The latest medical research on Sports & Exercise Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about sports & exercise medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Early time course of change in angiogenic proteins in human skeletal muscle and vascular cells with endurance training.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

Angiogenic-, mitochondrial- and related transcriptional proteins were assessed in human skeletal muscle and isolated vascular cells during the earl...

Sports participation and sports injuries in Dutch boys with haemophilia.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

Sports participation in children with haemophilia is generally considered to be associated with increased injury risk, which is generally considered highest in severe haemophilia.

To assess sports participation according to age and severity in children with haemophilia and its association with sports injuries.

In a retrospective single centre study, sports participation, injuries and bleeding data from three consecutive annual clinic visits were collected for young patients with haemophilia (PWH, aged 6-18). Sports in categories 2.5 and 3 of 3 according to the National Hemophilia Foundation classification were considered high-risk. Groups were compared using Chi-square testing.

105 PWH (median age: 13(IQR 10-14); 53% severe; bleeding rate: 1/year) were identified; three were unable to perform sports and were excluded. The majority of PWH (77%) played sports weekly, of which 80% high-risk sports. Sports participation (median 3.0x/week), and the proportion of injured PWH was similar in severe (42%) and non-severe (33%) PWH. Sports injuries were rare (65% no injuries in 3 yrs, median 0/year (IQR 0-1)). Annually, PWH did not report more injuries (15%) than age-matched boys (28%). Sports injuries were not associated with frequency and type of sports.

This retrospective study showed high sports participation (including high-risk sports) and low injury rates. Sports participation was similar across severities and injury rates were not higher than among the general population. Injuries were not associated with frequency or type of sports. A prospective study with objective assessment of sports participation and injuries is warranted to confirm these findings and avoid recall bias.

Muscle-tendon morphology and function following long-term exposure to repeated and strenuous mechanical loading.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

We mapped structural and functional characteristics of muscle-tendon units in a population exposed to very long-term routine overloading. Twenty-ei...

Early Elbow Osteoarthritis in Competitive Enduro Motorcyclist.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

This case report speculates that prolonged vibration from enduro off-road sport is deleterious for the elbow joint. This contribution could also ai...

Effects of active commuting on health-related quality of life and sickness related absence.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

Increased physical activity is associated with numerous health benefits. This study investigated the effect of active commuting (walking and cyclin...

Does foot mobility affect the outcome in the management of patellofemoral pain with foot orthoses versus hip exercises? A randomised clinical trial.

Brit J Sports Med

To test (i) if greater foot pronation (measured as midfoot width mobility) is associated with better outcomes with foot orthoses treatment, compared with hip exercises and (ii) if hip exercises are superior to foot orthoses, irrespective of midfoot width mobility.

A two-arm parallel, randomised superiority clinical trial was conducted in Australia and Denmark. Participants (18-40 years) were included who reported an insidious onset of knee pain (≥6 weeks duration); ≥3/10 numerical pain rating, that was aggravated by activities (eg, stairs, squatting, running). Participants were stratified by midfoot width mobility (high ≥11 mm change in midfoot width) and site, randomised to foot orthoses or hip exercises and blinded to objectives and stratification. Success was defined a priori as much better or better on a patient-perceived 7-point scale at 12 weeks.

Of 218 stratified and randomised participants, 192 completed 12-week follow-up. This study found no difference in success rates between foot orthoses versus hip exercises in those with high (6/21 vs 9/20; 29% vs 45%, respectively) or low (42/79 vs 37/72; 53% vs 51%) midfoot width mobility. There was no association between midfoot width mobility and treatment outcome (Interaction effect p=0.19). This study found no difference in success rate between foot orthoses versus hip exercises (48/100 vs 46/92; 48% vs 50%).

Midfoot width mobility should not be used to help clinicians decide which patient with patellofemoral pain might benefit most from foot orthoses. Clinicians and patients may consider either foot orthoses or hip exercises in managing patellofemoral pain.


Lower nationwide rates of arthroscopic procedures in 2016 compared with 1997 (634925 total arthroscopic procedures): has the tide turned?

Brit J Sports Med

To assess the rates and secular trends of different joint arthroscopies-shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle-in Finland between 1997 and 2016.

Incidence rate of arthroscopic surgery per 100 000 person-years.

The rate of knee and shoulder arthroscopies declined after reaching a peak in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The rates of wrist, elbow and hip joint arthroscopies declined after their 2014 peak. At the same time, the median age of patients who had knee, ankle and hip arthroscopy decreased, whereas the age of patients who had shoulder arthroscopy increased.

Numerous randomised controlled trials point to lack of efficacy of the most common knee and shoulder arthroscopic procedures. It should not be assumed that this has contributed to decreased rates of arthroscopic surgery. The concurrent decrease in most of the other joint arthroscopic procedures was unexpected.

Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular disease risk markers in adults with paraplegia.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

Elevated levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers are highly prevalent in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Breaking up prolonged ...

Eye care and ocular findings at the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016.

Brit J Sports Med

To describe the attendance and ocular profile of competitors and members of delegations who attended the Polyclinic Ophthalmology Division during the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016.

The eye clinic was allocated in the purpose-built polyclinic opened for competitors and members of delegations from 24 July to 18 September 2016. All individuals who attended the service received a comprehensive ocular examination including biomicroscopy, subjective refraction and fundus evaluation. A main clinical finding was assigned for each eye by the ophthalmologist.

5.6% of Olympic Games competitors and 8.9% of Paralympic Games competitors attended the Polyclinic Ophthalmology Division during the Rio Olympic and Paralympic Games. These rates compare with 2.6% and 6.5% at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games (2012). The main clinical finding was refractive error with 79.0% of the individuals receiving a glass prescription during the Olympic Games and 81.3% during the Paralympic Games.

Our outcomes highlight the importance of the eye service at the polyclinic as it may represent the only opportunity for many individuals involved with the Olympic and Paralympic Games to receive ocular evaluation. Our description of clinic structure, delivery of service and clinical results will be useful in the organisation not only for the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020 but also for any other large sporting events that involves medical attention in a polyclinic format.

Protein Supplementation and Resistance Training in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

Medicine and Science in Sports

Muscle weakness, low lean body mass, and poor physical performance are prevalent among adult survivors of childhood cancer (survivors). We evaluated the feasibility and effects of resistance training with and without protein supplementation on lean body mass and muscle strength among survivors.

This double-blind placebo-controlled trial enrolled survivors aged ≥18 to <45 years. Participants were randomized to resistance training with protein supplement (21g whey protein/day, 90kcal) (RT+S) or resistance training with placebo (sucrose, 90kcal) (RT+P). Participants received educational materials, access to a local fitness center, and a tailored resistance training program with tapered supervision. Participant retention and adherence were used to evaluate feasibility. Lean body mass and muscle strength were assessed at baseline and 24-weeks, using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and dynamometer testing or 1-repetition maximum testing, respectively. Mean changes were compared with two-way analysis of variance.

Of 70 participants randomized, 57 completed the 24-week intervention (24 in RT+S, 33 in RT+P). RT+S group completed 74.8% and RT+P group completed 67.0% of exercise sessions. Mean age for those who completed was 33.1 years (SD 7.0), 67% were white and 47% female. There were no differences in change in lean mass (RT+S mean 1.05 kg [SD 2.34], RT+P 0.13 kg [SD 2.19], p=0.10) or strength (RT+S mean grip 1.65 kg [SD 4.17], RT+P 1.63 kg [SD 4.47], p=0.98; mean leg press RT+S 58.4 kg [SD 78.8], RT+P 51.0 kg [SD 65.1], p=0.68) between groups. Both lean mass (p=0.03) and strength (grip p=0.003, leg press p<0.001) increased over time.

Supervised resistance training among survivors with protein supplementation is feasible but not more effective at increasing total lean body mass than resistance training alone.

New Data-based Cutoffs for Maximal Exercise Criteria Across the Lifespan.

Medicine and Science in Sports

To determine age-dependent cutoff values for secondary exhaustion criteria for a general population free of exercise limiting chronic conditions; to describe the percentage of participants reaching commonly-used exhaustion criteria during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET); and to analyze their oxygen uptake at the respective criteria in order to quantify the impact of a given criterion on the respective V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values.

Data from the COmPLETE-Health Study were analyzed involving participants from 20-91 years of age. All underwent a CPET to maximal voluntary exertion using a cycle ergometer. To determine new exhaustion criteria, based on maximal respiratory exchange ratio (RERmax) and age-predicted maximal heart rate (APMHR), one-sided lower tolerance intervals for the tests confirming V[Combining Dot Above]O2 plateau status were calculated using a confidence level of 95% and a coverage of 90%.

A total of 274 males and 252 females participated in the study. Participants were nearly equally distributed across age decades from 20 to >80. A V[Combining Dot Above]O2 plateau was present in 32%. There were only minor differences in secondary exhaustion criteria between participants exhibiting a V[Combining Dot Above]O2 plateau and participants not showing a V[Combining Dot Above]O2 plateau. New exhaustion criteria according to the tolerance intervals for the age group of 20 to 39 years were: RERmax ≥ 1.13, APMHR210 ≥ 96%, and APMHR208 93%; for the age group of 40 to 59 years: RERmax ≥ 1.10, APMHR210 ≥ 99%, and APMHR208 92%; and, for the age group of 60 to 69 years: RERmax ≥ 1.06, APMHR210 ≥ 99%, and APMHR208 89%.

The proposed cut-off values for secondary criteria reduce the risk of underestimating V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. Lower values would increase false-positive results, assuming participants are exhausted although, in fact, they are not.

Biceps Tenodesis Versus Tenotomy in the Treatment of Lesions of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Sports Med

The biceps tendon is a known source of shoulder pain. Few high-level studies have attempted to determine whether biceps tenotomy or tenodesis is the optimal approach in the treatment of biceps pathology. Most available literature is of lesser scientific quality and shows varying results in the comparison of tenotomy and tenodesis.

To compare patient-reported and objective clinical results between tenotomy and tenodesis for the treatment of lesions of the long head of the biceps brachii.

Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Patients aged ≥18 years undergoing arthroscopic surgery with intraoperative confirmation of a lesion of the long head of the biceps tendon were randomized. The primary outcome measure was the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, while secondary outcomes included the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) score, elbow and shoulder strength, operative time, complications, and the incidence of revision surgery with each procedure. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at postoperative 1 year to evaluate the integrity of the procedure in the tenodesis group.

A total of 114 participants with a mean age of 57.7 years (range, 34 years to 86 years) were randomized to undergo either biceps tenodesis or tenotomy. ASES and WORC scores improved significantly from pre- to postoperative time points, with a mean difference of 32.3% (P < .001) and 37.3% (P < .001), respectively, with no difference between groups in either outcome from presurgery to postoperative 24 months. The relative risk of cosmetic deformity in the tenotomy group relative to the tenodesis group at 24 months was 3.5 (95% CI, 1.26-9.70; P = .016), with 4 (10%) occurrences in the tenodesis group and 15 (33%) in the tenotomy group. Pain improved from 3 to 24 months postoperatively (P < .001) with no difference between groups. Cramping was not different between groups, nor was any improvement in cramping seen over time. There were no differences between groups in elbow flexion strength or supination strength. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at postoperative 12 months showed that the tenodesis was intact for all patients.

Tenotomy and tenodesis as treatment for lesions of the long head of biceps tendon both result in good subjective outcomes but there is a higher rate of Popeye deformity in the tenotomy group.

NCT01747902 ( identifier).