The latest medical research on Lung Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about lung cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Gut microbiota shed new light on the management of immune-related adverse events.

Thoracic Cancer

Immunotherapy has dramatically revolutionized the therapeutic landscape for patients with cancer. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors are now acc...

Esophagobronchial fistula successfully managed with a self-expandable metallic stent followed by fixation using a silicon Y stent.

Thoracic Cancer

Esophagobronchial fistula (EBF) formation is a severe complication of advanced thoracic malignancies, that affects the prognosis and quality of lif...

What does radiomics do in PD-L1 blockade therapy of NSCLC patients?

Thoracic Cancer

With the in-depth understanding of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PD-L1 has become a vital immunot...

Esophageal cancer: Outcome and potential benefit of esophagectomy in elderly patients.

Thoracic Cancer

This analysis evaluated the morbimortality and the potential benefit of esophagectomy for cancer in elderly patients.

Patients who underwent esophagectomy for EC were divided into elderly (≥70 years) and nonelderly (<70 years) groups. The groups were compared regarding patient and tumor characteristics, postoperative morbimortality, and disease-free, overall and cancer-specific survival.

Sixty-one patients were classified into elderly, and 187 into nonelderly groups. The elderly were characterized by a higher rate of WHO score (p < 0.0001), higher cardiac (p < 0.004) and renal (p < 0.023) comorbidities. The rate of neoadjuvant therapy and especially of neoadjuvant CRT was significantly lower in elderly patients (p < 0.018 and p < 0.007). Operative morbidity was also higher in this group (p < 0.024). The 30- and 90-day mortality was 8.2 and 11.5%, respectively in elderly patients and 0.5 and 3.2% in nonelderly patients (p < 0.004 and p < 0.012). This 90-day mortality decreased when specific surgery-related deaths were taken into consideration. OS and DFS were significantly better in the nonelderly group (p < 0.003 and p < 0.005) while no difference was observed for cancer-specific survival (CSS).

No difference in CSS was observed. Although elderly patients with EC had higher postoperative morbimortality, the age should not be a criterion whether to perform, or not to perform, esophagectomy. This decision must be based on the balance between the patient's general condition and aggressive disease.

Assessment of durable chemoimmunotherapy response via circulating tumor DNA in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Thoracic Cancer

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapies have shown promising advances for the first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic esophageal c...

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in a patient with small cell lung cancer and anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1-γ antibody-positive dermatomyositis: A case report.

Thoracic Cancer

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are closely related to cancers; 30% of dermatomyositis (DM) cases are associated with malignancy. In lung cancer patients...

Targeted therapy combined with immunotherapy in patients with breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis of metaplastic SCC.

Thoracic Cancer

At present, the clinicopathological features, optimal treatment patterns, and prognosis of breast metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are not...

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the new oncological drug durvalumab in Italian patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

Thoracic Cancer

The monoclonal antibody durvalumab, an immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) antiprogrammed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), is available for unresectable stage III NSCLC patients as consolidation therapy following induction chemoradiotherapy, with very promising overall survival (OS) and progression-free survial (PFS) results in registration trials. The purpose of this study was to provide policymakers with an estimate of the cost-effectiveness of durvalumab in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

The study developed a Markov model covering a 5-year period to compare costs and outcomes of treating PD-L1 positive patients with or without durvalumab. We conducted a series of sensitivity analyses (Tornado analysis and Monte Carlo simulation) by varying some parameters to assess the robustness of our model and identify the parameters with the greatest impact on cost-effectiveness.

Prior to the release of durvalumab, the management of NSCLC over a 5-year period cost €33 317 per patient, with an average life expectancy of 2.01 years. After the introduction of the drug, this increased to €37 317 per patient, with an average life expectancy of 2.13 years. Treatment with durvalumab led to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €35 526 per year. OS is the variable that contributes the most to the variability of the ICER.

The study observed that durvalumab is a cost-effective treatment option for patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC.

Clinical significance of the combination of preoperative SUVmax and CEA in patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

Thoracic Cancer

Preoperative maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) have been reported as prognostic factors for lung adenocarcinoma. However, the significance of combined SUVmax and CEA in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma is not well known.

We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between the combination of SUVmax and CEA and the prognosis of 410 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma who underwent resection. The cutoff values for SUVmax and CEA were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and patients were categorized into high SC (SUVmax and CEA) group (SUVmax ≥2.96 and CEA ≥5.3), moderate SC group (either SUVmax <2.96 and CEA ≥5.3 or SUVmax ≥2.96 and CEA <5.3) and low SC group (SUVmax <2.96 and CEA <5.3).

Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma in the high SC group had significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than the other groups (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that high SC was an independent prognostic factor of OS (p = 0.029) and RFS (p < 0.0001).

High values of SUVmax and CEA were associated with poor OS and RFS in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Simultaneous evaluation of SUVmax and CEA may be an effective prognostic marker to determine the optimal treatment strategy of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

Totality outcome of afatinib sequential treatment in patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer in South Korea (TOAST): Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG) LU-19-22.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Irrespective of the first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor chosen, acquired resistance to therapy is inevitable. Therefore, a key consideration when assessing therapeutic choices is the availability of subsequent treatment options following disease progression. We assessed clinical outcomes in patients who received first-line afatinib treatment with various second-line treatments including osimertinib for patients acquiring the T790M mutation.

A total of 737 EGFR mutation-positive (EGFR M+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving first-line afatinib treatment were categorized by second-line treatment: T790M+ sequentially treated with osimertinib (cohort A, n=116); T790M- given chemotherapy or others (cohort B, n=143); patients with unknown T790M status (cohort C, n=111); and patients who were undergoing afatinib treatment at the time of data collection, were dead, had discontinued afatinib treatment due to serious adverse events or were lost to follow-up (cohort D, n=367). The primary outcomes were total time on treatment (TOT) and TOT for first-line (TOT-1) and second-line treatments (TOT-2). Secondary outcomes were objective response rates (ORR), overall survival (OS), and central nervous system (CNS) efficacy.

Median total TOT in cohorts A, B, C, and D were 35.10 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 30.09-43.53 months], 18.80 months (95% CI: 16.92-20.20 months), 12.00 months (95% CI: 10.22-14.98 months), and 42.60 months (95% CI: 30.95-59.23 months), respectively. The ORR of patients given afatinib was 75.7%. In patients with initial brain metastasis without local treatment, the CNS response rate was 67.0% and CNS progression-free survival was 24.70 months (95% CI: 19.84-33.15 months).

This study showed that sequential approach of afatinib followed by second line treatment is an effective therapeutic strategy for EGFR M+ NSCLC patients.

Prognosis and recurrence patterns in patients with early stage lung cancer: a multi-state model approach.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

We aimed to assess whether recurrence patterns affect survival and to use a multi-state model to predict the prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer in patients who underwent surgical resection.

Patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical resection at two tertiary medical centers between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. A multi-state model was employed with one initial state (surgery), two intermediate states (locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis), and one absorbing state (death), comprising five transitions: surgery to locoregional recurrence, surgery to distant metastasis, surgery to death without recurrence, locoregional recurrence to death, and distant metastasis to death. Cox proportional hazards models stratified for these transitions were performed with the risk factors; transition probabilities for each patient were predicted.

A total of 949 patients were identified [median age: 67 years, male: 614 (64.6%)]. Recurrence occurred in 194 (20.4%) patients (locoregional recurrence: 7.3%, distant metastasis: 13.1%). Hazard ratios for distant metastasis after surgery were higher for older age (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.06) and adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.61). Lower lobe location exhibited a higher hazard ratio for death after surgery without recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-2.53). Stage IIB lung cancer showed a higher probability of transition to distant metastasis after surgery than other stages. Cumulative transition hazards rapidly increased in both recurrence patterns until approximately two years after surgery (locoregional recurrence: 0.052; distant metastasis: 0.104). Patients with distant metastasis were more likely to die within 5 years of surgery than those with locoregional recurrence (6.8% and 2.6%, respectively).

With the multi-state model, risk factors and post-relapse survival probabilities differed between locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis. These findings may enable clinicians to establish personalized follow-up strategies for patients undergoing curative resection for early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Efficacy and safety of first-line anlotinib-based combinations for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a three-armed prospective study.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

The evidence of combined therapies of multi-target agents in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was limited. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anlotinib combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), chemotherapy, or immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) in advanced NSCLC.

This open-label, three-arm, prospective study (NCT03628521) enrolled untreated locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC patients. Patients with EGFR mutation NSCLC received anlotinib and erlotinib (cohort A). Patients without EGFR/ALK/ROS1 mutation received anlotinib combined with carboplatin plus pemetrexed/gemcitabine (cohort B), or sintilimab (cohort C). The primary outcomes were safety and objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), and overall survival (OS). Treatments were performed for at least 2 cycles and efficacy was evaluated every 2 cycles using RECIST version 1.1. Safety was assessed throughout the study.

A total of 30, 30, and 22 patients were enrolled in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively. There were 3 patients did not complete the treatment in cohort A. In cohorts A and B, ≥ grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 77.3% and 60.0% of patients, respectively. The most common TRAEs were rash (10.0%) and decreased platelet count (30.0%) in cohorts A and B, respectively. The ORRs were 92.9% and 60.0% in cohorts A and B, respectively, and DCRs were 96.4% and 96.7%, respectively. The ORR and incidence of ≥ grade 3 TRAEs of cohort C were, which 72.7% and 54.5%, which had been published previously. Median PFSs [95% confidence interval (CI)] were 21.6 (15.6 to 24.9), 13.0 [10.5 to not estimated (NE)], and 15.6 (12.9 to NE) months in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively. Median OS was 28.1 (95% CI: 21.82 to NE) months in cohort B. The 24-month OS rates in cohorts A and C were 87.1% and 83.9%, respectively.

Anlotinib-based combinations with EGFR-TKI, chemotherapy, and ICI are well-tolerated and encouraging as first-line therapies for advanced NSCLC, which could be verified in future studies. Anlotinib-based combination might provide multiple choices for first-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.