The latest medical research on Sports & Exercise Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about sports & exercise medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effect of Resistance Exercise Orders on Health Parameters in Trained Older Women: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Medicine and Science in Sports

To compare the effects of four resistance exercise orders on muscular strength, body composition, functional fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health parameters in trained older women.

The intervention lasted 63 weeks. Sixty-one physically independent women (> 60 years) after completing a 12-week resistance training (RT) pre-conditioning phase were randomized into four different exercise orders groups to perform 12 weeks of RT: multi- to single-joint and upper- to lower-body (MJ-SJ-U), single- to multi-joint and upper- to lower-body (SJ-MJ-U), multi- to single-joint and lower- to upper-body (MJ-SJ-L), and single- to multi-joint and lower- to upper-body (SJ-MJ-L). This was followed by a 12-week detraining period and another 12-week RT in which exercise orders were crossed-over between MJ-SJ and SJ-MJ conditions. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (1RM tests), functional fitness (gait speed, walking agility, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests), cardiovascular risk factors (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, C-reactive protein, AOPP, TRAP, and NOx), depressive (GDS-scale), and anxiety symptoms (BAI), cognitive performance (MoCA, Trail Making, verbal fluency, and Stroop test) were analyzed.

Following the final training period, all groups presented significant improvements (P < 0.05) in almost all analyzed variables (muscular strength, body composition, functional tests, blood biomarkers, and mental health parameters), without significant difference among exercise orders.

Our results suggest that RT exercise orders in which MJ, SJ, upper, or lower-body exercises are performed first have similar effects on health parameters in trained older women.

Cardiovascular Adjustments Following Acute Heat Exposure.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

In this review, we highlight recent studies from our group and others that have characterized the cardiovascular adjustments that occur following a...

Genetic Pathways Underlying Individual Differences in Regular Physical Activity.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

Twin and family studies show a strong contribution of genetic factors to physical activity (PA) assessed either by self-report or accelerometers. P...

Primary surgery versus primary rehabilitation for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a living systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brit J Sports Med

Compare the effectiveness of primarily surgical versus primarily rehabilitative management for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture.

Randomised controlled trials that compared primary reconstructive surgery and primary rehabilitative treatment with or without optional reconstructive surgery.

Of 9514 records, 9 reports of three studies (320 participants in total) were included. No clinically important differences were observed at any follow-up for self-reported knee function (low to very low certainty of evidence). For radiological knee osteoarthritis, we found no effect at very low certainty of evidence in the long term (OR (95% CrI): 1.45 (0.30 to 5.17), two studies). Meniscal damage showed no effect at low certainty of evidence (OR: 0.85 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.62); one study) in the long term. No differences were observed between treatments for any other secondary outcome. Three ongoing randomised controlled trials were identified.

There is low to very low certainty of evidence that primary rehabilitation with optional surgical reconstruction results in similar outcome measures as early surgical reconstruction for ACL rupture. The findings challenge a historical paradigm that anatomic instability should be addressed with primary surgical stabilisation to provide optimal outcomes.


Patient Acceptable Symptom State, Minimal Clinically Important Difference, and Substantial Clinical Benefit After Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

Am J Sports Med

Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimal clinically important difference (MCID), and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) have rarely been assessed after arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction (ASCR) with fascia lata autograft.

(1) To investigate PASS, MCID, and SCB values for pain visual analog scale (pVAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) after ASCR with fascia lata autograft, (2) to investigate factors for achieving PASS, MCID, and SCB.

Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

We retrospectively collected data from patients who underwent ASCR between June 2013 and October 2020. A total of 88 patients were included, and anchor questions for deriving PASS, MCID, and SCB values were applied at a minimum 1-year follow-up postoperatively. PASS, MCID, and SCB were derived using sensitivity- and specificity-based approaches. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors for achieving PASS, MCID, and SCB.

Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, all 4 scores had acceptable area under the curve values (>0.7) for PASS, MCID, and SCB values. The PASS, MCID, and SCB values were 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 for pVAS; 81.0, 19.0, and 27.5 for the ASES score; 60.5, -0.5, and 5.5 for the Constant score; and 75.0, 27.5, and 32.5 for SANE, respectively. Poor preoperative scores were related to significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for achieving MCID and SCB. Wide acromiohumeral distance and dominant side were related to higher ORs for achieving PASS for the ASES score, and subscapularis tear was related to lower ORs for achieving PASS for pVAS and SCB for the Constant score.

Reliable PASS, MCID, and SCB values were achieved for at least 1 year after ASCR surgery. Poor preoperative score, wide acromiohumeral distance, and dominant side all demonstrated higher ORs for at least one value, but a subscapularis tear demonstrated lower ORs for achieving PASS for pVAS and SCB for the Constant score.

Hip Impingement Location in Maximal Hip Flexion in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement With and Without Femoral Retroversion.

Am J Sports Med

Symptomatic patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have limitations in daily activities and sports and report the exacerbation of hip pain in deep flexion. Yet, the exact impingement location in deep flexion and the effect of femoral version (FV) are unclear.

To investigate the acetabular and femoral locations of intra- or extra-articular hip impingement in flexion in patients with FAI with and without femoral retroversion.

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

An institutional review board-approved retrospective study involving 84 hips (68 participants) was performed. Of these, symptomatic patients (37 hips) with anterior FAI and femoral retroversion (FV <5°) were compared with symptomatic patients (21 hips) with anterior FAI (normal FV) and with a control group (26 asymptomatic hips without FAI and normal FV). All patients were symptomatic, had anterior hip pain, and had positive anterior impingement test findings. Most of the patients had hip/groin pain in maximal flexion or deep flexion or during sports. All 84 hips underwent pelvic computed tomography (CT) to measure FV as well as validated dynamic impingement simulation with patient-specific CT-based 3-dimensional models using the equidistant method.

In maximal hip flexion, femoral impingement was located anterior-inferior at 4 o'clock (57%) and 5 o'clock (32%) in patients with femoral retroversion and mostly at 5 o'clock in patients without femoral retroversion (69%) and in asymptomatic controls (76%). Acetabular intra-articular impingement was located anterior-superior (2 o'clock) in all 3 groups. In 125° of flexion, patients with femoral retroversion had a significantly (P < .001) higher prevalence of anterior extra-articular subspine impingement (54%) and anterior intra-articular impingement (89%) compared with the control group (29% and 62%, respectively).

Knowing the exact location of hip impingement in deep flexion has implications for surgical treatment, sports, and physical therapy and confirms previous recommendations: Deep flexion (eg, during squats/lunges) should be avoided in patients with FAI and even more in patients with femoral retroversion. Patients with femoral retroversion may benefit and have less pain when avoiding deep flexion. For these patients, the femoral location of the impingement conflict in flexion was different (anterior-inferior) and distal to the cam deformity compared with the location during the anterior impingement test (anterior-superior). This could be important for preoperative planning and bone resection (cam resection or acetabular rim trimming) during hip arthroscopy or open hip preservation surgery to ensure that the region of impingement is appropriately identified before treatment.

Factors Associated With Disease Progression in the Contralateral Hip of Patients With Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Minimum 5-Year Analysis.

Am J Sports Med

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is one of the most common causes of hip osteoarthritis, yet the factors controlling disease progression are poorly understood.

To investigate rates of initial and subsequent symptoms in the contralateral hip of patients with FAI, and identify predictors of disease progression (symptom development and surgical intervention) in the contralateral hip.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

This prospective study included a minimum 5-year follow-up of the contralateral hip in 179 patients undergoing FAI surgery. Symptoms (moderate pain) and surgical progression were monitored. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared patient-specific and imaging characteristics of symptomatic patients with those who remained asymptomatic to identify factors associated with disease progression.

A total of 150 patients (84% follow-up) were followed for a mean of 7.1 years (range, 5-11 years). Thirty-nine of these patients (26% [39/150]) had contralateral hip symptoms at initial evaluation. Of those without contralateral hip symptoms at initial evaluation, 32% (36/111) had developed contralateral hip symptoms by latest follow-up. Those who developed symptoms during the study period had a lower anteroposterior head-neck offset ratio (0.153 vs 0.165; P = .005), decreased total arc of rotation in 90° of flexion (39.9° vs 51.1°; P = .005), and decreased external rotation in 90° of flexion (28.6° vs 37.1°; P = .003) compared with those who never developed symptoms. Age, sex, body mass index, alpha angle, lateral center-edge angle, internal rotation in flexion, and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), activity score were similar between these groups. Those with contralateral symptoms at initial evaluation progressed to contralateral surgery at a rate of 41% (16/39) and those who developed contralateral symptoms during the study period progressed to contralateral surgery at a rate of 28% (10/36). Among those with contalateral hip symptoms (either present initially or developed during study period)), younger age (24.6 vs 34.1 years; P < .001) and baseline UCLA activity score ≥9 (P = .003) were associated with progression to surgery. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 64%, 54%, and 48% of patients remained free of contralateral hip symptoms at 2, 5, and 10 years.

At a mean follow-up of 7.1 years, significant symptoms in the contralateral hip of patients with FAI were present in approximately 50% of patients. FAI disease progression (symptom development and surgical intervention) was associated with decreased hip rotation arc, decreased external rotation, and decreased head-neck offset ratio. In symptomatic patients, younger age and UCLA activity score ≥9 were associated with progression to surgery. These findings represent important factors for patient counseling and risk modeling in FAI.

Relationship of the SIRSI Score to Return to Sports After Surgical Stabilization of Glenohumeral Instability.

Am J Sports Med

Literature is scarce regarding the influence of psychological readiness on return to sports after shoulder instability surgery.

To evaluate the predictive ability of the Shoulder Instability-Return to Sport after Injury (SIRSI) score in measuring the effect of psychological readiness on return to sports and to compare it between athletes who returned to sports and athletes who did not return to sports.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

A prospective analysis was performed of patients who underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair or a Latarjet procedure between January 2019 and September 2020. Psychological readiness to return to play was evaluated using the SIRSI instrument. Preoperative and postoperative functional outcomes were measured by the Rowe, Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index scores. The predictive validity of the SIRSI was assessed by the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics. The Youden index was calculated and used to determine a SIRSI score cutoff point that best discriminated psychological readiness to return to sports. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of psychological readiness on return to sports and return to preinjury sports level.

A total of 104 patients were included in this study. Overall, 79% returned to sports. The SIRSI had excellent predictive ability for return-to-sport outcomes (return to sports: area under ROC curve, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.80-0.93]; return to preinjury sports level: area under ROC curve, 0.96; [95% CI, 0.8-0.9]). A cutoff level of ≥55 was used to determine whether an athlete was psychologically ready to return to sports and to return to preinjury sports level (Youden index, 0.7 and 0.9, respectively). Of those who returned to sports, 76.8% were psychologically ready to return to play, with a median SIRSI score of 65 (interquartile range, 57-80). In comparison, in the group that did not return to sports, only 4.5% achieved psychological readiness with a median SIRSI score of 38.5 (interquartile range, 35-41) (P < .001). Regression analysis for the effect of SIRSI score on return to sports was performed. For every 10-point increase in the SIRSI score, the odds of returning to sports increased by 2.9 times. Moreover, those who did not achieve their preinjury sports level showed poorer psychological readiness to return to play and SIRSI score results.

The SIRSI was a useful tool for predicting whether patients were psychologically ready to return to sports after glenohumeral stabilization surgery. Patients who returned to sports and those who returned to their preinjury sports level were significantly more psychologically ready than those who did not return. Therefore, we believe that the SIRSI score should be considered along with other criteria that are used to decide whether the patient is ready to return to sports.

The influence of playing surface on match injury risk in men's professional rugby union in England (2013-2019).

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

The use of artificial playing surfaces in professional rugby union is growing, but their effect on the injury risk profile remains unclear. The aim...

Associations between biological maturity level, match locomotion and physical capacities in youth male soccer players.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

Biological maturity level has shown to affect sport performance in youths. However, most previous studies have used non-invasive methods to estimate maturity level. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the association between skeletal age (SA) as a measure of biological maturation level, match locomotion and physical capacity in male youth soccer players.

Thirty-eight Norwegian players were followed during two consecutive seasons (U14 and U15). Match locomotion was assessed with GPS tracking in matches. SA, assessed by x-ray, physical capacities (speed, strength and endurance) and anthropometrics were measured in the middle of each season. Analysis of associations between SA, match locomotion and physical capacities were adjusted for the potential confounding effect of body height and weight.

In matches, positive associations were found between SA and maximal speed and running distance in the highest speed zones. Further, SA was associated with 40m sprint time and CMJ height, and with intermittent endurance capacity after adjusting for body height (U14). Associations between SA and leg strength and power, and between SA and absolute VO2max were not significant after adjusting for body weight. There was no association between SA and total distance covered in matches.

Biological maturity level influence match locomotion and performance on physical capacity tests. It is important that players, parents and coaches are aware of the advantages more mature players have during puberty, and that less mature players also are given attention, appropriate training and match competition to ensure proper development.

Association of headgear mandate and concussion injury rates in girls' high school lacrosse.

Brit J Sports Med

Headgear use is a controversial issue in girls' lacrosse. We compared concussion rates among high school lacrosse players in an American state with a headgear mandate (HM) to states without an HM.

Participants included high schools with girls' lacrosse programmes in the USA. Certified athletic trainers reported athlete exposure (AE) and injury data via the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network during the 2019-2021 seasons. The HM cohort was inclusive of high schools from the state of Florida, which mandates the use of ASTM standard F3137 headgear, while the non-HM (NHM) cohort was inclusive of high schools in 31 states without a state-wide HM. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs were calculated.

141 concussions (HM: 25; NHM: 116) and 357 225 AEs were reported (HM: 91 074 AEs; NHM: 266 151 AEs) across all games and practices for 289 total school seasons (HM: 96; NHM: 193). Overall, the concussion injury rate per 1000 AEs was higher in the NHM cohort (0.44) than the HM cohort (0.27) (IRR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.45). The IRR was higher for the NHM cohort during games (1.74, 95% CI: 1.00 to 3.02) but not for practices (1.42, 95% CI: 0.71 to 2.83).

These findings suggest a statewide HM for high school girls' lacrosse is associated with a lower concussion rate than playing in a state without an HM. Statewide mandates requiring ASTM standard F3137 headgear should be considered to reduce the risk of concussion.

Power Output Manipulation from Below to Above the Gas Exchange Threshold Results in Exacerbated Performance Fatigability.

Medicine and Science in Sports

Performance fatigability is substantially greater when exercising in the severe versus heavy intensity domain. However, the relevance of the boundary between moderate and heavy intensity exercise, the gas exchange threshold (GET), to performance fatigability is unclear. This study compared alterations in neuromuscular function during work-matched exercise above and below the GET.

Seventeen male participants completed work-matched cycling for 90, 110 and 140 min at 110, 90 and 70% of the GET, respectively. Knee extensor isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), high-frequency doublets (Db100) low- to high-frequency doublet ratio (Db10:100) and voluntary activation (VA) were measured at baseline, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of task-completion. During the initial, baseline visit, and following each constant work rate bout, ramp-incremental exercise was performed, and peak power output and oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) were determined.

Following the 70% and 90% GET trials, similar reductions in MVC (-14 ± 6% and - 14 ± 8%, respectively, p = 0.175) and Db100 (-7 ± 9% and - 6 ± 9%, respectively, p = 0.431) were observed. However, for a given amount of work completed, reductions in MVC (-25 ± 15%, p = 0.008) and Db100 (-12 ± 8%, p = 0.029) were up to 2.6-fold greater during the 110% than 90% GET trial. Peak power output and V̇O2peak during ramp-incremental exercise were reduced by 7.0 ± 11.3% and 6.5 ± 9.3%, respectively, following the 110% GET trial relative to the baseline ramp (p ≤ 0.015), with no changes following the moderate intensity trials (p ≥ 0.078).

The lack of difference in fatigability between the trials at 70% and 90% GET, coupled with the greater fatigability at 110% relative to 90% GET, shows that exceeding the moderate-heavy intensity boundary has implications for performance fatigability, whilst also impairing maximal exercise performance capacity.