The latest medical research on Sports & Exercise Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about sports & exercise medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Risk Factors for Grade 3 Pivot Shift in Knees With Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Importance of Osseous and Soft Tissue Parameters From the SANTI Study Group.

Am J Sports Med

Preoperative grade 3 pivot shift has been reported to be associated with higher rates of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) failure, persistent instability, and inferior patient-reported outcomes. The etiology of a high-grade pivot shift is multifactorial, and numerous factors have been suggested to be responsible. More attention has recently been focused on injury to the anterolateral structures (ALS) as a risk factor for a grade 3 pivot shift.

To determine risk factors for grade 3 pivot shift, including soft tissue and osseous parameters.

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

A prospective evaluation was undertaken of 200 consecutive patients undergoing acute ACL reconstruction (within 10 days of injury). An open exploration of the lateral side of the injured knee was performed at the time of the index procedure. Details regarding patient and injury characteristics were recorded, as were details of soft tissue injuries, including meniscal tears, ALS lesions, medial collateral ligament tears, and chondral injuries. Osseous parameters (tibial slope and condylar ratios) were determined per established magnetic resonance imaging protocols. A multivariate logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood was used to identify risk factors associated with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) grade 3 pivot shift.

The mean ± SD age of the population was 28.3 ± 9.8 years; 67.5% of patients were male. Among patients, 35 (17.5%) had a high-grade pivot shift (IKDC grade 3), and 165 (82.5%) had a low-grade pivot shift (IKDC grades 1 and 2). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that injury to the ALS was the only significant risk factor for grade 3 pivot shift (odds ratio, 13.49; 95% CI, 1.80-1725.53).

This comprehensive evaluation of soft tissue and osseous factors has identified that injury to the ALS is the most important risk factor for grade 3 pivot shift in acute ACL-injured knees.

Utility of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Preserve Quadriceps Muscle Fiber Size and Contractility After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries and Reconstruction: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Blinded Trial.

Am J Sports Med

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and reconstruction (ACLR) promote quadriceps muscle atrophy and weakness that can persist for years, suggesting the need for more effective rehabilitation programs. Whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used to prevent maladaptations in skeletal muscle size and function is unclear.

To examine whether early NMES use, started soon after an injury and maintained through 3 weeks after surgery, can preserve quadriceps muscle size and contractile function at the cellular (ie, fiber) level in the injured versus noninjured leg of patients undergoing ACLR.

Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Patients (n = 25; 12 men/13 women) with an acute, first-time ACL rupture were randomized to NMES (5 d/wk) or sham (simulated microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation; 5 d/wk) treatment to the quadriceps muscles of their injured leg. Bilateral biopsies of the vastus lateralis were performed 3 weeks after surgery to measure skeletal muscle fiber size and contractility. Quadriceps muscle size and strength were assessed 6 months after surgery.

A total of 21 patients (9 men/12 women) completed the trial. ACLR reduced single muscle fiber size and contractility across all fiber types (P < .01 to P < .001) in the injured compared with noninjured leg 3 weeks after surgery. NMES reduced muscle fiber atrophy (P < .01) through effects on fast-twitch myosin heavy chain (MHC) II fibers (P < .01 to P < .001). NMES preserved contractility in slow-twitch MHC I fibers (P < .01 to P < .001), increasing maximal contractile velocity (P < .01) and preserving power output (P < .01), but not in MHC II fibers. Differences in whole muscle strength between groups were not discerned 6 months after surgery.

Early NMES use reduced skeletal muscle fiber atrophy in MHC II fibers and preserved contractility in MHC I fibers. These results provide seminal, cellular-level data demonstrating the utility of the early use of NMES to beneficially modify skeletal muscle maladaptations to ACLR.

Our results provide the first comprehensive, cellular-level evidence to show that the early use of NMES mitigates early skeletal muscle maladaptations to ACLR.

NCT02945553 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

Preoperative Medial Meniscal Extrusion Is Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes After Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

Am J Sports Med

Although the medial compartment continues to sustain some loading after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) in varus-deformed knees, no studies have examined the relationship between medial meniscal extrusion (MME) and patient-reported outcome measures after MOWHTO.

To examine whether compartmental baseline MME was associated with patient-reported outcome measures after MOWHTO.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

This retrospective study was composed of 149 MOWHTOs in 147 patients with clinical and radiological assessments. Patients were grouped according to severity of MME in the medial compartment at the time of surgery. MME was categorized into 4 groups according to MOAKS (MRI [magnetic resonance imaging] Osteoarthritis Knee Score) criteria and relative value of MME. We compared preoperative characteristics, including Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale, meniscal tear pattern, and postoperative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) subscores. Associations between extent of MME and WOMAC subscores at postoperative 1 and 2 years were assessed with generalized linear models.

Pattern of meniscal tear (P < .05) and KL grade (P < .05) were associated with MME. Patients with KL grades 3 and 4 at the time of surgery had significantly greater MME than those with KL grade 2 (P < .05). When patients were divided into 4 groups according to MOAKS criteria at the time of surgery, there were significant differences in WOMAC pain scores among groups at 1 and 2 years after the operation (all P < .05). The WOMAC function score also differed among groups at postoperative 1 year (P < .05) but not postoperative 2 years (P > .05). When patients were divided into 4 groups according to relative MME at the time surgery, the WOMAC pain score differed significantly among groups at postoperative 1 and 2 years (all P < .05). Analysis of WOMAC pain score as the dependent variable in multivariate analyses revealed that severity of absolute and relative MME and KL grade were independent predictors of worse WOMAC pain score at postoperative 1 and 2 years (all P < .05).

Greater preoperative MME at the time of surgery was associated with inferior patient-reported outcomes, especially pain, in patients with MOWHTO at 1 and 2 years after surgery.

Tendon Regeneration After Partial-Thickness Peroneus Longus Tendon Harvesting: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation and In Vivo Animal Study.

Am J Sports Med

In recent years, the use of the anterior half of the peroneus longus tendon (AHPLT) as an autograft source for ligament reconstruction has gained popularity. However, no reports are available regarding tendon regeneration after harvesting of the AHPLT.

When half of the tendon is preserved during tendon harvesting, the quality of the regenerated tendon is better than that of the regenerated tendon after full-thickness harvesting.

Case series; Level of evidence, 4; controlled laboratory study.

A total of 21 patients who underwent AHPLT harvesting for lower extremity ligament reconstruction participated in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study to evaluate tendon regeneration 1 year after the harvesting. An in vivo animal study was performed to compare the quality of the regenerated tendon after partial-thickness and full-thickness tendon harvesting. A total of 30 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 2 groups-15 rats underwent partial-thickness Achilles tendon harvesting (partial-thickness harvesting [PTH] group), and 15 rats underwent full-thickness Achilles tendon harvesting (full-thickness harvesting [FTH] group). The quality of the regenerated tendons was compared 180 days after tendon harvesting.

All 21 patients showed regeneration of the peroneus longus tendon (PLT) (homogeneously dark on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences). The cross-sectional area of the regenerated tendon divided by that of the preoperative tendon was 92.6% and 84.5% at 4 cm and 9 cm proximal to the tip of the distal fibula, respectively. In the animal study, the mean histologic score was better for the PTH group compared with the FTH group (9.17 ± 1.35 vs 14.72 ± 0.74; P < .001). The ultimate strength and the stiffness of the regenerated Achilles tendon were significantly higher for the PTH group compared with the FTH group (35.5 ± 8.3 vs 22.4 ± 8.3 N, P = .004; and 31.6 ± 7.7 vs 23.5 ± 4.8 N/mm, P = .016).

The PLT was found to regenerate after partial-thickness harvesting on MRI. In the animal study, the quality of the regenerated tendon when half of the tendon was preserved during tendon harvesting was better than that after full-thickness tendon harvesting.

Hip Arthroscopy in Smokers: A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Complications in 18,585 Cases.

Am J Sports Med

Although the negative effects of smoking have been documented for other types of arthroscopic procedures, there is limited information regarding its influence on hip arthroscopy outcomes.

To examine the effect of smoking on the following outcomes after hip arthroscopy: patient-reported outcomes (PROs), the degree of improvement in PROs relative to baseline, complication rates, and rates of revision arthroscopy and/or conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Systematic review.

The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were queried for studies published between January 1, 1985, and January 14, 2020, comparing the outcomes of hip arthroscopy between smokers and nonsmokers. Case reports, basic science studies, and studies investigating pediatric patients or lacking a description of outcomes were excluded. Included outcome tools were the modified Harris Hip Score, the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction, and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS)-Sports Specific and HOS-Activities of Daily Living. Preoperative characteristics and operative indications were also recorded.

Postoperative combined means (± SD) were better in nonsmokers versus smokers for the modified Harris Hip Score (75.67 ± 20.88 vs 82.32 ± 15.5; P = .001), the VAS pain (3.13 ± 2.79 vs 2.13 ± 2.21; P < .001), and the HOS-Sports Specific (62.54 ± 25.38 vs 71.7 ± 23.3; P < .001). There was no difference between groups in VAS satisfaction (P = .23) or HOS-Activities of Daily Living (P = .13). The extent of PRO score improvement relative to baseline values was similar in smokers and nonsmokers in all PRO measures (P > .05 for all). Smokers demonstrated higher rates of postoperative thromboembolic (P = .0177) and infectious (P = .006) complications. There was no difference between rates of revision arthroscopy (P = .47) and THA conversion (P = .31).

Smoking adversely affects certain postoperative PROs and is associated with higher postoperative complication rates. Further studies are required investigating the degree of PRO improvement and long-term arthroscopy revision and THA conversion rates.

Long-term Outcomes and Survivorship of Fresh-Frozen Meniscal Allograft Transplant With Soft Tissue Fixation: Minimum 10-Year Follow-up Study.

Am J Sports Med

Meniscal allograft transplant (MAT) is considered an effective procedure for reducing pain and improving knee function. Nevertheless, the current knowledge regarding the results of MAT is limited to short- to mid-term follow-up studies, especially for arthroscopic techniques.

To evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes, reoperations, and failures with a minimum follow-up of 10 years after fresh-frozen MAT performed arthroscopically with soft tissue fixation.

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

A total of 46 patients (age, 36.6 ± 10.6 years; 36 male, 10 female) who underwent medial MAT (n = 27) or lateral MAT (n = 19) with a minimum 10-year follow-up were evaluated with the Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), visual analog scale for pain, and Tegner score. Surgical failure was defined as the need for partial or total graft removal (meniscectomy or knee replacement), and clinical failure was defined as the need for partial or total graft removal in addition to a poor Lysholm score (<65 points) at final follow-up. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier curve, and clinical scores were analyzed based on the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) for MAT.

10-year survival and clinical data were available for 38 patients. Because 6 meniscectomies were required, the rate of survival free from surgical failure was 91% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years. Lower survival was reported in lateral MAT (73%) compared with medial MAT (96%). Because a further 4 patients had poor Lysholm scores, the rate of survival free from surgical and clinical failure was 87% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years. The average Lysholm score at final follow-up was 82 ± 20, and 60% to 82% of patients achieved PASS of the various KOOS subscales. The Tegner score and the KOOS Sport score significantly decreased from mid-term to long-term evaluation (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Other KOOS subscales and the Lysholm score remained stable at long-term evaluation. No significant differences were found between isolated MAT or combined MAT regarding subjective scores, surgical failures, or clinical failures.

Up to 10 years after surgery, 86% of fresh-frozen MATs with soft tissue fixation were still in situ, and satisfactory clinical results were present for about 70% of patients. Decline of clinical outcomes from midterm to long term was noted only in sports-related scores. A higher number of overall reoperations was noted in female patients, whereas a higher risk of failure was present in the patients with lateral MAT.

Iliopsoas Tenotomy During Hip Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review of Postoperative Outcomes.

Am J Sports Med

Arthroscopic iliopsoas tendon release is a surgical treatment option for painful snapping hips, although it has been associated with controversy surrounding potential complications including decreased hip flexion strength, iatrogenic hip instability, and iliopsoas atrophy.

To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomy during hip arthroscopic surgery as an intervention for painful snapping hips.

Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

A total of 3 online databases (Embase, PubMed, and MEDLINE) were searched from database inception until September 2019 for studies investigating iliopsoas tenotomy during hip arthroscopic surgery. Studies were screened by 2 reviewers independently and in duplicate, and studies investigating arthroscopic iliopsoas tendon release were included. Demographic data as well as data on treatment success, functional outcome scores, and radiological outcomes were recorded. A risk of bias assessment was performed for all included studies.

Overall, 21 studies were identified with a total of 824 patients (875 hips). These patients were 82.5% female (680/824), with a mean age of 28.1 years (range, 12-62 years) and mean follow-up of 32.1 months (range, 3-73 months). Arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomy was performed at the level of the labrum in 811 hips (92.7%) or the lesser trochanter in 64 hips (7.3%). The overall reported success rate of the procedure in resolving snapping hips was 93.0% (266/286), and all studies reported an improvement in functional outcome scores. Only 6 studies (93 hips) discussed postoperative hip flexion strength, with complete recovery of strength reported in 4 studies (47 hips) and mild decreases reported in the other 2 studies (46 hips). Iliopsoas atrophy was evaluated radiologically (3 studies; 66 hips) and was found postoperatively in 92.4% (61/66) of hips. No major complications were reported.

Arthroscopic release of the iliopsoas tendon was effective in alleviating pain and persistent clicking associated with a snapping hip. Although patients demonstrated some early postoperative weakness and iliopsoas atrophy on radiological imaging, the results from studies to date showed satisfactory clinical function and return to sports/activities. High-quality comparative studies are needed to further assess arthroscopic iliopsoas tendon release to determine the optimal technique and location of tendon release.

How many runners with new-onset Achilles tendinopathy develop persisting symptoms? A large prospective cohort study.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

Achilles tendinopathy(AT) occurs in half of elite runners. AT is a difficult to treat tendon disease, which may progress from new-onset to a chronic state. It is unknown how many runners with new-onset AT develop persisting symptoms and which prognostic factors are associated with this course.

To describe how many runners develop persisting symptoms 1 year after onset of reactive AT.

Runners registering for a Dutch running event(5-42.2 km) were eligible for inclusion. Runners reporting new-onset AT between registration for the running event and 1 month after received a 1-year follow-up questionnaire. The 1-year follow-up questionnaire inquired about persisting symptoms(yes/no), running activity and metabolic disorders. We calculated the percentage of runners with persisting symptoms and performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to study the association between potential prognostic factors and persisting symptoms.

Of 1929 participants, 100 runners(5%) reported new-onset AT. A total of 62 runners(62%) filled in the 1-year follow-up questionnaire. Persisting symptoms were reported by 20 runners (32%). A higher running distance per week before new-onset AT was associated with a lower risk of developing persisting symptoms (odds ratio(OR) 0.9, 95%Confidence interval(CI) [0.9;1.0]). There was a positive trend towards an association between metabolic disorders and persisting symptoms(OR 5.7, 95%CI [0.9;36.2]).

One third of runners develop persisting symptoms 1 year after new-onset AT. Interestingly, a higher running distance per week before new-onset AT potentially lowers the risk of developing persisting symptoms.

Latent profiles analysis of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with mortality risk: a 15-year follow-up.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

By exploring multiple characteristics of physical activity and sedentary behaviour (SB), different physical activity profiles could be obtained, wh...

Can radiographic patellofemoral osteoarthritis be diagnosed using clinical assessments?

Musculoskeletal care

The aim of this study was to determine whether participant characteristics and clinical assessments could identify radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) in individuals with clinically diagnosed, symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA).

Participant characteristics and clinical assessments were obtained from 179 individuals aged 50 years and over with clinically diagnosed symptomatic PFOA, who were enrolled in a randomised trial. Anteroposterior, lateral, and skyline X-rays were taken of the symptomatic knee. The presence of radiographic PFOA was defined as "no or early PFOA" (Kellgren and Lawrence [KL] grade ≤1 in the PF compartment) or "definite PFOA" (KL grade ≥2). Diagnostic test statistics were applied to ascertain which participant characteristics and clinical assessments could identify the presence of definite radiographic PFOA.

A total of 118 participants (66%) had definite radiographic PFOA. Univariate analysis identified that older age (>61 years), female sex, higher body mass index (BMI) (>29 kg/m2 ), longer pain duration (>2.75 years), higher maximum knee pain during stair ambulation (>47/100 mm), and fewer repeated single step-ups to pain onset (<21) were associated with the presence of definite radiographic PFOA. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that BMI, pain duration, and repeated single step-ups to pain onset were independently associated with radiographic PFOA and identified the presence of definite radiographic PFOA with an overall accuracy of 73%.

In individuals over 50 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of PFOA, higher BMI, longer pain duration, and fewer repeated single step-ups to pain onset increased the likelihood of radiographic PFOA. However, overall diagnostic accuracy was modest, suggesting that radiographic PFOA cannot be confidently identified using these tests.

Remote assessment in sport and exercise medicine (SEM): a narrative review and teleSEM solutions for and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

Brit J Sports Med

The COVID-19 pandemic forces sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians to think differently about the clinical care of patients. Many rapidly implement eHealth and telemedicine solutions specific to SEM without guidance on how best to provide these services.

The aim of this paper is to present some guiding principles on how to plan for and perform an SEM consultation remotely (teleSEM) based on a narrative review of the literature. A secondary aim is to develop a generic teleSEM injury template.

eHealth and telemedicine are essential solutions to effective remote patient care, also in SEM. This paper provides guidance for wise planning and delivery of teleSEM. It is crucial for SEM physicians, technology providers and organisations to codesign teleSEM services, ideally involving athletes, coaches and other clinicians involved in the clinical care of athletes, and to gradually implement these services with appropriate support and education.

teleSEM provides solutions for remote athlete clinical care during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. We define two new terms-eSEM and teleSEM and discuss guiding principles on how to plan for and perform SEM consultations remotely (teleSEM). We provide an example of a generic teleSEM injury assessment guide.

Exercise dose affects the circulating microRNA profile in response to acute endurance exercise in male amateur runners.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

The systemic response to exercise is dose-dependent and involves a complex gene expression regulation and crosstalk between tissues. In this contex...