The latest medical research on Bowel Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about bowel cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparative Efficacy of Biologic Therapies for Inducing Response and Remission in Fistulizing Crohn's Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Bowel Cancer

The medical treatment of fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD) remains a challenge to clinicians. Over the last 20 years, biologic therapies have been the mainstay of medical treatment of fistulizing CD. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of biologic therapies in inducing response and remission in fistulizing CD.

We performed a systematic review of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central databases from inception to December 2021. Inclusion criteria were any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of biologic therapies against an active comparator or placebo for induction of response or remission in adults with fistulizing CD. The proportion of patients with fistula response or remission, as defined by each clinical trial, was our primary study outcome. A Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis was used to measure treatment effects and results were reported as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

In our analysis, 10 studies were included, and all were RCTs. Infliximab was superior to adalimumab in inducing response (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06-0.99) but not in inducing remission (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.04-2.27). Tumor necrosis factor antagonists were superior to placebo in the induction of response (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35-0.750) and remission (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.22-0.58). Infliximab was superior to placebo in inducing response (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.75) and remission (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.87). Ustekinumab was superior to placebo in inducing response (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.860) but not in inducing remission (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.13-1.93). When comparing biologic therapies against each other, there was no statistical difference in inducing remission. Vedolizumab was not superior to placebo in inducing remission (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.04-2.29). Certolizumab was not superior to placebo in inducing response (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.40-1.55) or remission (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.40-1.55).

Tumor necrosis factor antagonists are effective in inducing response and remission in fistulizing CD. Infliximab was superior to adalimumab for inducing response but not for inducing remission. Ustekinumab is effective in the induction of response but not in the induction of remission. When compared against each other, biologic therapies showed no significant difference in the induction of remission. Based on the available data, infliximab is the preferred first-line treatment. As for other biologics, the limited published data do not allow us to make firm recommendations. This study supports current practice and emphasizes the need for dedicated RCTs to evaluate the efficacy of biologic therapies in fistulizing CD.

Molecular Network Analyses Implicate Death-Associated Protein Kinase 3 (DAPK3) as a Key Factor in Colitis-Associated Dysplasia Progression.

Bowel Cancer

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a progressive disorder that elevates the risk of colon cancer development through a colitis-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Gene expression profiling of colitis-associated lesions obtained from patients with varied extents of UC can be mined to define molecular panels associated with colon cancer development.

Differential gene expression profiles of 3 UC clinical subtypes and healthy controls were developed for the GSE47908 microarray data set of healthy controls, left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and colitis-associated dysplasia (CAD) using limma R.

A gene ontology enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed a shift in the transcriptome landscape as UC progressed from left-sided colitis to pancolitis to CAD, from being immune-centric to being cytoskeleton-dependent. Hippo signaling (via Yes-associated protein [YAP]) and Ephrin receptor signaling were the top canonical pathways progressively altered in concert with the pathogenic progression of UC. A molecular interaction network analysis of DEGs in left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and CAD revealed 1 pairwise line, or edge, that was topologically important to the network structure. This edge was found to be highly enriched in actin-based processes, and death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) was a critical member and sole protein kinase member of this network. Death-associated protein kinase 3 is a regulator of actin-cytoskeleton reorganization that controls proliferation and apoptosis. Differential correlation analyses revealed a negative correlation for DAPK3-YAP in healthy controls that flipped to positive in left-sided colitis. With UC progression to CAD, the DAPK3-YAP correlation grew progressively more positive.

In summary, DAPK3 was identified as a candidate gene involved in UC progression to dysplasia.

Lipid Changes After Induction Therapy in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Effect of Different Drug Classes and Inflammation.

Bowel Cancer

Dyslipidemia may be an important modifiable risk factor contributing to the increased cardiovascular risk in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The lipid metabolism is subject to both systemic inflammation and drug therapy; however, it is unclear if this effect is drug-class dependent. Our aim was to assess lipid changes after IBD induction therapy and evaluate associated factors with a particular focus on drug class and disease activity.

In this prospective study, consecutive IBD patients starting systemic therapy (eg, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, anti-TNF-α agents, vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and tofacitinib) were included. Primary outcomes were changes in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides at week 10.

One hundred ninety-eight IBD patients (107 women [54%], median age 36 years; interquartile range [IQR], 27-47) were included: 137 Crohn's disease (67%), 61 ulcerative colitis (29%), and 8 IBD-unclassified (4%). Median C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin at baseline were 5.1 mg/L (IQR, 1.6-12.0) and 1040 ug/g (IQR, 383-1800), respectively. Relative increases in total cholesterol, HDL-c, and LDL-c were significant after prednisone (+26%, +31%, +12%) and tofacitinib therapy (+20%, +25%, +26%), respectively. Results remained after adjusting for concomitant corticosteroids, cholestyramine, and PSC diagnosis. Changes in clinical scores were inversely correlated with total cholesterol changes (R -186, P = .014), as was CRP with total cholesterol and LDL-c (R -0.292 and R -0.259, P < .001). No correlation was found with FCP. Lipid changes remained after adjusting for age and CRP.

Prednisone and tofacitinib induction therapy significantly increase serum lipid levels, whereas no changes were observed in other drug classes. The observations seem drug-specific inasmuch as adjustment for systemic inflammation did not alter the results.

Multimodal Brain MRI of Deep Gray Matter Changes Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

Behavioral symptoms, including mood disorders, substantially impact the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), even when clinical remission is achieved. Here, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if IBD is associated with changes in the structure and function of deep gray matter brain regions that regulate and integrate emotional, cognitive, and stress responses.

Thirty-five patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) and 32 healthy controls underwent 3 Tesla MRIs to assess volume, neural activity, functional connection strength (connectivity), inflammation, and neurodegeneration of key deep gray matter brain regions (thalamus, caudate, pallidum, putamen, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) involved in emotional, cognitive and stress processing. Associations with sex, presence of pain, disease activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration were examined.

Significantly increased activity and functional connectivity were observed in cognitive and emotional processing brain regions, including parts of the limbic system, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus of IBD patients compared with healthy controls. Inflammatory bowel disease patients exhibited significantly increased volumes of the amygdala and hypothalamus, as well as evidence of neurodegeneration in the putamen and pallidum. Hippocampal neural activity was increased in IBD patients with active disease. The volume of the thalamus was positively correlated with CRP concentration and was increased in females experiencing pain.

Patients with IBD exhibit functional and structural changes in the limbic and striatal systems. These changes may be targets for assessing or predicting the response to therapeutic interventions aimed at improving comorbid emotional and cognitive symptoms.

High Prevalence of Malnutrition and Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Early in Disease Course.

Bowel Cancer

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of malnutrition. The goal of this study was to define the prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in recently diagnosed IBD patients and to compare the performance of existing malnutrition screening tools in identifying IBD patients at increased risk for malnutrition.

This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with recently diagnosed IBD (≤18 months disease duration). A diagnosis of malnutrition was made utilizing the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism malnutrition criteria. Serum micronutrient levels were included. The sensitivity of 5 malnutrition screening tools in identifying patients at moderate-high risk of malnutrition was determined based on the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism malnutrition definition. Descriptive statistics summarized the data and univariate analyses tested associations.

182 patients were included for analysis; 65 (36%) met criteria for malnutrition. A total of 135 (74%) patients had ≥1 micronutrient level checked and 105 (78%) had ≥1 deficiency. Patients with prior surgery (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P = .004), active Crohn's disease (OR, 2.8; P = .03), and diarrhea (OR, 2.1; P = .02) were more likely to be malnourished. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Saskatchewan IBD Nutrition Risk Tool had the highest sensitivity (100%) in predicting those at moderate-high risk of malnutrition at the time of screening.

Patients with recently diagnosed IBD have a high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Both the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Saskatchewan IBD Nutrition Risk Tool can be used to identify those at increased risk of malnutrition. Future studies and screening tool development are necessary to identify those at risk of developing malnutrition to facilitate timely referral for nutritional evaluation and prevent disease related complications.

Low Fecal Calprotectin Predicts Histological Healing in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis with Endoscopic Remission and Leads to Prolonged Clinical Remission.

Bowel Cancer

Consensus regarding the cutoff value of fecal calprotectin (FC) for predicting histological healing (HH) in ulcerative colitis (UC) is lacking. This study aimed to determine an optimal FC cutoff value for predicting HH in patients with UC with clinical and endoscopic remission. Furthermore, FC's predictability for prolonged clinical remission (CR) was investigated.

Patients with UC in clinical and endoscopic remission, defined as a partial Mayo score (PMS) ≤ 2 points and a Mayo endoscopic subscore 0-1, were prospectively enrolled. Biopsy samples were evaluated by Geboes score (GS), with HH defined as a GS < 2.0. Patients were followed for 2 years or until relapse, defined as a PMS > 2 or medication escalation.

Seventy-six patients with UC were included. The median FC value in patients with HH (n = 40) was 56.2 µg/g, significantly lower than that in those with histological activity (118.1 µg/g; P < .01). The area under the curve (AUC) in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict HH for FC was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.83), with an optimal cutoff value of 82.7 µg/g (73% sensitivity; 64% specificity; P < .01). Of 74 patients observed for 2 years, 54 (73%) had prolonged CR. In the ROC curve analysis, the AUC to predict prolonged CR for FC was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.90), equivalent to that for HH (0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.86; P = .40). The optimal FC cutoff value to predict prolonged CR was 84.6 µg/g (72% sensitivity; 85% specificity; P < .01).

Fecal calprotectin < 82 µg/g predicts HH in patients with UC with clinical and endoscopic remission. Low FC leads to prolonged CR, equivalent to HH.

Comparison of Performances of Adalimumab Biosimilars SB5, APB501, GP2017, and MSB11022 in Treating Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Real-Life, Multicenter, Observational Study.

Bowel Cancer

Adalimumab (ADA) biosimilars have entered the therapeutic armamentarium of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), allowing for the treatment of a greater number of patients for their reduced cost than the originator. However, comparative data on the efficacy and safety of the various ADA biosimilars remains scarce.We compare the efficacy and safety of ADA biosimilars SB5, APB501, GP2017, and MSB11022 in treating IBD outpatients in a real-life Italian setting.

A retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive IBD outpatients with complete clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic data. Clinical activity was measured using the Mayo score in ulcerative colitis (UC) and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index in Crohn's disease (CD). The primary endpoints were the following: (1) induction of remission in patients new to biologics and patients new to ADA but previously exposed to other anti-tumor necrosis factor agents or other biologics; (2) maintenance of remission in patients switched from the ADA originator to an ADA biosimilar; and (3) safety of various biosimilars.

A total of 533 patients were enrolled according to the inclusion criteria: 162 patients with UC and 371 patients with CD. Clinical remission was obtained in 79.6% of patients new to biologics and 59.2% of patients new to ADA but not to other biologics; clinical remission was maintained in 81.0% of patients switched from the originator, and adverse events were recorded in 6.7% of patients. There was no significant difference between the 4 ADA biosimilars for each predetermined endpoint.

Adalimumab biosimilars are effective and safe in IBD treatment, both in new patients and in patients switched from the ADA originator. No difference in efficacy and safety was found between ADA biosimilars.

The Impact of Periodontitis on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity.

Bowel Cancer

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontitis are chronic, progressive, inflammatory diseases with similarly complex pathogeneses that involve an interplay between dysbiotic microbiota and dysregulated immune-inflammatory responses. However, whether the presence of periodontitis is associated with IBD activity and/or its severity remains unknown.

An online, questionnaire-based study was answered by 1093 patients with IBD, comprising 527 patients with Crohn's disease and 566 patients with ulcerative colitis. The survey included questions on social demographics; oral health, including the Periodontal Screening Score (PESS); and IBD-related characteristics, including validated disease indices.

Irrespective of disease subtype, patients with a reduced number of teeth and those with self-reported severe periodontitis scored significantly higher on the IBD disability index (number of teeth: coefficient, 4.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.21-8.66; P = .010]; periodontitis: coefficient, 3.54 [95% CI, 0.27-6.80; P = .034]) and reported increased disease activity in the preceding 12 months (number of teeth: odds ratio [OR], 1.91 [95% CI, 1.36-2.69; P < .001]; periodontitis: OR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.27-2.31; P < .001]). There was also evidence of a weak association between self-reported severe periodontitis and current disease activity (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.95-1.86; P = .099). However, IBD severity, as a composite parameter of a history of surgery due to IBD and/or treatment with biological therapy, was not associated with possessing a reduced number of teeth (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.77-1.80; P = .451), nor with self-reported severe periodontitis (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.79-1.66; P = .467).

Periodontitis and tooth loss were significantly associated with increased IBD-related disability and more disease activity in the preceding 12 months. Our results suggest that greater attention should be paid to IBD patients' oral health.

Genetic Profiling of Colorectal Carcinomas of Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) run a 10-fold increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to patients with IBD only. The aim of this study was to perform an extensive screen of known carcinogenic genomic alterations in patients with PSC-IBD, and to investigate whether such changes occur already in nondysplastic mucosa.

Archival cancer tissue and nondysplastic mucosa from resection specimens of 19 patients with PSC-IBD-CRC were characterized, determining DNA copy-number variations, microsatellite instability (MSI), mutations on 48 cancer genes, and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Genetic profiles were compared with 2 published cohorts of IBD-associated CRC (IBD-CRC; n = 11) and sporadic CRC (s-CRC; n = 100).

Patterns of chromosomal aberrations in PSC-IBD-CRC were similar to those observed in IBD-CRC and s-CRC, MSI occurred only once. Mutation frequencies were comparable between the groups, except for mutations in KRAS, which were less frequent in PSC-IBD-CRC (5%) versus IBD-CRC (38%) and s-CRC (31%; P = .034), and in APC, which were less frequent in PSC-IBD-CRC (5%) and IBD-CRC (0%) versus s-CRC (50%; P < .001). Cases of PSC-IBD-CRC were frequently CIMP positive (44%), at similar levels to cases of s-CRC (34%; P = .574) but less frequent than in cases with IBD-CRC (90%; P = .037). Similar copy number aberrations and mutations were present in matched cancers and adjacent mucosa in 5/15 and 7/11 patients, respectively.

The excess risk of CRC in patients with PSC-IBD was not explained by copy number aberrations, mutations, MSI, nor CIMP status, in cancer tissue, nor in adjacent mucosa. These findings set the stage for further exome-wide and epigenetic studies.

Long-Term Outcomes of the Excluded Rectum in Crohn's Disease: A Multicenter International Study.

Bowel Cancer

Many patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require fecal diversion. To understand the long-term outcomes, we performed a multicenter review of the experience with retained excluded rectums.

We reviewed the medical records of all CD patients between 1990 and 2014 who had undergone diversionary surgery with retention of the excluded rectum for at least 6 months and who had at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up.

From all the CD patients in the institutions' databases, there were 197 who met all our inclusion criteria. A total of 92 (46.7%) of 197 patients ultimately underwent subsequent proctectomy, while 105 (53.3%) still had retained rectums at time of last follow-up. Among these 105 patients with retained rectums, 50 (47.6%) underwent reanastomosis, while the other 55 (52.4%) retained excluded rectums. Of these 55 patients whose rectums remained excluded, 20 (36.4%) were symptom-free, but the other 35 (63.6%) were symptomatic. Among the 50 patients who had been reconnected, 28 (56%) were symptom-free, while 22(44%) were symptomatic. From our entire cohort of 197 cases, 149 (75.6%) either ultimately lost their rectums or remained symptomatic with retained rectums, while only 28 (14.2%) of 197, and only 4 (5.9%) of 66 with initial perianal disease, were able to achieve reanastomosis without further problems. Four patients developed anorectal dysplasia or cancer.

In this multicenter cohort of patients with CD who had fecal diversion, fewer than 15%, and only 6% with perianal disease, achieved reanastomosis without experiencing disease persistence.

Starting screening before age 50 is found to significantly reduce the risk and incidence of colorectal cancer in women

Science Direct's Bowel Cancer

A new study reports a 50 to 60 percent lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among women who started endoscopy screening at age 45 compared to thos...

Sex-related Differences in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: The Potential Role of Sex Hormones.

Bowel Cancer

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, is a global health care problem. Compelling ...