The latest medical research on Lung Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about lung cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The efficacy of almonertinib and anlotinib combination therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients who continued to experience cancer progression during third-generation EGFR-TKI treatment: a retrospective study.

Thoracic Cancer

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are key drivers in a significant portion of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. While third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as osimertinib have demonstrated efficacy, the management of patients who continue to experience disease progression during treatment remains challenging. The emergence of drug resistance, including the development of secondary mutations, necessitates exploration of alternative treatment strategies. This study aims to evaluate and observe the efficacy and safety of almonertinib combined with anlotinib in patients after cancer progression during third-generation EGFR-TKI therapy.

In this retrospective analysis, we included EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients who were resistant to third-generation EGFR-TKIs. All patients were treated with almonertinib combined with anlotinib. The clinical characteristics, treatment history, clinical benefits, and adverse events of these patients were retrospectively collected.

A total of 16 eligible patients were included in the analysis. The results revealed that combination therapy with almonertinib and anlotinib was effective in this patient cohort. The overall response rate was 25% and the disease control rate was 93.75%. The 6 and 12 months of PFS rates were 92.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80.3%, 100.0%) and 84.4% (95% CI 66.6%, 100.0%), respectively. Moreover, this combination therapy was generally well-tolerated, with manageable adverse events.

Our retrospective analysis suggests that almonertinib and anlotinib combination therapy may represent a viable option for EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients who have progressed on third-generation EGFR-TKIs, especially for those with posterior lines and no standard treatment options. Further investigation and larger clinical trials are warranted to validate these observations and refine treatment guidelines.

A case of relieving thymoma after conservative management of anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A encephalitis.

Thoracic Cancer

Anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) encephalitis is a relatively rare autoimmune encephalitis, and often associated with thymoma. ...

Efficacy of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for managing thymoma recurrence following sternotomy: a case report.

Thoracic Cancer

This report addresses the management strategy and effectiveness of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) for treating local recurrence of thy...

Pathological and imaging features of pulmonary invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma-a retrospective cohort study.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Pulmonary invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a rare subtype of lung cancer which is easily misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules, tuberculosis, pulmonary diffuse lesions, or hamartomas due to the lack of clinical specificity. This study aims to identify the pathological and imaging characteristics of IMA, which will favor to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy.

A retrospective study was conducted by enrolling patients histopathologically diagnosed with pulmonary IMA in the current study between January 2014 and December 2021. The clinical pathological and radiological data were collected for analysis to evaluate the radiological patterns and pathological and molecular characteristics of IMA.

A total of 136 patients were included in the study, of whom 58 were male and 78 were female. The patients had an average age of 63.0±9.7 years. The tumors were classified into the following three pathological types: pure mucinous (76 cases) featured by only mucinous cells observed under the microscope; mixed mucinous (23 cases) featured as an attached-wall, papillary, acinar, and solid tumor cells with more than 10% mucinous cells.; and mucinous-absent (29 cases) featured with the absence of mucous cells, but still can detect more than 10% of mucin expresses. In terms of the morphological classification based on the CT scans, 88 (64.7%) cases were identified as the nodular type, 31 (22.8%) as the inflammatory type, 15 (11.1%) as the mass-like type, and two (1.5%) as the diffuse type. For the molecular features, patients afflicted with IMA showed much lower levels of thyroid transcription factor-1 (15%) than those with usual adenocarcinoma (over 80%). However, cytokeratin 20 was more common in IMA (50%) than the usual adenocarcinoma (about 5%). The K-RAS mutation was prevalent in 75% of IMA, which contrasted sharply to its occurrence in a mere 15% of the usual adenocarcinoma. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were rarer in IMA (less than 5%) than the usual adenocarcinoma (about 50%).

The pathological and imaging features enrich our understanding of the disease's heterogeneity, which will contribute to more personalized diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Segmentectomy versus lobectomy for ground-glass opacity dominant cT1N0 invasive lung adenocarcinoma.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

The Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) 1211 suggested that segmentectomy should be considered as standard treatment for clinical T1N0 (cT1N0) ground glass opacity (GGO). However, over half of patients in JCOG1211 had pre-/minimal invasive adenocarcinoma. This study aims to retrospectively investigate the long-term survival of GGO featured cT1N0 invasive lung adenocarcinoma undergoing segmentectomy or lobectomy.

This study screened patients with primary cT1N0 lung adenocarcinoma who received segmentectomy or lobectomy from 2010-2020. Prior computed tomography (CT) scans before surgery of all patients were reviewed and the inclusion was confirmed according to tumor diameter and consolidation tumor ratio (CTR). GGO nodules between 2-3 cm with CTR ≤0.5 or ≤2 cm with CTR between 0.25-0.5 were finally included. Patients with pathologically diagnosed pre-/minimally invasive lung adenocarcinoma were excluded. Long-term survivals between segmentectomy group and lobectomy group were compared after propensity score matching (PSM). Recurrence and postoperative complication events were also analyzed.

In total, 617 patients were enrolled, 159 received segmentectomy and 458 received lobectomy. Clinicopathological characteristics were well distributed between two groups. With a median follow-up time of 61.1 months (IQR: 42.3-71.7 months), after PSM, the 5-year overall survival rate was 98.8% (97.9-99.6%) for lobectomy and 99.3% (98.2-99.8%) for segmentectomy (P=0.42), the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 95.3% (92.2-97.6%) for lobectomy and 95.2% for segmentectomy (92.3-98.7%) (P=0.81). The proportion of recurrence was 4.1% for lobectomy and 4.4% for segmentectomy (P=0.89). The proportion of grade 2 and above early postoperative complications was 9.6% for lobectomy and 8.8% for segmentectomy (P=0.86).

For cT1N0 GGO featured invasive lung adenocarcinoma (2 cm < tumor diameter ≤3 cm, CTR ≤0.5 or tumor diameter ≤2 cm, 0.25< CTR ≤0.5), postoperative outcomes between segmentectomy group and lobectomy group were comparable. Concerning minimally invasive surgical strategy, segmentectomy should be confirmed as the standard surgical approach.

Major pathological response obtained after neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with dual immunotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a case report.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare thoracic malignancy with high morbidity and mortality. A combination of systemic therapy and surgery may be a promising modality for the treatment of MPM, but evidence-based medicine is still lacking.

Here we report a case of MPM. The patient presented to hospital with cough and sputum. After ineffective symptomatic treatment, computed tomography (CT) examination suggested a malignant tumor of pleural origin. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination suggested no lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. The pathologic diagnosis of MPM was confirmed after CT-guided puncture biopsy. Next, she underwent 3 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with dual immunotherapy (carboplatin and pemetrexed combined with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1), resulting in significant tumor shrinkage. After obtaining the patient's consent and completing a preoperative evaluation, we modified the extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) by performing a lower lobe resection and partial pleurectomy of the left lung. Intraoperative rapid frozen pathology suggested that the margins of the tumor were negative and complete resection was achieved. The postoperative pathology report showed 10% residual viable tumor, so the major pathological response (MPR) was achieved after treatment.

MPM might respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and dual immunotherapy, improving the probability of complete surgical resection and attaining an encouraging pathologic response.

Narrative review of stereotactic body radiation therapy combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for oligometastatic EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer: present and future developments.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

A significant number of individuals diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have distant metastases, and the concept of oligometastatic NSCLC has shown promise in achieving a cure. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is currently considered a viable treatment option for a limited number of tumor metastases. It has also been demonstrated that third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective in extending the survival of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated NSCLC. Hence, the combination of SBRT with third-generation TKIs holds the potential to enhance treatment efficacy in patients with oligometastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC. This review aimed to assess the possibility of combining SBRT with TKIs as an optimum treatment option for patients with oligometastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

We performed a narrative review by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for articles published in the English language from January 2009 to February 2024 and by reviewing the bibliographies of key references to identify important literature related to combining SBRT with third-generation TKIs in oligometastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

This review aimed to assess the viability of combining SBRT and EGFR-TKIs in oligometastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Current clinical trials suggest that the combined therapies have better progression free survival (PFS) when using SBRT as either concurrent with EGFR-TKIs or consolidated with EGFR-TKIs. Furthermore, research with third-generation EGFR-TKIs and SBRT combinations has demonstrated tolerable toxicity levels without significant additional adverse effects as compared to prior therapies. However, further clinical trials are required to establish its effectiveness.

The combined approach of SBRT and TKIs can effectively impede the progression of oligometastatic NSCLC in patients harboring EGFR mutations and, most notably, can prolong progression-free survival rates. However, the feasibility of combining SBRT with third-generation TKIs in clinical trials remains unclear.

Predicting MET exon 14 skipping mutation in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma by whole-tumour texture analysis combined with clinical and conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography features.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare, highly malignant type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a poor prognosis. Targeted drugs for MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping mutation can have considerable clinical benefits. This study aimed to predict METex14 skipping mutation in PSC patients by whole-tumour texture analysis combined with clinical and conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) features.

This retrospective study included 56 patients with PSC diagnosed by pathology. All patients underwent CECT before surgery or other treatment, and both targeted DNA- and RNA-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to detect METex14 skipping mutation status. The patients were divided into two groups: METex14 skipping mutation and nonmutation groups. Overall, 1,316 texture features of the whole tumour were extracted. We also collected 12 clinical and 20 conventional CECT features. After dimensionality reduction and selection, predictive models were established by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Models were evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC), and the clinical utility of the model was assessed by decision curve analysis.

METex14 skipping mutation was detected in 17.9% of PSCs. Mutations were found more frequently in those (I) who had smaller long- or short-axis diameters (P=0.02, P=0.01); (II) who had lower T stages (I, II) (P=0.02); and (III) with pseudocapsular or annular enhancement (P=0.03). The combined model based on the conventional and texture models yielded the best performance in predicting METex14 skipping mutation with the highest AUC (0.89). The conventional and texture models also had good performance (AUC =0.83 conventional; =0.88 texture).

Whole-tumour texture analysis combined with clinical and conventional CECT features may serve as a noninvasive tool to predict the METex14 skipping mutation status in PSC.

Association between strenuous sports or other exercises and lung cancer risk: a mendelian randomization study.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Studying the relationship between strenuous sports or other exercises (SSOE) and lung cancer risk remains underexplored. Traditional observational studies face challenges like confounders and inverse causation. However, Mendelian randomization (MR) provides a promising approach in epidemiology and genetics, using genetic variants as instrumental variables to investigate causal relationships. By leveraging MR, we have scrutinized the causal link between SSOE and lung cancer development.

Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SSOE, as identified in previously published genome-wide association studies, were utilized as instrumental variables in our investigation. Summary genetic data at the individual level were obtained from relevant studies and cancer consortia. The study encompassed a total of 11,348 cases and 15,861 controls. The statistical technique of inverse variance-weighting (IVW), commonly employed in meta-analyses and MR studies, was employed to assess the causal relationship between SSOE and lung cancer risk.

The MR risk analysis indicated a causal relationship between SSOE and the incidence of lung cancer, with evidence of a reduced risk for overall lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) =0.129; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.021-0.779; P=0.03], lung adenocarcinoma (OR =0.161; 95% CI: 0.012-2.102; P=0.16) and squamous cell lung cancer (OR =0.045; 95% CI: 0.003-0.677; P=0.03). The combined OR for lung cancer from SSOE (controlling for waist circumference and smoking status) was 0.054 (95% CI: 0.010-0.302, P<0.001).

Our MR analysis findings indicate a potential correlation between SSOE and a protective effect against lung cancer development. Further investigation is imperative to uncover the precise mechanistic link between them.

Tumor mutation burden and FAT3 mutation influence long-term survival in surgically resected small cell lung cancer.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly malignant and has a higher risk of recurrence even in patients who undergo early surgery. However, a subgroup of patients survived for many years. So far, the factors that determine the long-term survivorship remain largely unknown. To determine the genetic characteristics of long-term survival (LTS) after surgery in SCLC, we performed comprehensive comparative genomic profiling and tumor mutation burden (TMB) analysis of resected tumor tissues from patients with LTS and short-term survival (STS) after surgery.

The present study screened 11 patients from 52 patients with SCLC who underwent surgery at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from April 2008 to December 2017. A total of six LTS patients (≥4 years) with stage IIB or IIIA SCLC and five STS patients (<2 years) with stage IA or IB SCLC were included in the study. The STS patients were used as a control. All the patients underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy. We assessed the genomic profiles of the resected tumor tissues and calculated the TMB using next-generation sequencing. We then analyzed and compared the molecular characteristics between the LTS and STS groups.

Our data indicated that tumor tissues from patients with LTS harbor a high TMB. The median TMB for LTS patients was high (approximately 16.4 mutations/Mb), while that for STS patients was low (approximately 8.5 mutations/Mb). The median TMB of patients with LTS and STS showed a trend of significant difference (P=0.08). Gene alterations characterized the survival differences between the two groups. The FAT3 mutation was only found in the LTS group, and the P value determined by Fisher's exact test was 0.06.

A high non-synonymous TMB and the FAT3 mutation could potentially influence LTS after SCLC resection. This study provides valuable information about the molecular differences between LTS and STS patients. Studies with larger sample sizes need to be conducted to confirm our findings in the future.

Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase F as a prognostic biomarker associated with immune infiltrates and mitophagy in lung adenocarcinoma.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is among the most prevalent malignancies worldwide, with unfavorable treatment outcomes. Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase F (PPIF) is known to influence the malignancy traits of tumor progression by modulating the bioenergetics and mitochondrial permeability in cancer cells; however, its role in LUAD remains unclear. Our study seeks to investigate the clinical significance, tumor proliferation, and immune regulatory functions of PPIF in LUAD.

The expression of PPIF in LUAD tissues and cells was assessed using bioinformatics analysis, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blotting. Survival curve analysis was conducted to examine the prognostic association between PPIF expression and LUAD. The immunomodulatory role of PPIF in LUAD was assessed through the analysis of PPIF expression and immune cell infiltration. A series of gain- and loss-of-function experiments were conducted on PPIF to investigate its biological functions in LUAD both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying PPIF's effects on LUAD were delineated through functional enrichment analysis and Western blotting assays.

PPIF exhibited overexpression in LUAD tissues compared to normal controls. Survival curve analysis revealed that patients with LUAD exhibiting higher PPIF expression demonstrated decreased overall survival and a shorter progression-free interval. PPIF was implicated in modulating immune cell infiltration, particularly in regulating the T helper 1-T helper 2 cell balance. Functionally, PPIF was discovered to promote tumor cell proliferation and advance cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, PPIF could impede mitophagy by targeting the FOXO3a/PINK1-Parkin signaling pathway.

The findings of this study indicate that the prognosis-related gene PPIF may have a significant role in the regulation of LUAD cell proliferation, tumor-associated immune cell infiltration, and mitophagy, and thus PPIF may be a promising therapeutic target of LUAD.

Clinical impact of EGFR and KRAS mutations in surgically treated unifocal and multifocal lung adenocarcinoma.

Translational Lung Cancer Research

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) are the two most common oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinoma, and their roles still need further exploration. Here we aimed to compare the clinical impact of EGFR and KRAS mutations on disease progression in resected unifocal and multifocal lung adenocarcinoma.

Clinicopathologic and genomic data were collected for patients who underwent resection of lung adenocarcinoma from 2008 to 2022 at Stanford University Hospital. Retrospective review was performed in 241 patients whose tumors harbored EGFR (n=150, 62.2%) or KRAS (n=91, 37.8%) mutations. Clinical outcome was analyzed with special attention to the natural history of secondary nodules in multifocal cases wherein the dominant tumor had been resected.

We confirm that compared with EGFR mutations, patients with KRAS mutations had more smokers, larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, higher positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) standard uptake value max, higher tumor mutation burden, and worse disease-free survival and overall survival on univariate analysis. For patients with multifocal pulmonary nodules, the median follow-up of unresected secondary nodules was 55 months. Secondary nodule progression-free survival (SNPFS) was significantly worse for patients with KRAS mutations than those with EGFR mutations (mean 40.3±6.6 vs. 67.7±6.5 months, P=0.004). Univariate analysis showed tumor size, tumor morphology, pathologic TNM stage, and KRAS mutations were significantly associated with SNPFS, while multivariate analysis showed only KRAS mutations were independently associated with worse SNPFS (hazard ratio 1.752, 95% confidence interval: 1.017-3.018, P=0.043).

Resected lung adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutations have more aggressive clinicopathological features and confer worse prognosis than those with EGFR mutations. Secondary pulmonary nodules in multifocal cases with dominant KRAS-mutant tumors have more rapid progression of the secondary nodules.