The latest medical research on Paediatric Emergency Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about paediatric emergency medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Nonurgent Emergency Department Use by Pediatric Patients in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review.

Pediatric Emergency Care

Pediatric use of the emergency department (ED) for nonurgent reasons is common in the United States. Patients with nonurgent conditions can receive more appropriate, cost-efficient care in other settings. We conducted a systematic literature review to understand the breadth of factors that contribute to use of the ED for nonurgent conditions by pediatric patients in the United States.

The literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and was guided by the social-ecological model for synthesis of articles. Published articles were identified through a search of Academic Search Ultimate, Google Scholar, and PubMed. All articles were organized and managed using Endnote software and screened for eligibility criteria before full-text review.

The initial search yielded 679 articles with 530 articles remaining after the removal of duplicates. Of these, 31 articles were reviewed in full text with 19 remaining for the final analysis. All articles assessed individual-level factors, including parental perceptions of ED and health literacy. Additional findings of nonurgent use of the ED were shown to pertain to the organizational and public policy levels of the model, including primary care clinic and insurance characteristics.

The findings of this review suggest tailored interventions to address parents'/caregivers' ED perceptions and health literacy in addition to access (ie, public policy).

Caustic Ingestion in Children: The Otolaryngologist Perspective.

Pediatric Emergency Care

Caustic ingestion in children is a significant cause of morbidity despite preventive measures. Upon arrival to the emergency department, these children are often initially seen by the otolaryngologist and later on by the gastroenterologist. This study aimed to determine which otolaryngological and gastrointestinal signs and symptoms can better predict abnormal findings on imaging, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), and complications development.

We performed a retrospective chart review of children 18 years or younger admitted because of caustic ingestion between January 2007 and November 2019.

Forty-one children with a median age of 4.2 years (interquartile range, 1.7-16.7 years) were included; of them, 22 (53.6%) were males. Nineteen children (46.3%) underwent EGD, which revealed no pathology in 13 cases (68.4%). Most ingested substances were in the form of liquid (82.9%), accidentally ingested (82.9%), and with an alkaline pH (57.5%). Stridor, dyspnea, drooling, abnormal oral cavity findings, dysphagia, and vomiting were significantly associated with pathological findings on imaging and/or EGD and/or complications development (P = 0.028, P = 0.028, P = 0.022, P = 0.02, P < 0.001, and P = 0.01 respectively). Laryngopharyngeal group of findings (dyspnea, stridor, hoarseness, sore throat, and/or drooling) predicted a higher risk for complications development than the gastrointestinal group (dysphagia, abdominal pain, vomiting, or abdominal swelling and/or tenderness) (P = 0.011, P = 0.31 respectively).

In children, after caustics ingestion, laryngopharyngeal signs and symptoms may predict a higher risk for complications development in comparison with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. We therefore stress the importance of otolaryngological examination upon arrival to the emergency department.

Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of ANKUTRIAGE, a New Decision Support System in Pediatric Emergency Triage.

Pediatric Emergency Care

The intensity of emergency services is an increasing health problem all over the world, necessitating an effective triage system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the "ANKUTRIAGE" in children.

This prospective, longitudinal study was carried out at a pediatric emergency department. ANKUTRIAGE, a 5-level computer-aided triage decision support system, was developed. Patients younger than 18 years who do not need emergency intervention, who had complete vital sign measurements, who gave consent for the study, and who were admitted to the emergency service during working hours with trained personnel were included. For validity, agreement between the urgency levels determined by ANKUTRIAGE and the reference triage systems: Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale and Emergency Severity Index, was evaluated. In addition, the association of urgency levels with clinical outcomes was studied. To assess reliability, patients were evaluated by 2 blinded healthcare professionals using ANKUTRIAGE and a quadratic weighted κ was estimated.

A total of 1232 children with a median age of 4.00 years were included. ANKUTRIAGE acuity levels significantly correlated with the number of resources used, the number of patients undergoing life-saving procedures, pediatric intensive care unit, and overall hospitalization rates, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). The agreement of ANKUTRIAGE with Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale was found to be 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.94), with an Emergency Severity Index of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70-0.80). The interrater agreement between 2 evaluators who used ANKUTRIAGE reflected as excellent consistency 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89-0.95; κ > 0.8).

ANKUTRIAGE demonstrated high agreement with clinical outcomes and with proven triage systems and reflected high reliability between users. ANKUTRIAGE will enable a more standardized and practical triage, especially in crowded pediatric emergency departments and in situations where triage is performed by health professionals with different experience and professions.

Utilizing Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Pediatric Trauma Patients Needing Lifesaving Interventions: A Prospective Study.

Pediatric Emergency Care

The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the role of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in identifying pediatric trauma patients who required lifesaving interventions (LSIs).

Prospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years who activated the trauma team response between August 15, 2017, and February 12, 2019, at a large, urban pediatric emergency department (ED).The relationship between the lowest somatic NIRS saturation and the need for LSIs (based on published consensus definition) was investigated. Categorical variables were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Student t test.

A total of 148 pediatric trauma patients had somatic NIRS monitoring and met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 65.5% were male with a mean ± SD age of 10.9 ± 6.0 years. Injuries included 67.6% blunt trauma and 28.4% penetrating trauma with mortality of 3.4% (n = 5). Overall, the median lowest somatic NIRS value was 72% (interquartile range, 58%-88%; range, 15%-95%), and 43.9% of patients had a somatic NIRS value <70%. The median somatic NIRS duration recorded was 11 minutes (interquartile range, 7-17 minutes; range, 1-105 minutes). Overall, 36.5% of patients required an LSI including 53 who required a lifesaving procedure, 17 required blood products, and 17 required vasopressors. Among procedures, requiring a thoracostomy was significant.Pediatric trauma patients with a somatic NIRS value <70% had a significantly increased odds of requiring an LSI (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.20). Somatic NIRS values <70% had a sensitivity and specificity of 56% and 63%, respectively.

Pediatric trauma patients with somatic NIRS values <70% within 30 minutes of ED arrival have an increased odds of requiring LSIs. Among LSIs, pediatric trauma patients requiring thoracostomy was significant. The role of NIRS in incrementally improving the identification of critically injured children in the ED and prehospital setting should be evaluated in larger prospective multicenter studies.

Point-of-Care Ultrasound Assessment of Orbital Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Pediatric Patient.

Pediatric Emergency Care

Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue tumor in children and orbital lesions account for 10% of these diagnoses. This case describes a you...

Clinical presentation and surgical management of perforated peptic ulcer in a tertiary hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia: a 5-year retrospective study.

World Journal of Emergency Surgery

Perforated peptic ulcer is a common surgical emergency condition worldwide, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if early diagnosis and immediate surgical management were not carried out. Perforation occurs in roughly 5% of PUD patients during their lifetime; this study aimed to explore the wide range of clinical presentations, associated risk factors, complications, and surgical management of perforated peptic ulcer patients.

A 5-year retrospective observational study on the clinical presentation and surgical management of perforated peptic ulcer is carried out in a tertiary hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia, Department of General Surgery, from January 2017 to December 2021. We included all patients undergoing operations with an intraoperative confirmed diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer at the general surgery department. For operated patients, follow-up evaluation was performed in the outpatient department.

Fifty-one patients underwent an emergency operation for perforated peptic ulcer during the study period. The sociodemographic distribution of patients was 45 (88.2%) males and 6 (11.8%) females, giving a male-to-female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age of patients was 35.5 ± 16.8 years, and the peak frequency was in the third decade. The commonest presenting symptoms were sudden onset of severe epigastric pain in 42 (82.4%) patients. Patients who presented perforated peptic ulcer within 24 h of initiation of symptoms were free from complications. Age-group and delayed presentation > 48 h after onset of symptoms were linked to postoperative complications and were statistically significant (P 0.032 and P 0.005), respectively. Four patients died (mortality rate of 7.8%). Two patients were reoperated because of the failed primary repair, and 4 patients had > 5 cm intra-abdominal abscess image-guided percutaneous drainage, and the rest were given antibiotic therapy according to peritoneal fluid culture and sensitivity results. The most common microorganism isolated was E. coli 22% and Klebsiella 11%. Other rare microorganisms (pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp.) were identified. In half (51%) of the patients with peritoneal fluid culture, no microorganism growth was seen.

The distribution of perforated peptic ulcer is common in the young age-group in the third decades of life. Delayed presentation of the disease is linked because most patients arrived from remote areas where proper facilities of health care and health education are not available and the patient might come to the hospital in an advanced stage of the disease. We suggest conducting further researches, health awareness related to complications over-the-counter drugs self-medication, and bad habit including smoking, and to improve health-seeking behaviors of society.

Association between troponin and outcome in patients with chest pain and rapid atrial fibrillation: a retrospective study of a single-center 10-year cohort.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

and objective The prognosis of myocardial infarction in patients with rapid atrial fibrillation (RAF) is poorly known. We sought to ascertain if troponin concentrations are associated with a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with RAF and chest discomfort suggestive of coronary origin.

We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients attending an emergency department of a single-center (2008-2017) with chest pain suggestive of coronary origin who had RAF and at least one troponin determination. Patients were classified as having normal/increased troponin. They were followed until December 2019 to detect MACE (primary outcome), which included acute coronary syndrome (ACS), revascularization, stroke, or all-cause death. In addition to cardiovascular death and type I myocardial infarction, these were considered secondary outcomes. The adjusted risk was determined by Cox regression, and sensitivity analysis were run. Relationship between troponin as a continuous variable and outcomes was also evaluated, as well as interaction by sex.

We included 574 patients (median = 76.5 years, IQR = 14, women 56.8%, increased troponin 34.1%) followed by a median of 3.8 years (IQR = 4.8). MACE occurred in 200 patients (34.8%). Increased troponin was independently associated with MACE (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.502, 95% CI, 1.130-1.998), ACS (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.488, 95% CI, 1.256-4.928), type I myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.771, 95% CI, 1.212-6.333) and stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.580, 95% CI, 1.888-6.787) but not with death, cardiovascular death or revascularization. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these results. There was no interaction by sex. When assessed continuously, an increase in troponin concentrations was lineally associated with a steady increase in the risk of MACE.

In patients with RAF who complain of chest pain, increased troponin levels are related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

Validation of the Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score and Evaluation of Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

JAMA Pediatrics

Pediatric sepsis definitions have evolved, and some have proposed using the measure used in adults to quantify organ dysfunction, a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 2 or more in the setting of suspected infection. A pediatric adaptation of SOFA (pSOFA) showed excellent discrimination for mortality in critically ill children but has not been evaluated in an emergency department (ED) population.

To delineate test characteristics of the pSOFA score for predicting in-hospital mortality among (1) all patients and (2) patients with suspected infection treated in pediatric EDs.

This retrospective cohort study took place from January 1, 2012, to January 31, 2020 in 9 US children's hospitals included in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Registry. The data was analyzed from February 1, 2020, to April 18, 2022. All ED visits for patients younger than 18 years were included.

ED pSOFA score was assigned by summing maximum pSOFA organ dysfunction components during ED stay (each 0-4 points). In the subset with suspected infection, visit meeting criteria for sepsis (suspected infection with a pSOFA score of 2 or more) and septic shock (suspected infection with vasoactive infusion and serum lactate level >18.0 mg/dL) were identified.

Test characteristics of pSOFA scores of 2 or more during the ED stay for hospital mortality.

A total of 3 999 528 (female, 47.3%) ED visits were included. pSOFA scores ranged from 0 to 16, with 126 250 visits (3.2%) having a pSOFA score of 2 or more. pSOFA scores of 2 or more had sensitivity of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62-0.67) and specificity of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.97-0.97), with negative predictive value of 1.0 (95% CI, 1.00-1.00) in predicting hospital mortality. Of 642 868 patients with suspected infection (16.1%), 42 992 (6.7%) met criteria for sepsis, and 374 (0.1%) met criteria for septic shock. Hospital mortality rates for suspected infection (599 502), sepsis (42 992), and septic shock (374) were 0.0%, 0.9%, and 8.0%, respectively. The pSOFA score had similar discrimination for hospital mortality in all ED visits (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82) and the subset with suspected infection (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.80-0.84).

In a large, multicenter study of pediatric ED visits, a pSOFA score of 2 or more was uncommon and associated with increased hospital mortality yet had poor sensitivity as a screening tool for hospital mortality. Conversely, children with a pSOFA score of 2 or less were at very low risk of death, with high specificity and negative predictive value. Among patients with suspected infection, patients with pSOFA-defined septic shock demonstrated the highest mortality.

Association Between High-Need Education-Based Funding and School Suspension Rates for Autistic Students in New Zealand.

JAMA Pediatrics

Autistic students often experience poor educational outcomes that have implications for later life, including unemployment, interactions with the criminal justice system, increased risk for substance abuse, and low socioeconomic status. Improving educational outcomes is critical for ensuring that autistic young people can reach their potential.

To quantify differences in suspension rates between autistic and nonautistic students and to assess whether high-need education-based funding for autistic students is associated with reduced rates of school suspension.

This national cohort study used linked health and education data from New Zealand's Integrated Data Infrastructure. Data were obtained for students aged 5 to 16 years from January 1 to December 31, 2018, and analyzed July 7, 2021, to January 1, 2022. A novel case identification method was used to identify autistic students.

High-need education-based funding (Ongoing Resourcing Scheme [ORS]) obtained before 2019.

Rates of suspension from school. Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between suspension rates and autism among the full population with adjustment made for sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity, deprivation, and urban or rural profile of residence) were conducted using complete-case, 2-level random intercept logistic multivariable regressions. To assess the association between ORS funding and suspension, analysis was restricted to autistic students.

Of the 736 911 students in the study population, 9741 (1.3%) were identified as autistic (median [SD] age, 10 [3.2] years; 7710 [79.1%] boys), and 727 170 (98.7%) as nonautistic (median [SD] age, 10 [3.4] years; 369 777 [50.9%] boys). School suspension was experienced by 504 autistic students (5.2%) and 13 845 nonautistic students (1.9%). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, autistic students had significantly higher odds of suspension than their nonautistic peers (adjusted odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 2.55-3.11). Of the 9741 autistic students, 2895 (29.7%) received high-need education-based (ORS) funding. Suspensions were experienced by 57 autistic students (2.0%) with high-need funding and 447 autistic students (6.5%) without high-need funding. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, co-occurring conditions, and level of disability support need, autistic students with high-need funding had significantly lower odds of suspension than autistic students without high-need funding (adjusted odds ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21-0.40).

In this cohort study, the findings of disparities in suspension rates between autistic and nonautistic students underscore the challenges faced in providing inclusive education for all young people, regardless of disability status. This study found that high-need funding was associated with reduced suspension rates among autistic students, suggesting that if appropriate supports are afforded to autistic students, a more inclusive education can be provided.

The Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Childhood Trauma Exposure in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young People in Northern Ireland.

J Child Adolesc

Childhood trauma (CT) exposure is common, with many young people affected by multiple co-occurring traumas.

Participants were a representative sample of 11-19-year-olds (n = 1293), who participated in the largest ever representative survey of youth mental health in Northern Ireland (NI) - the NI Youth Wellbeing Prevalence Survey 2020. This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify typologies that were most representative of trauma experience and co-occurrence among young people living in NI. Demographic, parental and deprivation variables were then used within a multinomial logistic regression analysis to describe trauma class membership.

Over 35% (n = 478) of participants reported exposure to at least one CT, with over 50% (n = 259) of trauma-exposed young people reporting multiple trauma exposure. LCA results provided support for a three-class model; 'low-exposure', 'moderate-exposure: community-victimization' and 'high-exposure: sexual-trauma'. While none of the child, parental or familial covariates differentiated members of the 'moderate-exposure: community-victimization' from 'low-exposure', those in 'high-exposure: sexual-trauma' were over four and a half times more likely to belong to a family in receipt of income benefits and over ten times more likely to have experienced some form of out-of-home care.

This study highlights the presence of three distinct trauma classes in the NI adolescent population. In particular, this study identifies a small minority of young people who have experienced multiple CT's, including sexually based traumas, with these traumas most likely to have occurred in the context of out-of-home care and familial poverty.

Artificial intelligence in Emergency Medical Services dispatching: assessing the potential impact of an automatic speech recognition software on stroke detection taking the Capital Region of Denmark as case in point.

Trauma,Resuscitation,Emergency Medicine

Stroke recognition at the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) impacts the stroke treatment and thus the related health outcome. At the EMS Copenhagen 66.2% of strokes are detected by the Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) and in Denmark approximately 50% of stroke patients arrive at the hospital within the time-to-treatment. An automatic speech recognition software (ASR) can increase the recognition of Out-of-Hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at the EMS by 16%. This research aims to analyse the potential impact an ASR could have on stroke recognition at the EMS Copenhagen and the related treatment.

Stroke patient data (n = 9049) from the years 2016-2018 were analysed retrospectively, regarding correlations between stroke detection at the EMS and stroke specific, as well as personal characteristics such as stroke type, sex, age, weekday, time of day, year, EMS number contacted, and treatment. The possible increase in stroke detection through an ASR and the effect on stroke treatment was calculated based on the impact of an existing ASR to detect OHCA from CORTI AI.

The Chi-Square test with the respective post-hoc test identified a negative correlation between stroke detection and females, the 1813-Medical Helpline, as well as weekends, and a positive correlation between stroke detection and treatment and thrombolysis. While the association analysis showed a moderate correlation between stroke detection and treatment the correlation to the other treatment options was weak or very weak. A potential increase in stroke detection to 61.19% with an ASR and hence an increase of thrombolysis by 5% in stroke patients calling within time-to-treatment was predicted.

An ASR can potentially improve stroke recognition by EMDs and subsequent stroke treatment at the EMS Copenhagen. Based on the analysis results improvement of stroke recognition is particularly relevant for females, younger stroke patients, calls received through the 1813-Medical Helpline, and on weekends.

This study was registered at the Danish Data Protection Agency (PVH-2014-002) and the Danish Patient Safety Authority (R-21013122).

Management of paediatric traumatic brain injury in Sweden: a national cross-sectional survey.

Trauma,Resuscitation,Emergency Medicine

Previous studies have shown variations in management routines for children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Sweden. It is unknown if this management has changed after the publication of the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee guidelines in 2016 (SNC16). Also, knowledge of current practice routines may guide development of an efficient implementation strategy for the guidelines. The aim of this study is therefore to describe current management routines in paediatric TBI on a hospital/organizational level in Sweden. Secondary aims are to analyse differences in management over time, to assess the current dissemination status of the SNC16 guideline and to analyse possible variations between hospitals.

This is a sequential, cross-sectional, structured survey in five sections, covering initial management routines for paediatric TBI in Sweden. Respondents, with profound knowledge of local management routines and recommendations, were identified for all Swedish hospitals with an emergency department managing children (age 0-17 year) via phone/mail before distribution of the survey. Responses were collected via an on-line survey system during June 2020-March 2021. Data are presented as descriptive statistics and comparisons were made using Fisher exact test, when applicable.

71 of the 76 identified hospitals managed patients with TBI of all ages and 66 responded (response rate 93%). 56 of these managed children and were selected for further analysis. 76% (42/55) of hospitals have an established guideline to aid in clinical decision making. Children with TBI are predominately managed by inexperienced doctors (84%; 47/56), primarily from non-paediatric specialities (75%; 42/56). Most hospitals (75%; 42/56) have the possibility to admit and observe children with TBI of varying degrees and almost all centres have complete access to neuroradiology (96%; 54/56). In larger hospitals, it was more common for nurses to discharge patients without doctor assessment when compared to smaller hospitals (6/9 vs. 9/47; p < 0.001). Presence of established guidelines (14/51 vs. 42/55; p < 0.001) and written observation routines (16/51 vs. 29/42; p < 0.001) in hospitals have increased significantly since 2006.

TBI management routines for children in Sweden still vary, with some differences occurring over time. Use of established guidelines, written observation routines and information for patients/guardians have all improved. These results form a baseline for current management and may also aid in guideline implementation.