. Further research is needed to better discern symptoms previously attributed to psychological trauma from poststrangulation brain injury. This study contributes to the growing literature on NF-IPS with data specific to community-based ED visits.

Strangulation as an Acquired Brain Injury in Intimate-Partner Violence and Its Relationship to Cognitive and Psychological Functioning: A Preliminary Study.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between strangulation-related alterations in consciousness (AIC) and cognitive and psychological outcomes in women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV).

We used several cognitive measures to assess learning, long-term and working memory, visuomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, and nonverbal cognitive fluency as well as several psychological measures to assess posttraumatic stress symptomatology, general distress, worry, anhedonic depression, and anxious arousal. We also used the Brain Injury Severity Assessment interview to examine the association between strangulation-related AICs and these measures of cognitive and psychological functioning.

Women who had experienced strangulation-related AICs performed more poorly on a test of long-term memory (P < .03) and had higher levels of depression (P < .03) and posttraumatic stress symptomatology (P < .02) than women who had not experienced strangulation-related AIC. When controlling for potential confounding variables, including number of IPV-related traumatic brain injuries, women who had experienced strangulation also performed more poorly on a measure of working memory.

This is the first report to assess strangulation in this manner and demonstrate links to cognitive and psychological functioning. These preliminary data contribute to our knowledge of strangulation and its effects on women who have experienced IPV.

Examining the Association Between Childhood Trauma, Brain Injury, and Neurobehavioral Symptoms Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

Understanding factors contributing to neurobehavioral symptom burden among intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors has important implications for prevention, screening, and intervention in this vulnerable population. This study aimed to (1) identify the relationship between childhood trauma and neurobehavioral symptoms among a shelter- and community-based sample of IPV survivors, including investigating the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms and alexithymia in this relationship; (2) assess the association between IPV-related brain injury (BI) severity and neurobehavioral symptoms; and (3) assesses whether physical, emotional, or cognitive domains of neurobehavioral symptom burden show differential associations with childhood trauma or IPV-related BI.

The following self-reported questionnaires were used: Rivermead Post Concussion Questionnaire (RPQ); Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ); a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale; Brain Injury Severity Assessment (BISA); Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM IV; and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The final multivariate regression model assessed the association between childhood abuse, BI severity, and neurobehavioral symptoms (as measured by the RPQ) adjusting for age, educational attainment, and abuse in the past year. We created separate models with total neurobehavioral symptom score as an outcome, as well as somatic, emotional, and cognitive symptom scores. We used structural equation modeling to assess whether posttraumatic stress and alexithymia mediated the effect of childhood trauma and neurobehavioral symptoms.

Childhood trauma was associated with higher levels (P < .01) of overall neurobehavioral symptom burden in women independent of BI and specifically associated with RPQ Emotional and Somatic subscale symptoms (P ≤ .05). BI was positively associated with somatic symptoms in the full sample and cognitive neurobehavioral symptoms in the sample of women with IPV-related BI (P < .05) independent of childhood trauma. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, but not alexithymia, partially mediated the effect of childhood trauma effect on neurobehavioral symptoms.

Childhood trauma and BI should not be overlooked as part of efforts to meet the needs of IPV survivors who may experience a range of emotional, somatic, and cognitive symptoms.

Longitudinal Analysis of Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms, Probable TBI, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Veterans.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

To determine veterans' intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration following report of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCSs).

VA TBI Screening Tool to assess for probable TBI and PPCSs; Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised (CTS-2S) to assess for IPV perpetration.

Almost half (48%) of participants reported IPV perpetration at follow-up. Both probable TBI and higher PPCSs at baseline were associated with overall IPV perpetration and more frequent IPV perpetration at follow-up. Only PPCSs significantly predicted IPV perpetration after controlling for common predictors of IPV perpetration. Neither probably TBI nor PPCSs predicted frequency of IPV perpetration.

When considered alongside common risk factors for IPV perpetration, PPCS was uniquely associated with the likelihood of IPV perpetration in this veteran sample. Given post-9/11 veterans' elevated risk for head injury, findings emphasize the distinctive value of PPCSs in understanding risk for IPV perpetration. We recommend increased assessment for PPCSs in clinical practice among veterans enrolled in VA care and highlight several important areas for future research and intervention development.

The Shadow Pandemic: A Qualitative Exploration of the Impacts of COVID-19 on Service Providers and Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence and Brain Injury.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects up to 1 in 3 women over their lifetime and has intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although most injuries are to the head, face, and neck, the intersection of IPV and brain injury (BI) remains largely unrecognized. This article reports on unexplored COVID-19-related impacts on service providers and women survivors of IPV/BI.

To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on survivors and service providers.

This project used a qualitative, participatory approach using semistructured individual or group interviews. Interviews were conducted via videoconferencing, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by the research team to identify themes.

COVID-19 has increased rates and severity of IPV and barriers to services in terms of both provision and uptake. Three main themes emerged: (1) implications for women survivors of IPV/BI; (2) implications for service delivery and service providers supporting women survivors of IPV/BI; and (3) key priorities. Increased risk, complex challenges to mental health, and the impact on employment were discussed. Adaptability and flexibility of service delivery were identified as significant issues, and increased outreach and adaptation of technology-based services were noted as key priorities.

The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified IPV/BI, increased challenges for women survivors and service providers, and accentuated the continued lack of IPV/BI awareness. Recommendations for service delivery and uptake are discussed.

Prevalence and Perception of Intimate Partner Violence-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious and often undiagnosed consequence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Data on prevalence of TBI among IPV survivors are emerging, but prevalence of IPV among patients presenting to TBI clinics is unknown. Identification of IPV is important to ensure patients with TBI receive appropriate intervention and referrals.

To determine the proportion of women 18 years and older presenting to an acquired brain injury (ABI) clinic with confirmed or suspected concussion who reported experiencing IPV in the last 12 months or their lifetime.

Single-center cross-sectional cohort study. Proportion of IPV-related TBI or head, neck, or facial) injuries were determined using a modified HELPS Brain Injury Screening Tool and the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory.

Of the 97 women approached, 50 were enrolled in the study. The average age was 46.1 years and 32 women (64.0%) reported a relationship history with a violent partner; 12-month prevalence of IPV was 26.5% and lifetime prevalence was 44.0%. Within their lifetime, all (44.0%) who reported an IPV history reported emotional abuse, 24.0% reported physical abuse, and 18.0% sexual abuse. HELPS responses indicated a high potential of lifetime IPV-related TBI for 29.2%, most commonly from being hit in the face or head (20.8%).

Implementation of IPV screening in community-based ABI clinics is a pivotal step toward understanding the potential scope of TBI and addressing the wide range of somatic, cognitive, and affective symptoms experienced by IPV survivors. IPV screening also will lead to timely referral and follow-up and increase patient safety after discharge from rehabilitation.

Epidemiology and 6- and 12-Month Outcomes of Intimate Partner Violence and Other Violence-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in Major Trauma: A Population-Based Trauma Registry Study.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

To compare the epidemiology, in-hospital outcomes, and 6-month and 12-month patient-reported, outcomes of major trauma patients with intimate partner violence (IPV)-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) with other interpersonal violence (OV)-related TBI.

Trauma care indicators and 6- and 12-month patient-reported outcomes (self-reported disability, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, EQ-5D-3L, and return to work).

The annual incidence (95% CI) of major trauma involving TBI was 0.11 (0.08-0.14) per 100 000 population for IPV and 2.11 (1.98-2.24) per 100 000 for OV. A higher proportion of IPV-related cases were women (73% vs 5%), had sustained a severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3-8; 27% vs 15%), were admitted to intensive care (56% vs 37%), and died in hospital (14% vs 5%). The median (interquartile range) time to definitive care (4.7 hours vs 3.3 hours) and head computed tomographic scan (5.0 hours vs 3.1 hours) was longer in the IPV group. Follow-up rates at 6 and 12 months were 71% and 69%, respectively. The 6- and 12-month outcomes were generally poorer in the IPV-related group.

The incidence of IPV-related major trauma with TBI was low. However, the prevalence of severe TBI, the time to key aspects of clinical care, in-hospital mortality, and longer-term work-related disability were higher. However, power to detect differences was low due to the small number of IPV-related cases compared with the OV group.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Physical Violence-Related Acquired Brain Injury Among Visitors to Justice Center in New York.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

The recent United States Government Accountability Office report highlights the need for improved data on the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV)-related acquired brain injury (ABI) to help direct Health & Human Services public efforts. This article identifies the prevalence and risk factors for IPV-related ABI among survivors of IPV at a Justice Center in New York.

The HELPS and the Danger Assessment-Revised were used at the initial Center visit.

Of the 40 physical IPV survivors screened, all (100%) reported a prior history of partner-induced ABI within the past 60 days. Thirty-seven (92.5%) survivors also reported sustaining at least 1 potential hypoxic brain injury from strangulation. However, only 16 (40%) survivors screened positive on the HELPS for a history of IPV-related mild traumatic brain injury. Females (95%) and individuals with low income (67.5%) largely comprised our sample. Compared with the County's average, the proportion of African Americans/Blacks and refugees was 227% higher (42.5% vs 13%) and 650% higher (7.5% vs 1.09%), respectively. Refugee status (P = .017) also correlated with number of previous ABIs. On an exploratory binary logistic regression with stepwise selection, only balance difficulties (P = .023) and difficulty concentrating/remembering (P = .009) predicted a positive screen for mild traumatic brain injury.

Consistent with previous findings, our data indicate a high prevalence of IPV-related ABI among visitors to a New York Justice Center. An overrepresentation of African Americans/Blacks and refugees in our sample relative to the region signified a higher prevalence of IPV in these populations and warrants a provision of more trauma-informed ABI resources to these groups/communities. Intimate partner violence survivors visiting Justice Centers should be screened for motor/neurocognitive symptoms suggestive of mild traumatic brain injury. Further research to identify the prevalence and risk factors of IPV-related ABI statewide and nationwide is urgently needed to improve resource allocation and clinical management.

The Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and Traumatic Brain Injury: Findings From an Emergency Summit Addressing System-Level Changes to Better Support Women Survivors.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring during intimate partner violence (IPV) is a largely unrecognized but significant public health crisis. One in 3 women will experience IPV in their lifetime, up to 75% of whom will sustain a TBI as a result. This article reports on the systems-level findings from a national summit to address barriers, needs, and priorities related to healthcare and support services for women survivors of IPV-TBI.

(1) To identify key needs, facilitators, and barriers to care for women survivors of IPV presenting with TBI; and (2) to cocreate ideas for resources and principles for identification, clinical care, and support for healthcare practitioners who treat women exposed to IPV and TBI.

Using a community-based participatory research approach, we engaged 30 stakeholders-drawn from a national IPV-TBI Knowledge-to-Practice (K2P) Network including diverse women survivors, service providers, researchers, and decision makers-in 2 half-day virtual meetings. Data were gathered through small group breakout sessions using semistructured discussion guides. Sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. Stakeholders contributed to the analysis and knowledge translation through member-checking activities. Ethics approval was obtained through the University of Toronto.

Three main systems-level themes arose during these discussions: (1) the need for trauma-informed, anti-racist, and equitable health and social care systems; (2) the need for cross-pollination of knowledge between disciplines; and (3) the need for systems-level support for integrated and coordinated care. This article explores these needs and provides recommendations and suggestions for paths forward.

The findings of this project enhance understanding of system-level needs among women survivors and provide a template for a national agenda for IPV-TBI research and practice.

Neural Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Structural and Functional Connectivity Neuroimaging Study.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

More than one-third of women in the United States experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime, increasing their risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite the prevalence of TBI among IPV survivors, research is sparse in comparison with parallel populations (eg, military, accidents, sports). This pilot study aimed to provide a preliminary investigation of the effect of TBI on brain morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity in women who experience IPV.

Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury-Lifetime for Intimate Partner Violence (BAT-L/IPV); Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS); structural and functional neuroimaging.

History of lifetime TBI in women IPV survivors was associated with differences in cortical thickness as well as functional connectivity between the isthmus cingulate seed and a variety of regions, including superior parietal and frontal cortices. Individuals with IPV-related TBI showed greater cortical thickness in the right paracentral gyrus than individuals with TBI from other non-IPV etiologies.

Significant differences in brain structure and connectivity were observed in individuals with IPV and TBI. A greater mean cortical thickness of the paracentral gyrus was associated with TBI due to IPV than TBI from other etiologies. Although preliminary, findings from this pilot study present a step toward identifying potential mechanisms by which IPV and TBI secondary to IPV impact brain health in women.

How CARE Tools Are Being Used to Address Brain Injury and Mental Health Struggles With Survivors of Domestic Violence.

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

CARE (Connect, Acknowledge, Respond, and Evaluate) is an advocacy framework developed for domestic violence service organization (DVSO) providers to address and accommodate domestic violence (DV) survivors with brain injury and mental health struggles. The CARE tools were designed for use by advocates and include the Just Breathe booklet, the Head Injury education card, and the Invisible Injuries booklet.

The purpose of this study was to report findings on how CARE tools are being used by DVSO providers as well as their impact on DVSO advocacy practice.

Post-CARE retrospective process evaluation online surveys (n = 60) and focus groups (n = 10 groups; 57 advocates) were conducted with consenting staff at 5 DVSOs in Ohio who partnered with the state coalition to develop and evaluate CARE, overseen by a university research partner. Rigorous, iterative coding qualitative analysis methods, endorsed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were used (Cohen's κ = 0.903 [stage 1] and 0.810 [stage 2]).

The use of CARE tools has been integral to DVSO providers' implementation of the CARE advocacy framework. DVSO advocates are using CARE tools to Connect with self, survivors, and other systems; to Acknowledge that head trauma and mental health struggles are common among survivors and that ongoing education and self-care are necessary for advocates. Advocates have been able to provide a more holistic Response through accommodation within DVSOs and referral to other providers, often by using the CARE tools, including the Head Injury education card.

CARE tools were designed for lay use to address head trauma, strangulation, and mental health struggles with DV survivors and are free for download at the Center on Partner Inflicted Brain Injury website: More widespread use of these tools by advocates has the potential to improve services for DV survivors and address what have historically been invisible injuries and mental health struggles in the population.

Neurorehabilitation in Adults With Traumatic Upper Extremity Amputation: A Scoping Review.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Most of the current literature around amputation focuses on lower extremity amputation or engineering aspects of prosthetic devices. There is a need to more clearly understand neurobehavioral mechanisms related to upper extremity amputation and how such mechanisms might influence recovery and utilization of prostheses.

This scoping review aims to identify and summarize the current literature on adult traumatic upper limb amputation in regard to recovery and functional outcomes and how neuroplasticity might influence these findings.

We identified appropriate articles using Academic Search Complete EBSCO, OVID Medline, and Cochrane databases. The resulting articles were then exported, screened, and reviewed based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines.

Eleven (11) studies met the study criteria. Of these studies, 7 focused on sensory involvement, 3 focused on neuroplastic changes post-amputation related to functional impact, and 1 study focused on motor control and learning post-amputation. Overall, these studies revealed an incomplete understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in motor rehabilitation in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while also demonstrating the value of an individualized approach to neurorehabilitation in upper limb loss.

There is a gap in our understanding of the role of neurorehabilitation following amputation. Overall, focused rehabilitation parameters, demographic information, and clarity around central and peripheral neural mechanisms are needed in future research to address neurobehavioral mechanisms to promote functional recovery following traumatic upper extremity amputation.