The latest medical research on Lung Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about lung cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Clinical significance of the combination of preoperative SUVmax and CEA in patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

Thoracic Cancer

Preoperative maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) have been reported as prognostic factors for lung adenocarcinoma. However, the significance of combined SUVmax and CEA in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma is not well known.

We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between the combination of SUVmax and CEA and the prognosis of 410 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma who underwent resection. The cutoff values for SUVmax and CEA were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and patients were categorized into high SC (SUVmax and CEA) group (SUVmax ≥2.96 and CEA ≥5.3), moderate SC group (either SUVmax <2.96 and CEA ≥5.3 or SUVmax ≥2.96 and CEA <5.3) and low SC group (SUVmax <2.96 and CEA <5.3).

Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma in the high SC group had significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than the other groups (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that high SC was an independent prognostic factor of OS (p = 0.029) and RFS (p < 0.0001).

High values of SUVmax and CEA were associated with poor OS and RFS in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Simultaneous evaluation of SUVmax and CEA may be an effective prognostic marker to determine the optimal treatment strategy of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

Totality outcome of afatinib sequential treatment in patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer in South Korea (TOAST): Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG) LU-19-22.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Irrespective of the first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor chosen, acquired resistance to therapy is inevitable. Therefore, a key consideration when assessing therapeutic choices is the availability of subsequent treatment options following disease progression. We assessed clinical outcomes in patients who received first-line afatinib treatment with various second-line treatments including osimertinib for patients acquiring the T790M mutation.

A total of 737 EGFR mutation-positive (EGFR M+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving first-line afatinib treatment were categorized by second-line treatment: T790M+ sequentially treated with osimertinib (cohort A, n=116); T790M- given chemotherapy or others (cohort B, n=143); patients with unknown T790M status (cohort C, n=111); and patients who were undergoing afatinib treatment at the time of data collection, were dead, had discontinued afatinib treatment due to serious adverse events or were lost to follow-up (cohort D, n=367). The primary outcomes were total time on treatment (TOT) and TOT for first-line (TOT-1) and second-line treatments (TOT-2). Secondary outcomes were objective response rates (ORR), overall survival (OS), and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy.

Median total TOT in cohorts A, B, C, and D were 35.10 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 30.09-43.53 months], 18.80 months (95% CI: 16.92-20.20 months), 12.00 months (95% CI: 10.22-14.98 months), and 42.60 months (95% CI: 30.95-59.23 months), respectively. The ORR of patients given afatinib was 75.7%. In patients with initial brain metastasis without local treatment, the CNS response rate was 67.0% and CNS progression-free survival was 24.70 months (95% CI: 19.84-33.15 months).

This study showed that sequential approach of afatinib followed by second line treatment is an effective therapeutic strategy for EGFR M+ NSCLC patients.

Prognosis and recurrence patterns in patients with early stage lung cancer: a multi-state model approach.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

We aimed to assess whether recurrence patterns affect survival and to use a multi-state model to predict the prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer in patients who underwent surgical resection.

Patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical resection at two tertiary medical centers between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. A multi-state model was employed with one initial state (surgery), two intermediate states (locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis), and one absorbing state (death), comprising five transitions: surgery to locoregional recurrence, surgery to distant metastasis, surgery to death without recurrence, locoregional recurrence to death, and distant metastasis to death. Cox proportional hazards models stratified for these transitions were performed with the risk factors; transition probabilities for each patient were predicted.

A total of 949 patients were identified [median age: 67 years, male: 614 (64.6%)]. Recurrence occurred in 194 (20.4%) patients (locoregional recurrence: 7.3%, distant metastasis: 13.1%). Hazard ratios for distant metastasis after surgery were higher for older age (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.06) and adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.61). Lower lobe location exhibited a higher hazard ratio for death after surgery without recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-2.53). Stage IIB lung cancer showed a higher probability of transition to distant metastasis after surgery than other stages. Cumulative transition hazards rapidly increased in both recurrence patterns until approximately two years after surgery (locoregional recurrence: 0.052; distant metastasis: 0.104). Patients with distant metastasis were more likely to die within 5 years of surgery than those with locoregional recurrence (6.8% and 2.6%, respectively).

With the multi-state model, risk factors and post-relapse survival probabilities differed between locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis. These findings may enable clinicians to establish personalized follow-up strategies for patients undergoing curative resection for early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Efficacy and safety of first-line anlotinib-based combinations for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a three-armed prospective study.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

The evidence of combined therapies of multi-target agents in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was limited. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anlotinib combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), chemotherapy, or immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) in advanced NSCLC.

This open-label, three-arm, prospective study (NCT03628521) enrolled untreated locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC patients. Patients with EGFR mutation NSCLC received anlotinib and erlotinib (cohort A). Patients without EGFR/ALK/ROS1 mutation received anlotinib combined with carboplatin plus pemetrexed/gemcitabine (cohort B), or sintilimab (cohort C). The primary outcomes were safety and objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), and overall survival (OS). Treatments were performed for at least 2 cycles and efficacy was evaluated every 2 cycles using RECIST version 1.1. Safety was assessed throughout the study.

A total of 30, 30, and 22 patients were enrolled in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively. There were 3 patients did not complete the treatment in cohort A. In cohorts A and B, ≥ grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 77.3% and 60.0% of patients, respectively. The most common TRAEs were rash (10.0%) and decreased platelet count (30.0%) in cohorts A and B, respectively. The ORRs were 92.9% and 60.0% in cohorts A and B, respectively, and DCRs were 96.4% and 96.7%, respectively. The ORR and incidence of ≥ grade 3 TRAEs of cohort C were, which 72.7% and 54.5%, which had been published previously. Median PFSs [95% confidence interval (CI)] were 21.6 (15.6 to 24.9), 13.0 [10.5 to not estimated (NE)], and 15.6 (12.9 to NE) months in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively. Median OS was 28.1 (95% CI: 21.82 to NE) months in cohort B. The 24-month OS rates in cohorts A and C were 87.1% and 83.9%, respectively.

Anlotinib-based combinations with EGFR-TKI, chemotherapy, and ICI are well-tolerated and encouraging as first-line therapies for advanced NSCLC, which could be verified in future studies. Anlotinib-based combination might provide multiple choices for first-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.

Identification of a three-gene expression signature and construction of a prognostic nomogram predicting overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma based on TCGA and GEO databases.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the major cause of cancer mortality. Traditional prognostic factors have limited importance after including other parameters. Thus, developing a more credible prognostic model combined with genes and clinical parameters is necessary.

The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-LUAD datasets and microarray data from three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases were obtained. We identified differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between lung tumor and normal tissues through integrated analysis of the three GEO datasets. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to select survival-associated DEGs and to establish a prognostic gene signature which was associated with overall survival (OS). The expression of gene proteins was assessed in 180 LUAD tissue microarrays (TMAs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We verified its predictive performance with a Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and validated it in external GEO databases. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the significant prognostic indicators in LUAD. Furthermore, we established a prognostic nomogram based on TCGA-LUAD dataset.

A three-gene signature was constructed to predict the OS of LUAD patients. The KM analysis, ROC curve, and C-index present a good predictive ability of the gene signature in TCGA dataset [P<0.0001; C-index 0.6375; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5632-0.7118; area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.674] and the external GEO datasets (P=0.05, 0.004, and 0.04, respectively). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses also verified that LUAD patients with low-risk scores had a decreased risk of death compared to those with a high-risk score in TCGA database [hazard ratio (HR) =0.3898; 95% CI: 0.1938-0.7842; P<0.05]. Finally, we constructed a nomogram integrating the gene signature and clinicopathological parameters (P<0.0001; C-index 0.762; 95% CI: 0.714-0.845; AUC 0.8136). Compared with conventional staging, a nomogram can effectively improve prognosis prediction.

The nomogram is closely associated to the OS of LUAD patients. This consequence may be beneficial to individualized treatment and clinical decision-making.

Peripheral blood leukocyte mitochondrial DNA content and risk of lung cancer.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Previous studies of peripheral blood leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and risk of lung cancer have yielded inconsistent results, and no studies have evaluated the association between mtDNA content and post-resection lung cancer outcomes.

Using a case-control study design, we evaluated the association between mtDNA content and risk of lung cancer in 465 cases and 378 controls. We also evaluated the association between mtDNA content and survival in 189 cases with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Relative mtDNA content was measured using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in peripheral blood genomic DNA. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, race, and smoking history.

mtDNA content was lower in cases compared to controls, with medians of 1.26 [interquartile range (IQR), 0.98-1.70)] and 1.79 (IQR, 1.34-2.10; P<0.001), respectively. Compared to the quartile of subjects with the highest mtDNA content, there was significantly higher likelihood of lung cancer in the second lowest quartile (OR 3.44; 95% CI: 2.06-5.75) and the lowest quartile (OR 6.36; 95% CI: 3.86-10.47). In patients with resected NSCLC, there was no association between lower mtDNA content and recurrence-free survival (RFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89; 95% CI: 0.47-1.66] or overall survival (OS) (HR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.35-1.46).

Thus, our results counter previous studies and find that lower mtDNA content is associated with lung cancer risk. Our results suggest that mtDNA content could potentially serve as a risk biomarker, but is not associated with survival outcomes in NSCLC.

Various recurrence dynamics for non-small cell lung cancer depending on pathological stage and histology after surgical resection.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Although there are numerous postoperative surveillance guidelines for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), most guidelines recommend the same protocol for patients with different recurrence dynamics. In this study, we investigated the recurrence dynamics of NSCLC patients according to their clinical factors.

We retrospectively reviewed the data from NSCLC patients who underwent complete resection between 2007 and 2017. Recurrence dynamics were estimated using the hazard rate and displayed with kernel smoothing method according to tumor stage, sex, and histology.

During the period, a total of 6,012 patients were enrolled: 3,687 (61.3%) in stage I, 1,194 (19.9%) in stage II, and 1,131 (18.8%) in stage III. The highest recurrence hazard rate was shown at about 12 months, regardless of tumor stage, but the maximum of hazard rate for stage III was 7 times higher than that in stage I. Depending on tumor histology, the highest peak of hazard curve was observed at different periods, 9 months in squamous cell carcinoma and 15 months in adenocarcinoma. These trends were similar when analyzed based on sex, 9 months in male patients and 15 months in female patients. In stage I adenocarcinoma, recurrence hazard rates were significantly different depending on histologic subtypes and tumor differentiation grade.

Adopting the same follow-up strategy may be undesirable in NSCLC patients who have different clinical and pathological characteristics. Adequate consideration of these factors will help clinicians develop detailed follow-up strategy in lung cancer patients with different recurrence dynamics.

Identification and validation of a ferroptosis-related prognostic risk-scoring model and key genes in small cell lung cancer.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung malignancy with high relapse rates and poor survival outcomes. Ferroptosis is a recently identified type of cell death caused by excessive intracellular iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation, which may mediate tumor-infiltrating immune cells to influence anti-cancer immunity. But prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes and its relationship with the treatment response of immunotherapies in SCLC have not been elucidated.

The RNA-sequencing and clinical data of SCLC patients were downloaded from the cBioPortal database. A ferroptosis-related prognostic risk-scoring model was constructed based on univariable and multivariable Cox-regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival curves and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the risk-scoring model. And the correlations between ferroptosis-related prognostic genes and immune microenvironment were explored. The IC50 values of anti-cancer drugs were downloaded from the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database and the correlation analysis with the key gene thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was performed. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was employed to detect the expression of TXNIP in 20 SCLC patients who received first-line chemo-immunotherapy. Immunotherapeutic response according to iRECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours for immunotherapy trials) were recorded.

We constructed a risk-score successfully dividing patients in the low- and high-risk groups (with better and worse prognosis, respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) of this risk-scoring model was 0.812, showing it had good utility in predicting the prognosis of SCLC. Moreover, ferroptosis-related genes were associated with the degree of immune infiltration of SCLC. Most importantly, we found that the TXNIP expression was highly correlated with the degree of immune invasion and the efficacy of chemotherapy in combination with immunotherapy in SCLC patients.

The ferroptosis-related prognostic risk-scoring model proposed in this study can potentially predict the prognosis of SCLC patients. TXNIP may serve as a potential biomarker to predict the prognosis and efficacy of chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy in SCLC patients.

Safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer patients with preexisting antinuclear antibodies: a retrospective cohort study.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) predicting the safety and efficacy of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are still a matter of debate considering previous studies showed quite different results based on different ANA cut-off values. Thus, we investigated the associations between different ANA titers and the safety and efficacy of ICIs. Moreover, we also briefly discussed the effects of anti-thyroglobulin (ATG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO) on the safety of ICIs.

A total of 159 Chinese patients confirmed to have locally-advanced or metastatic NSCLC given ICIs or chemoimmunotherapy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2015 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively and were followed up until December 2020 or death or loss to follow-up. Patients' characteristics were retrieved from medical records. ANAs were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence assay, ATG and ATPO by the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The severity of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE 5.0) and the efficacy was evaluated by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1).

The incidence of irAEs, median progression-free survival (mPFS) of the ANA negative and positive groups were 26.0% vs. 31.4% (P=0.457), 17.7 vs. 10 months (P=0.603) for the cut-off value of 1:80; 26.2% vs. 33.9% (P=0.305), 11.9 vs. 10.6 months (P=0.957) for 1:160; and 25.9% vs. 45.8% (P=0.047), and 11.9 vs. 7.7 months (P=0.471) for 1:320, separately. Besides, ANA titer ≥1:320 was associated with irAEs [odds ratio (OR) =4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-16.52, P=0.01] and the incidence of adverse skin reactions differed greatly between the negative and positive groups (9.7% vs. 32%, P=0.003). Moreover, a total of 52 out of 159 patients were tested for ATG and ATPO. 46 patients were negative and 6 were positive, with the incidence of abnormal thyroid function being 4.3% vs. 50% (P=0.005), respectively.

Preexisting ANAs may not correlate with the clinical benefit of immunotherapy in patients with NSCLC but may be associated with adverse skin reactions. Besides, ATG or ATPO has the potential to predict thyroid dysfunction.

Comprehensive analysis of mutational profile and prognostic significance of complex glandular pattern in lung adenocarcinoma.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Complex glandular pattern (CGP) was included as high-grade pattern in the new grading system proposed by The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. We aimed to investigate the mutational profile and validate the prognostic significance and proper cut-off value to distinguish the aggressive behavior of CGP.

CGP was defined as nests of tumor cells with sieve-like perforation, fused glands with irregular borders or back-to-back glands without intervening stroma. Patients were categorized into four groups according to the percentage of CGP component (0%, 1-19%, 20-49%, 50-100%). Cox's proportional hazards model was applied to analyze recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).

A total of 950 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma was enrolled. The most frequent driver mutation in this cohort was EGFR and was detected in 624 (65.7%) patients. EGFR mutation was more frequently observed in patients with <20% CGP than in patients with ≥20% CGP (73.6% vs. 60.2%), while KRAS mutation and ALK rearrangement was significantly associated with ≥20% CGP. Patients with 20% or greater CGP exhibited significant worse RFS (P<0.001) and OS (P<0.001) than their counterparts. Moreover, the multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that CGP (≥20%) was a risk factor for a worse RFS (P=0.001) and OS (P<0.001) independent of staging and gene mutation. Smaller portion of CGP (<20%) were comparable in RFS and OS to those without CGP (0%). There was also no significant difference in RFS and OS between the 20-49% and ≥50% group.

Our study provided mutational profile of patients with different CGP, validated CGP as a negative prognostic factor and provided extra evidences for the optimal cut-off value of CGP percentage.

Racial disparities in histological subtype, stage, tumor grade and cancer-specific survival in lung cancer.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Racial differences in lung cancer survival are well documented in the United States, but the fundamental causes are less clear. In this study we aimed to examine racial differences in lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and explore mediating factors.

We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to obtain data pertaining to lung cancer patients from 2004 to 2017. Outcome was LCSS and covariates included nonclinical (age at diagnosis, gender, marital status, race) and clinical factors (tumor site, year of diagnosis, tumor grading, histological subtype, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, surgery status, chemotherapy status and radiation status). Kaplan-Meier methods served for comparative LCSS disparities among patients of different racial origins. Meanwhile, univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to determine racial disparities in LCSS.

Among 61,961 lung cancer patients, 75.70% were White, 12.80% were Black, 11.30% were Asian or Pacific Islander (API), and 0.20% were American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN). In API patients, adenocarcinoma patients (54.5%) were more frequent than in White patients (43.2%), Black patients (44.1%) and American Indian/Alaska Native patients (41.2%). Black and API patients exhibited higher stage than White patients (P<0.01). However, our multivariate analysis identified API patients exhibited better LCSS than White patients (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88-0.93). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed that API patients exhibited best LCSS, especially in stage IV adenocarcinoma.

The novel evidence obtained from this study enrich our knowledge of racial differences among lung cancer patients and suggest that race may be associated with LCSS.

Causal effects of genetically determined metabolites on cancers included lung, breast, ovarian cancer, and glioma: a Mendelian randomization study.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Previous studies have shown that metabolites play important roles in phenotypic regulation, but the causal link between metabolites and tumors has not been examined adequately. Herein, we investigate the causality between metabolites and various cancers through a Mendelian randomization (MR) study.

We carried out a two-sample MR analysis based on genetic instrumental variables as proxies for 486 selected human serum metabolites to evaluate the causal effects of genetically determined metabotypes (GDMs) on cancers. Summary data from various cancer types obtained from large consortia. Inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger and weighted-median methods were implemented to infer the causal effects, moreover, we particularly explored the presentence of horizontal pleiotropy through MR-Egger regression and MR-PRESSO Global test. Metabolic pathways analysis and subgroup analyses were further explored using available data. Statistical analyses were all performed in R.

In MR analysis, 202 significant causative relationship features were identified. 7-alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoate (ORIVW =1.45; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97; PIVW =0.018), gamma-glutamylisoleucine (ORIVW =1.40; 95% CI: 1.16-1.69; PIVW =0.0004), 1-oleoylglycerophosphocholine (ORIVW =1.22; 95% CI: 1.1-1.35; PIVW =0.0001), gamma-glutamylleucine (ORIVW =4.74; 95% CI: 1.18-18.93; PIVW =0.027) were the most dangerous metabolites for lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and glioma, respectively; while pseudouridine (ORIVW =0.50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.83; PIVW =0.007), 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine (ORIVW =0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.86; PIVW =2.9×10-6), 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine (ORIVW =0.77; 95% CI: 0.70-0.85; PIVW =3.4×10-7), glycylvaline (ORIVW =0.13; 95% CI: 0.02-0.75; PIVW =0.021) were associated with lower risk of lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and glioma, respectively. Interestingly, 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine was also associated with decreased risk of lung cancer (ORIVW =0.59; 0.50-0.70; P IVW =1.98×10-9) expect ovarian cancer and breast cancer. In subgroup analysis, 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine was associated with decreased risk of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer (ORIVW =0.72; 0.64-0.80; PIVW =3.55×10-9), lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) (ORIVW =0.60; 0.48-0.70; PIVW =1.14×10-5). Metabolic pathways analysis identified 4 significant pathways.

Our study integrated metabolomics and genomics to explore the risk factors involved in the development of cancers. It is worth exploring whether metabolites with causality can be used as biomarkers to distinguish patients at high risk of cancer in clinical practice. More detailed studies are needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.