The latest medical research on Lung Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about lung cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Puncture frequency predicts pneumothorax in preoperative computed tomography-guided lung nodule localization for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

Thoracic Cancer

Iatrogenic pneumothorax is the most frequent complication in preoperative CT-guided localization (POCTGL) of lung nodules. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of iatrogenic pneumothorax.

We retrospectively analyzed data of consecutive POCTGL procedures in patients who received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) at our hospital between May 2015 and October 2019. All of our patients utilized laser angle guide assembly to aid in the localization procedures.

In 610 consecutive POCTGL procedures, 40 (6.6%) patients developed iatrogenic pneumothorax, and complications occurred in 8.5%. Univariate analyses revealed that puncture frequency, male gender, puncture depth, left decubitus position, and nodule near fissure were factors associated with pneumothorax, while multivariate analysis showed that only male gender (odds ratio 3.58, p = 0.012) and puncture frequency (odds ratio 2.39/time, p = 0.0004) determined development of pneumothorax. Further collective analysis on puncture frequency revealed that tumor in a difficult zone (1.33 ± 0.71 vs. 1.19 ± 0.45, p = 0.002), especially adjacent to the mediastinum (1.41 ± 0.75 vs. 1.21 ± 0.52, p = 0.002), angle difference of plan-to-practice (r = 0.209, p = < 0.001), depth to skin (r = 0.152, p < 0.001), and depth to pleura (r = 0.164, p < 0.001) were factors related to increased puncture frequency in univariate analyses. Only angle difference of plan-to-practice was associated in multivariate analysis (odds ratio: 1.158, p = 0.008).

Puncture frequency was the key factor in the development of iatrogenic pneumothorax from POCTGL. Other associated factors, especially angle difference, may have affected the puncture frequency and subsequently have some influence on the incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax.

Angiosarcoma of breast and chest wall complicated with tuberculous empyema: A case report.

Thoracic Cancer

Angiosarcoma is a highly malignant endothelial tumor, accounting for 1% to 2% of soft tissue sarcomas. The most common site of the disease is the s...

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by gemcitabine after nivolumab in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma followed by a dramatic tumor response: A case report.

Thoracic Cancer

Herein, we report a case of a 73-year-old female patient diagnosed with cT4N0M1a lung adenocarcinoma with KRAS G12C mutation, PDL1 

Predictive value of post-treatment C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy.

Thoracic Cancer

The PACIFIC trial established durvalumab consolidation therapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) as the standard treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). However, little is known about the predictive factors of durvalumab efficacy in this population. This study aimed to validate the predictive use of inflammation-related parameters in patients with LA-NSCLC treated with CCRT plus durvalumab.

We recruited 76 LA-NSCLC patients who received CCRT followed by durvalumab from 10 Japanese institutions. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and prognostic nutrition index (PNI) were measured before (pre-treatment) and 2 months after (post-treatment) durvalumab induction. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) after durvalumab therapy.

The median follow-up time was 17 (range, 3.3-35.8) months. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) times were 26.1 and 33.7 months, respectively. Durvalumab was discontinued in 47 (61.8%) patients, with non-infectious pneumonitis being the most common reason. Post-treatment CAR (cutoff, 0.2) was a significant stratifying factor in survival comparison (<0.2 vs. ≥ 0.2, median PFS, not-reached vs. 9.6 months. Log-rank, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model showed that post-treatment CAR was an independent prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio, 3.16, p = 0.003).

This study suggests that post-treatment CAR has predictive value for LA-NSCLC patients treated with CCRT plus durvalumab consolidation therapy.

The quality of life in neoadjuvant versus adjuvant therapy of esophageal cancer treatment trial (QUINTETT): Randomized parallel clinical superiority trial.

Thoracic Cancer

We compared the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients undergoing trimodality therapy for resectable stage I-III esophageal cancer.

A total of 96 patients were randomized to standard neoadjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (neoadjuvant) followed by surgical resection or adjuvant cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and epirubicin chemotherapy with concurrent extended volume radiotherapy (adjuvant) following surgical resection.

There was no significant difference in the functional assessment of cancer therapy-esophageal (FACT-E) total scores between arms at 1 year (p = 0.759) with 36% versus 41% (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant), respectively, showing an increase of ≥15 points compared to pre-treatment (p = 0.638). The HRQOL was significantly inferior at 2 months in the neoadjuvant arm for FACT-E, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-OG25), and EuroQol 5-D-3 L in the dysphagia, reflux, pain, taste, and coughing domains (p < 0.05). Half of patients were able to complete the prescribed neoadjuvant arm chemotherapy without modification compared to only 14% in the adjuvant arm (p < 0.001). Chemotherapy related adverse events of grade ≥2 occurred significantly more frequently in the neoadjuvant arm (100% vs. 69%, p < 0.001). Surgery related adverse events of grade ≥2 were similar in both arms (72% vs. 86%, p = 0.107). There were no 30-day mortalities and 2% vs. 10% 90-day mortalities (p = 0.204). There were no significant differences in either overall survival (OS) (5-year: 35% vs. 32%, p = 0.409) or disease-free survival (DFS) (5-year: 31% vs. 30%, p = 0.710).

Trimodality therapy is challenging for patients with resectable esophageal cancer regardless of whether it is given before or after surgery. Newer and less toxic protocols are needed.

TIGIT/CD47 dual high expression predicts prognosis and is associated with immunotherapy response in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Thoracic Cancer

Recent studies indicated that T cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and ITIM domains (TIGIT) and cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) have emerged as new potential immunotherapy targets. However, the roles of TIGIT and CD47 in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) have not been fully illustrated.

The specimens and clinicopathological information from 190 LUSC patients who underwent surgeries in our center were retrospectively collected. Immunohistochemical staining for TIGIT and CD47 was conducted. Transcriptional and clinical data of 479 LUSC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

In the TCGA LUSC cohort, 142 (29.6%) cases were TIGIT/CD47 dual high expression at RNA level. The expression levels of TIGIT and CD47 were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). The proportions of patients with high TIGIT expression (p = 0.001) and high TIGIT/CD47 dual high expression (p = 0.049) were both higher in female cases. Advanced TNM stage (p = 0.006) and TIGIT/CD47 dual high expression (p = 0.047) were independent prognostic factors for LUSC. In the 190 LUSC cohort of our center, 75 (39.5%) cases were TIGIT/CD47 dual high expression at protein level. Cross-table analysis showed a correlation between TIGIT and CD47 expression. Older age (p = 0.001), advanced TNM stage (p < 0.001) and TIGIT/CD47 dual high expression (p = 0.046) were independent prognostic factors in our cohort.

We found that TIGIT and CD47 dual high expression was associated with poor prognosis in LUSC. We speculated that patients with dual high expression of CD47/TIGIT might be suitable for new target immunotherapy in the future.

MiR-379-5p inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer by targeting KIF4A.

Thoracic Cancer

Many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in gene regulation and tumor development. This study aimed to explore the expression of miR-379-5p and its mechanisms of affecting proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer (BC).

MiRNAs and mRNAs expression data of BC and normal breast tissue samples were downloaded from the TCGA and GEO databases. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-379-5p in human normal breast epithelial cell lines and human BC cell lines. The proliferation ability of transfected cells was detected by colony formation and EdU assays. The mobility and invasion ability of transfected cells was measured by wound healing and transwell assays. The relative protein expression of transfected cells was detected by western blot. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to identify the targeted binding of miR-379-5p and KIF4A.

MiR-379-5p was lowly expressed in BC tissue samples and BC cell lines. The target genes of miR-379-5p were involved in many cancer-related signaling pathways. PPI analysis and the cytoHubba algorithm of Cytoscape identified 10 genes as the hub genes. Survival analysis showed that only KIF4A expression in 10 hub genes was significantly associated with the prognosis of BC patients and was significantly upregulated in BC. Overexpression of miR-379-5p inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion in the BC cell line MDA-MB-231, which could be reversed by KIF4A.

MiR-379-5p inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of BC by targeting KIF4A.

Successful treatment of induced oligometastasis and repeated oligoprogression of advanced lung adenocarcinoma with immunotherapy and radiotherapy.

Thoracic Cancer

Highly active and durable systemic therapies such as targeted therapy and immunotherapy can convert widespread metastatic disease into oligometasta...

Galectin-3 enhances trastuzumab resistance by regulating cancer malignancy and stemness in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

Thoracic Cancer

The aim of this study was to explore the role of galectin-3 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer cells and the potential mechanism.

Kaplan-Meier (KM)-plot and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases were used to study the role of galectin-3 in the prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer. The effects of galectin-3 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation ability in HER2-positive breast cancer cells were examined. The relationship between galectin-3 and important components in the HER2 pathways, including HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), protein kinase B (AKT), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), was further studied. Lentivirus and CRISPR/Cas9 were used to construct stable cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and apoptosis assays were used to study the relationship between galectin-3 and trastuzumab. The effect of galectin-3 on cell stemness was studied by mammosphere formation assay. The effects of galectin-3 on stemness biomarkers and the Notch1 pathway were examined. Tumorigenic models were used to evaluate the effects of galectin-3 on tumorigenesis and the therapeutic effect of trastuzumab in vivo.

HER2-positive breast cancer patients with a high expression level of LGALS3 (the gene encoding galectin-3) messenger RNA (mRNA) showed a poor prognosis. Galectin-3 promoted cancer malignancy through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway activation and upregulated stemness by activating the Notch1 signaling pathway in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. These two factors contributed to the enhancement of trastuzumab resistance in cells. Knockout of LGALS3 had a synergistic therapeutic effect with trastuzumab both in vitro and in vivo.

Galectin-3 may represent a prognostic predictor and therapeutic target for HER2-positive breast cancer.

MiR-200c-3p and miR-485-5p overexpression elevates cisplatin sensitivity and suppresses the malignant phenotypes of non-small cell lung cancer cells through targeting RRM2.

Thoracic Cancer

This study intended to investigate the potential mechanism of microRNA-200c-3p (miR-200c-3p) and miR-485-5p in mediating the cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to measure the expression of miR-200c-3p, miR-485-5p, and ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2) messenger RNA (mRNA). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze the DDP resistance and the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Colony formation assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Transwell assays were used to evaluate cell migration and invasion. The target relationship between RRM2 and miR-200c-3p or miR-485-5p was verified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. The protein level of RRM2 was measured using Western blot assay. Animal experiments were conducted to analyze the roles of miR-200c-3p and miR-485-5p in the DDP resistance of xenograft tumors in vivo.

MiR-200c-3p and miR-485-5p were both downregulated in DDP-resistant NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Overexpressing miR-200c-3p or miR-485-5p suppressed the DDP resistance and malignant behaviors of NSCLC cells. MiR-200c-3p played a synergistic role with miR-485-5p in regulating the chemo-resistance and biological behaviors NSCLC cells. RRM2 was confirmed as a target of miR-200c-3p and miR-485-5p. RRM2 silencing restrained the DDP resistance and progression of NSCLC. RRM2 overexpression partly reversed miR-200c-3p or miR-485-5p-induced influences in NSCLC cells. The overexpression of miR-200c-3p or miR-485-5p aggravated DDP-mediated suppressive effect on tumor growth in vivo.

MiR-200c-3p or miR-485-5p enhanced the DDP sensitivity and suppressed the malignant behaviors of NSCLC cells partly through targeting RRM2.

An integrated biomarker of PD-L1 expression and intraepithelial CD8+ T cell infiltration was associated with the prognosis of lung cancer patients after intracranial resection of brain metastases.

Thoracic Cancer

Brain metastases (BM) are common in lung cancer. However, data on the status of immune biomarkers in BM lesions remain limited.

We retrospectively analyzed PD-L1 expression and infiltration levels of CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ T cells as biomarkers by immunohistochemistry in both BM lesions and primary lung cancer (PL) lesions of 29 lung cancer (LC) patients. In addition, the correlations between these biomarkers and the clinical outcome were analyzed using log-rank test.

Intratumoral heterogeneous expression of PD-L1 was observed on tumor cells (TCs) in 11 cases and on immune cells (ICs) in 10 cases with BM samples from multiple regions. There was a disagreement in PD-L1 expression on TCs between paired BM and PL lesions in 15 cases and on ICs in seven cases. Intraepithelial CD3+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration levels in BM samples were lower than those in the paired PL samples. PD-L1 positivity on both TCs and ICs was associated with a better post-BM-surgery prognosis (p = 0.010; p = 0.041). Notably, PD-L1 positivity on TCs and a high level of intraepithelial CD8+ T cell infiltration could serve as an integrated biomarker that indicates longer survival time (p = 0.004) in LC patients.

The heterogeneity in PD-L1 expression was common in both stromal and intraepithelial regions in BM lesions of LC patients, suggesting the need for multiregional PD-L1 testing in clinical practice. More importantly, a combination of PD-L1 expression on TCs with intraepithelial CD8+ T cell infiltration might predict better post-BM-surgery outcomes.

Progress in three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy.

Thoracic Cancer

The number of minimally invasive surgeries, such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, has increased en...