The latest medical research on Sports & Exercise Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about sports & exercise medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Is patellofemoral pain preventable? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Brit J Sports Med

To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the risk of incident patellofemoral pain.

MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus.

Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to reduce patellofemoral pain risk compared with a control/non-exposed group.

Thirteen trials of mostly military recruits and young athletes analysed six different interventions. There was low certainty evidence from two trials (227 participants) that patellofemoral braces worn during physical activity (compared with no brace) effectively reduced the risk of patellofemoral pain (risk ratio (RR) 0.40, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.73; I2=24.0%). There was low certainty evidence from one trial (320 participants) that running technique retraining to (run softer) reduced patellofemoral pain risk (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.60). There was low certainty evidence from four trials (3364 participants) that multicomponent (strengthening/neuromuscular) exercise programmes did not significantly reduce the risk of patellofemoral pain (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.36; I2=64.9%), although broad CIs may reflect exercise dose variations among studies. There was very low certainty evidence from four trials (2314 participants) that foot orthoses (compared with flat inserts/no orthosis) did not significantly reduce the risk of patellofemoral pain (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.13; I2=0.0%). Static stretching and a running programme that progressed intensity (compared with volume) did not significantly influence patellofemoral pain risk (single studies).

There is low-level evidence that patellofemoral braces and running technique retraining can reduce the risk of patellofemoral pain by 60%-79%.

The relationships between rugby union, and health and well-being: a scoping review.

Brit J Sports Med

To scope the relationships between rugby union, and health and well-being.

A three-step search strategy identified relevant published primary, secondary studies and grey literature, which were screened using a priori inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardised tool, to form (1) a numerical analysis and (2) a thematic summary.

A wide range of stakeholders as well as existing and potential participants can use this information to make a more informed decision about participating in and promoting rugby union as a health-enhancing activity. Industry and policy-makers can use this review to inform policies and strategies that look to increase participation rates and use rugby union as a vehicle to contribute positively to population health. Further research understanding rugby union's contribution to PA as well as to muscle-strengthening and balance is indicated, as well as research examining more health and well-being outcomes across more diverse cohorts.

Slope-Reducing Tibial Osteotomy Combined With Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Produces Improved Knee Stability in Patients With Steep Posterior Tibial Slope, Excessive Anterior Tibial Subluxation in Extension, and Chronic Meniscal Posterior Horn Tears.

Am J Sports Med

Steep posterior tibial slope (PTS; >13°), excessive anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) in extension (>10 mm), and meniscus posterior horn tears (MPHTs) have been identified to be associated with primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) failure. Recent studies have reported that steep PTS is directly correlated with excessive ATS in extension and concomitant MPHTs, especially for those patients with chronic (>6 months) ACL deficiency. There is increasing biomechanical evidence that slope-reducing tibial osteotomy decreases ATS in extension and protects the ACL graft.

Slope-reducing tibial osteotomy combined with primary ACLR is effective for producing improved knee stability in patients with steep PTS (>13°), excessive ATS in extension (>10 mm), and concomitant chronic MPHTs (>6 months).

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Between June 2016 and January 2018, 18 patients with ACL injuries who had steep PTS (>13°), excessive ATS in extension (>10 mm), and concomitant chronic MPHTs (>6 months) underwent slope-reducing tibial osteotomy combined with primary ACLR. The PTS and anterior subluxation of the lateral and medial compartment (ASLC and ASMC) in extension before and after the index procedures were regarded as primary clinical outcomes. Moreover, Lysholm score, Tegner activity score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) objective grade, pivot-shift test, and KT-1000 side-to-side difference were evaluated preoperatively and at the minimum 2-year follow-up visit.

The mean PTS was 18.5° (range, 17°-20°) preoperatively and 8.1° (range, 7°-9°) postoperatively (P < .01). The mean ASLC and ASMC in extension were 12.1 mm and 11.9 mm preoperatively, which reduced to 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm at the last follow-up visit (P < .05). In addition, all of the following showed significant improvements (pre- vs postoperatively): mean Lysholm score (46.5 vs 89.5; P < .05), mean Tegner activity score (5.7 vs 7.3; P < .05), IKDC objective grading results (18 grade D vs 14 grade A and 4 grade B; P < .05), pivot-shift tests (15 grade 2+ and 3 grade 3+ vs 18 grade 0; P < .01), and KT-1000 side-to-side difference (13.0 mm vs 1.6 mm; P < .01). Moreover, no graft reruptures were found at the final follow-up visit.

In this study, slope-reducing tibial osteotomy combined with primary ACLR effectively improved knee stability in patients with steep PTS (>13°), excessive ATS in extension (>10 mm), and concomitant chronic MPHTs (>6 months).

Aiming strategy affects performance related factors in biathlon standing shooting.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

This study focused on investigating differences in shooting performance and performance related factors between two different aiming strategies (HO...

Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Comparison of Clinical Outcomes With and Without Subscapularis Tear.

Am J Sports Med

Arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) was developed to restore shoulder superior stability, muscle balance, and function in patients with irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tears.

To assess the effects of concomitant subscapularis tendon tear, which may reduce glenohumeral stability and force coupling, on clinical outcomes of SCR for irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tears.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

In total, 193 patients with irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic SCR using fascia lata autograft between 2007 and 2015. They were allocated to 3 groups: group 1, no subscapularis tear (160 patients); group 2, reparable subscapularis tear, which underwent arthroscopic repair (26 patients); and group 3, irreparable subscapularis tear (7 patients). American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, active shoulder range of motion (ROM), muscle strength (manual muscle test), and acromiohumeral distance were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up (mean, 3 years, 7 months; range, 2-11 years). Postoperative complications were assessed.

In groups 1 and 2, ASES, JOA, and VAS scores and shoulder ROM and muscle strength improved significantly after SCR with subscapularis repair (P < .001). SCR in group 3 significantly improved ASES, JOA, and VAS scores (P < .001), whereas shoulder ROM and muscle strength did not increase significantly. Postoperative acromiohumeral distance was significantly smaller in group 3 (5.7 ± 2.9 mm [mean ± SD]) than group 2 (9.1 ± 2.3 mm) (P = .002). Group 3 had a significantly higher rate of graft tear (P < .001) and postoperative infection (P < .001) than group 1.

The presence of subscapularis tendon tear affects clinical outcomes and complication rates after SCR. The reparability of the subscapularis affects superior glenohumeral stability; therefore, an intact subscapularis or reparable subscapularis tendon tear is the best indication for arthroscopic SCR in patients with irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tendon tears.

Differences in Clinical Presentations and Surgical Outcomes of Gluteus Medius Tears Between Men and Women.

Am J Sports Med

Gluteus medius (GM) tears often occur in women aged >50 years. There is a paucity of literature comparing sex-based differences in those undergoing GM repair.

To report differences between women and men in clinical presentations and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores at a minimum 2-year follow-up after undergoing GM repair.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. All included patients had postoperative scores for the following PROs: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Non-arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and International Hip Outcome Tool-12. Men were propensity score matched 1:3 to women according to concomitant arthroscopic procedures and follow-up time. Clinical effectiveness was determined through a uniquely calculated minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the mHHS and NAHS specific to this study population.

Thirteen men were successfully propensity score matched to 39 women. Women and men were 55.87 ± 11.0 and 62.38 ± 11.63 years old (mean ± SD), respectively (P = .02). Men were at increased risk for associated lumbar pathology as compared with women (relative risk, 3.32; P = .02). Women showed significant improvement from preoperative to minimum 2-year follow-up for the mHHS (59.32 ± 15.36 to 83.81 ± 16.82; P < .01), NAHS (56.23 ± 15.61 to 83.78 ± 17.66; P < .01), HOS-SSS (33.35 ± 20.28 to 67.88 ± 32.35; P < .01), and visual analog scale (5.48 ± 2.00 to 1.93 ± 2.29; P < .01). Similarly, men showed significant improvement for the mHHS (63.50 ± 16.41 to 84.77 ± 13.91; P < .01), NAHS (61.52 ± 9.87 to 84.42 ± 14.87; P < .01), HOS-SSS (33.97 ± 21.20 to 63.62 ± 26.20; P < .01), and visual analog scale (4.93 ± 2.69 to 1.86 ± 2.10; P < .01). The MCIDs for the mHHS and NAHS were calculated to be 7.89 and 7.24. Of the women, 28 (72%) and 34 (87%) met the MCID for the mHHS and NAHS. Eleven (85%) men met the MCID for the mHHS and NAHS.

These results suggest that women and men can both benefit after GM repair. Men were older and had increased risk for associated lumbar pathology than women at the time of surgery. Men and women both experienced significant improvements in PROs and compared favorably in terms of clinical effectiveness at a minimum 2-year follow-up.

Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Anterior Shoulder Instability and Glenolabral Articular Disruption Lesions: A Retrospective Comparative Study.

Am J Sports Med

Anterior shoulder instability is a common clinical condition that often requires surgical stabilization. Glenoid labral tears are often associated with instability, with glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) lesions occasionally being identified arthroscopically during repair, particularly in collision athletes.

To evaluate the clinical outcomes and recurrence rates in patients who had GLAD lesions and underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair (ABR) and compare them with a control group without GLAD lesions.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

A retrospective review of patients who underwent ABR with GLAD lesions, by a single surgeon between July 2012 and March 2017, was performed. Additionally, these were pair matched in a 2:1 ratio for age, sex, sport, and level of play with a control group who underwent ABR without GLAD lesions. Return to sport, the level of return, and the timing of return were assessed. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain score, Rowe score, Shoulder Instability-Return to Sport after Injury (SIRSI) score, and Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) were evaluated.

The study included a total of 66 patients (22 and 44 patients for the GLAD and control groups, respectively), with a mean age of 25.8 years and a mean follow-up of 66 months. Overall, there was no significant difference in any of the clinical outcome scores (VAS, Rowe, SIRSI, and SSV) utilized for the GLAD and control groups (P > .05 for all). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the total rate of return to play (90.9% vs 88.6%; P > .99) or return at the same/higher level (68.2% vs 72.7%; P = .78). There was no significant difference in timing of return to play (6.3 ± 6.6 months vs 6.4 ± 2.5 months; P = .98). There were 3 cases (13.6%) requiring further surgery (1 revision stabilization, 1 arthroscopic release, and 1 rotator cuff repair) in the GLAD group and 2 cases (4.5%) requiring further surgery (both revision stabilization) in the control group; the difference was not statistically significant (P = .32).

After arthroscopic repair, patients with GLAD lesions had similar midterm outcomes when compared with a control group without GLAD lesions.

Patient-Reported Outcomes After Revision Surgery for Failed Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Matched-Pair Analysis Including Correction of Predisposing Factors.

Am J Sports Med

Complications and the need for revision surgery after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR) are evident in the current literature. However, there is a shortage of clinical data evaluating the results of revision surgery in individual patients after failed MPFLR.

To investigate the results of tailored revision surgery for failed MPFLR, including the correction of predisposing factors.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Between August 2015 and March 2019, 25 patients (male:female, n = 9:16; mean ± SD age, 25.9 ± 6.5 years) underwent revision surgery for failed MPFLR (study group). The Banff Patella Instability Instrument 2.0 (BPII 2.0) and a numerical analog scale (0-10) for patellofemoral pain and subjective knee joint function were used to assess patient-reported quality of life before and after revision surgery. The control group of 50 patients (male:female, n = 18:32; age, 22.8 ± 4.3 years) who underwent identical patellar-stabilizing procedures was matched 1:2 by the surgical procedure, predisposing factors, sex, age, and follow-up time.

Evaluation was performed postoperatively at a mean 27.8 ± 14.0 months (range, 12-54 months) in the study group and 26.1 ± 11.2 months (range, 12-56 months) in the control group (P = .55). The BPII 2.0 score increased from 28.6 ± 17.9 points to 68.7 ± 22.3 points (P < .0001) in the study group and from 43.8 ± 22.5 points to 75.5 ± 21.4 points (P < .0001) in the control group from preoperatively to postoperatively, respectively. Before revision surgery, the BPII 2.0 scores in the study group were significantly inferior to those in the control group (P = .0026). At the final follow-up, the BPII 2.0 score in the study group was not significantly lower (P = .174), and a similar number of patients in the study group and the control group achieved the minimally clinically important difference (P = .49). Patellofemoral pain and subjective knee joint function improved significantly in both groups (P < .0001, P < .0001), without any significant difference between them at the final follow-up (P = .85, P = .86).

Revision surgery for MPFLR failure, including the correction of major anatomic risk factors, yielded a significant improvement in patient-reported quality-of-life outcome measures. Patients with failed MPFLR, however, were significantly more restricted before revision surgery than patients without previous interventions when evaluated with the BPII 2.0.

Establishing the Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State, and Substantial Clinical Benefit of the PROMIS Upper Extremity Questionnaire After Rotator Cuff Repair.

Am J Sports Med

The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Upper Extremity (PROMIS UE) questionnaire has been validated as an effective and efficient outcome measure after rotator cuff repair (RCR). However, definitions of clinically significant outcomes used in interpreting this outcome measure have yet to be defined.

To define clinically significant outcomes of the PROMIS UE questionnaire in patients undergoing arthroscopic RCR.

Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3.

We reviewed charts of consecutive patients undergoing RCR in our institution between 2017 and 2018 and included patients who were administered the PROMIS UE before surgery and 12 months after surgery. At 12 months postoperatively, patients were asked domain-specific anchor questions regarding their function and satisfaction after surgery, which were then used to determine the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State (PASS), and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) using receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify patient factors associated with clinically significant outcomes.

A total of 105 patients with RCR and minimum 12-month postoperative PROMIS UE were included in the analysis. The defined clinically significant outcomes were 4.87 for the MCID using a distribution-based method, 7.95 for the SCB (sensitivity, 0.708; specificity, 0.833; AUC, 0.760), and 39.00 for the PASS (sensitivity, 0.789; specificity, 0.720; AUC, 0.815). Among respondents, 79.0%, 62.9%, and 64.8% achieved the MCID, SCB, and PASS score thresholds, respectively. Workers' compensation was negatively associated with achievement of the PASS. Lower preoperative PROMIS UE scores were associated with obtaining the MCID (odds ratio [OR], 0.871; P = .001) and the SCB (OR, 0.900; P = .040), whereas higher preoperative scores were predictive of achieving the PASS (OR, 1.111; P = .020).

This study defines the clinically significant outcomes for the PROMIS UE after RCR, of which the majority of patients achieved the MCID, PASS, and SCB at 12 months after surgery. These thresholds should be considered in future study design and interpretation of PROMIS UE in patients with RCR.

Radiographic Methods Are as Accurate as Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Graft Sizing Before Lateral Meniscal Transplantation.

Am J Sports Med

Accurate allograft matching is deemed critical for meniscal transplantation; thus, precise measurements are essential to correctly calculate meniscal size. Several methods for meniscal sizing have been described, but there remains a discussion on which is the most accurate for the lateral meniscus.

To compare the accuracy of radiographic, anthropometric, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods of determining width and length of the lateral meniscus with actual dimensions after anatomic dissection.

Controlled laboratory study.

Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees without any evidence of meniscal or ligamentous injury were primarily imaged using radiography and MRI and subsequently underwent dissection to assess the anatomic size of each meniscus. Four methods were used to predict the size of the lateral menisci: anthropometric, radiographic (Pollard and Yoon), and MRI. Absolute differences in length and width between actual and predicted sizes were determined.

The anatomic lateral meniscal width and length were 33.01 ± 4.25 mm (mean ± SD; range, 24.84-40.18 mm) and 31.41 ± 5.06 mm (range, 25.2-40.05 mm), respectively. Regarding width, the anthropometric method demonstrated an absolute difference from anatomic measurement significantly greater when compared with the Pollard technique and MRI (P = .002). Regarding length, the Pollard method presented an absolute difference significantly greater than all other techniques (P = .003). In terms of the ability to measure width and length, MRI accurately predicted meniscal size within 10% of the anatomic size in 65% of measurements, the Yoon method in 54%, and the Pollard method in 20% (P = .01). Radiographs tended to overestimate the true size of the lateral meniscus, while the anthropometric technique overestimated width in all specimens.

This study demonstrated that MRI and the Yoon radiographic method are comparable in terms of accuracy for graft sizing before lateral meniscal transplantation. While MRI is useful, a contralateral MRI is required, which makes the Yoon radiographic method recommended given the ease and cost advantage. The original Pollard technique and the anthropometric method are not recommended.

Over- and undersizing of meniscal transplants has been implicated in graft failure. Therefore, increasing the reliability of preoperative meniscal measurements is deemed important for the success of meniscal allograft transplantation.

Femoral Head Chondrocyte Viability at the Cam Deformity in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

Am J Sports Med

Patients with hip pathology, such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia, are known to sustain chondral delamination injuries identifiable during hip arthroscopy, with an incidence of 44% to 75%. There are studies focused on understanding acetabular chondral flap viability, but there is a dearth of research regarding the viability of femoral head cartilage overlying the cam deformity in FAI.

To describe the viability and immunohistochemistry staining patterns of femoral head cartilage in the setting of FAI.

Descriptive laboratory study.

Between September 2018 and August 2019, a single surgeon prospectively collected full-thickness femoral cartilage from cam deformities in 14 patients with FAI undergoing osteoplasty. Samples were assessed for viability and underwent immunohistochemistry staining for collagen type I, collagen type II, and aggrecan.

The data set included 14 patients. Twelve samples were assessed for viability and 14 for immunohistochemistry straining. The mean patient age was 34.1 years, and the mean body mass index was 24.69. Mean ± SD chondrocyte viability per patient was 52% ± 11%. At the time of cell isolation, 8 of the 12 patients had viability >50%, with a maximum of 68.2%. This viability increased after a primary culture period, varying from 9 to 13 days, with 10 of 12 samples having viability >90%. The viability mean after the culture period was 94.54% ± 4.89%. Harvested cartilage showed expressions of type I cartilage, type II collagen, and aggrecan in a pattern that is predictable for native cartilage.

These data reveal that the cartilage in femoral head cartilage overlying cam deformity-much like that from acetabular chondral flaps-not only has baseline viability >50% (51.99% ± 10.83%) but the ability to increase in viability >90% after a culture period. There may be a role for use of femoral head cartilage as autograft to repair full-thickness cartilage defects of the acetabulum and femoral head, either at the time of osteochondroplasty or after a period of cell culture to improve cell viability.

A dearth of information is available regarding the viability of femoral head cartilage. This study provides insight into the cartilage viability and response to culture.

An exploration of UK student physiotherapists' goal setting practices within anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation.

Musculoskeletal care

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a common and complex injury coupled with a lengthy rehabilitation. Goal setting is said to be an effective psychological tool within ACL rehabilitation due to its simplicity and is commonly used amongst sport and health professionals. To date, literature surrounding goal setting practices has only focused on qualified therapists.

The central aim of this study was to explore UK student physiotherapists' perceptions towards goal setting practices used in ACL rehabilitation and whether they feel prepared for practice.

Semi-structured interviews involving 11 participants from one UK university was conducted using an inductive approach. Data analysis included thematic analysis with triangulation and a comprehensive five-stage analysis process to enhance confirmability and credibility, whilst respecting ethical considerations.

These findings suggest that, initially, a review of the psychological content of sport and health professional courses is warranted to clearly identify potential knowledge gaps. There is also an opportunity whereby a global specialist interest group could be designed to share psychological practices and globally connect like-minded sport and health professionals together.