The latest medical research on Bowel Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about bowel cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Use of IBD Drugs in Patients With Hepatobiliary Comorbidities: Tips and Tricks.

Bowel Cancer

Advanced therapies (biologic agents and small molecules) for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have radically changed the management of these disea...

Quantitative Fecal Microbiota Profiles Relate to Therapy Response During Induction With Tumor Necrosis Factor α Antagonist Infliximab in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

The role of intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases is intensively researched. Pediatric studies on the relation between microbiota and treatment response are sparse. We aimed to determine whether absolute abundances of gut microbes characterize the response to infliximab induction in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

We recruited pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease introduced to infliximab at Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki. Stool samples were collected at 0, 2, and 6 weeks for microbiota and calprotectin analyses. We defined treatment response as fecal calprotectin value <100 µg/g at week 6. Intestinal microbiota were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We analyzed total bacterial counts using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and transformed the relative abundances into absolute abundances based on the total counts.

At baseline, the intestinal microbiota in the treatment responsive group (n = 10) showed a higher absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales and a lower absolute abundance of Actinomycetales than nonresponders (n = 19). The level of inflammation according to fecal calprotectin showed no statistically significant association with the absolute abundances of fecal microbiota. The results on relative abundances differed from the absolute abundances. At the genus level, the responders had an increased relative abundance of Anaerosporobacter but a reduced relative abundance of Parasutterella at baseline.

High absolute abundance of Bifidobacteriales in the gut microbiota of pediatric patients reflects anti-inflammatory characteristics associated with rapid response to therapy. This warrants further studies on whether modification of pretreatment microbiota might improve the outcomes.

Aeroallergen-related Diseases Predate the Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

This study aimed to determine whether having a diagnosis of asthma or allergic rhinitis (AR) increased the risk of being diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and whether there was increased incidence of these diseases after a diagnosis of IBD.

This is a retrospective, historical cohort-based study. We used the administrative data of Manitoba Health and the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database. We used numbers of prescriptions for drugs used to treat asthma and to treat AR to identify diagnoses of asthma and AR, respectively.We calculated relative risks (RRs) to assess incidence of IBD compared with matched controls after diagnoses of asthma and AR and hazard ratios to determine the incidence of asthma and AR after IBD diagnosis.

Compared with controls, a diagnosis of asthma or AR preceding a diagnosis of IBD was increased in cases (RR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.75; and RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.97-2.24) with a similar outcome by subtype of IBD (Crohn's disease vs ulcerative colitis) and by sex. On sensitivity analysis, diagnoses of asthma or AR were comparable when considering at least 5, 10, 15 or 20 drug prescriptions. Persons with IBD were more likely to develop asthma or AR than controls after being diagnosed with IBD (hazard ratio for asthma, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; and hazard ratio for AR, 2.62, 95% CI, 2.45-2.80).

The association between asthma, AR, and IBD suggest the possibility that whatever triggers the onset of these atopic diseases may trigger the onset of IBD as well, and aeroallergens are plausible culprits.

Fusobacterium nucleatum Extracellular Vesicles Promote Experimental Colitis by Modulating Autophagy via the miR-574-5p/CARD3 Axis.

Bowel Cancer

Ulcerative colitis (UC) may be exacerbated by Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) infection. However, the mechanism underlying Fn-mediated progression of UC has yet to be established. Here, we aimed to establish whether and how Fn-derived extracellular vesicles (Fn-EVs) participate in the development of experimental colitis through microRNAs (miRNAs).

EVs were isolated and purified by ultracentrifugation from Fn and Escherichia coli culture supernatants. Differentially expressed miRNAs in control intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and Fn-EV-treated IECs were identified by miRNA sequencing. EVs were cocultured with IECs or administered to CARD3wt/CARD3-/- mice by gavage to assess inflammatory responses to and the mechanism of action of Fn-EVs.

Fn-EVs promoted upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α), downregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and intercellular tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, and epithelial barrier dysfunction in IECs. Fn-EVs significantly aggravated experimental colitis in mice associated with Fn-EV-mediated downregulation of miR-574-5p expression and autophagy activation. Blockade of autophagy using chloroquine alleviates barrier damage exacerbated by Fn-EVs in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of the miR-574-5p/CARD3 axis reduced the severity of colitis, epithelial barrier damage, and autophagy activation induced by Fn-EVs.

Here, we describe a new mechanism by which Fn-EVs mediate experimental colitis severity through miR-574-5p/CARD3-dependent autophagy activation, providing a novel target for UC monitoring and targeted therapy.

Postvaccination Symptoms After a Third Dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results From CORALE-IBD.

Bowel Cancer

The safety of a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is unknown.

We compared symptoms following a third SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose with symptoms after the second dose in IBD.

The study group included 594 patients (70% female, 58% BNT162b2). Overall, 41% reported symptoms after a third dose. Symptom frequency and severity were lower after the third dose relative to the second dose for every organ system, except for gastrointestinal symptoms which were marginally worse.

The frequency and severity of symptoms after a third mRNA vaccine dose are generally similar or milder than after a second dose for most organ systems.

Vaccination Against Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Incident Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a National Cohort of Privately Insured Children.

Bowel Cancer

Infection is believed to be a potential trigger for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whether vaccination against childhood infections including measles, mumps, and rubella may reduce risk of IBD is uncertain.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study using de-identified claims data from a national private payer (Optum Clinformatics Data Mart). Eligible infants were born between 2001 and 2018 and were continuously enrolled with medical and pharmacy coverage from birth for at least 2 years (n = 1 365 447). Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination or MMR is administered beginning at 12 months of age. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare time with incident disease in children by category of vaccination, after adjustment for sex, birth year, region of country, history of allergy to vaccines, and seizure history.

The incidence of early pediatric IBD increased between 2001 and 2018. Ten percent (n = 141 230) of infants did not receive MMR, and 90% (n = 1 224 125) received at least 1 dose of MMR. There were 334 cases of IBD, 219 cases of Crohn's disease, and 164 cases of ulcerative colitis. Children who had received at least 1 dose of MMR had lower risk for IBD than children who did not (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.85). These associations did not change after further adjustment for childhood comorbid conditions, preterm birth, or older siblings affected with IBD. Similar associations were observed for MMR with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, although these did not reach statistical significance.

MMR is associated with decreased risk for childhood IBD.

Young Adult Male Patients With Childhood-onset IBD Have Increased Risks of Compromised Cortical and Trabecular Bone Microstructures.

Bowel Cancer

Young adults with childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have increased risks of low areal bone mineral density and low skeletal muscle mass. Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone geometry and microstructures, in addition to possible associations with skeletal muscle index (SMI) and physical exercise have been scarcely studied in this patient group.

In total, 49 young adult male patients with childhood-onset IBD and 245 age- and height-matched young adult male controls were scanned with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone geometry, vBMD, and bone microstructures were calculated as median values and compared between the patients and controls. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to determine the independent associations among IBD diagnosis, SMI (kg/m2), and physical exercise.

The group of young adult patients had, in comparison with the controls, significantly smaller median cortical area (126.1 mm2 vs151.1 mm2, P < .001), lower median total vBMD (296.7 mg/cm3 vs 336.7 mg/cm3, P < .001), and lower median cortical vBMD (854.4 mg/cm3 vs 878.5 mg/cm3, P < .001). Furthermore, the patients compared with the controls had lower median trabecular volume fraction (16.8% vs 18.2%, P < .001) and thinner median trabeculae (0.084 mm vs 0.089 mm, P < .001). The differences between the patients with IBD and controls persisted in multivariable analyses that included adjustments for SMI and physical exercise.

Young adult men with childhood-onset IBD are at increased risk of having reduced bone quality in both the cortical and trabecular bone structures compared with normative matched controls.

Transcriptional Behavior of Regulatory T Cells Predicts IBD Patient Responses to Vedolizumab Therapy.

Bowel Cancer

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic T cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Vedolizumab (VDZ), a monoclonal antibody against α4β7 integrin, inhibits lymphocyte extravasation into intestinal mucosae and is effective in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD).

We sought to identify immune cell phenotypic and gene expression signatures that related to response to VDZ.

Peripheral blood (PBMC) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry and Cytofkit. Sorted CD4 + memory (Tmem) or regulatory T (Treg) cells from PBMC and LPMC were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Clinical response (≥2-point drop in partial Mayo scores [UC] or Harvey-Bradshaw index [CD]) was assessed 14 to 22 weeks after VDZ initiation. Machine-learning models were used to infer combinatorial traits that predicted response to VDZ.

Seventy-one patients were enrolled: 37 received VDZ and 21 patients remained on VDZ >2 years. Fourteen of 37 patients (38%; 8 UC, 6 CD) responded to VDZ. Immune cell phenotypes and CD4 + Tmem and Treg transcriptional behaviors were most divergent between the ileum and colon, irrespective of IBD subtype or inflammation status. Vedolizumab treatment had the greatest impact on Treg metabolic pathways, and response was associated with increased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. The strongest clinical predictor of VDZ efficacy was concurrent use of thiopurines. Mucosal tissues offered the greatest number of response-predictive biomarkers, whereas PBMC Treg-expressed genes were the best predictors in combinatorial models of response.

Mucosal and peripheral blood immune cell phenotypes and transcriptional profiles can inform VDZ efficacy and inform new opportunities for combination therapies.

Patient-Reported Outcomes Correlate With Microbial Community Composition Independent of Mucosal Inflammation in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) involve an aberrant host response to intestinal microbiota causing mucosal inflammation and gastrointestinal symptoms. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly important in clinical care and research. Our aim was to examine associations between PROs and fecal microbiota in patients 0 to 22 years of age with IBD.

A longitudinal, prospective, single-center study tested for associations between microbial community composition via shotgun metagenomics and PROs including stool frequency and rectal bleeding in ulcerative colitis (UC) and abdominal pain and stool frequency in Crohn's disease (CD). Mucosal inflammation was assessed with fecal calprotectin. A negative binomial mixed-effects model including clinical characteristics and fecal calprotectin tested for differentially abundant species and metabolic pathways by PROs.

In 70 CD patients with 244 stool samples, abdominal pain correlated with increased relative abundance of Haemophilus and reduced Clostridium spp. There were no differences relative to calprotectin level. In 23 UC patients with 76 samples, both rectal bleeding and increased stool frequency correlated with increased Klebsiella and reduced Bacteroides spp. Conversely, UC patients with lower calprotectin had reduced Klebsiella. Both UC and CD patients with active symptoms exhibited less longitudinal microbial community stability. No differences in metabolic pathways were observed in CD. Increased sulfoglycolysis and ornithine biosynthesis correlated with symptomatic UC.

Microbial community composition correlated with PROs in both CD and UC. Metabolic pathways differed relative to PROs in UC, but not CD. Data suggest that microbiota may contribute to patient symptoms in IBD, in addition to effects of mucosal inflammation.

Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Subcutaneous Infliximab for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Sequential Biologic Treatment.

Bowel Cancer

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) guidelines recommend tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFis) for patients who have not responded to conventional therapy, and vedolizumab in case of inadequate response to conventional therapy and/or TNFis. Recent studies have shown that vedolizumab may also be effective in the earlier treatment lines. Therefore, we conducted cost-effectiveness analyses to determine the optimal treatment sequence in patients with IBD.

A Markov model with a 10-year time horizon compared the cost-effectiveness of different biologic treatment sequences in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) from the UK and French perspectives. Subcutaneous formulations of infliximab, vedolizumab, and adalimumab were evaluated. Comparative effectiveness was based on a network meta-analysis of clinical trials and real-world evidence. Costs included pharmacotherapy, surgery, adverse events, and disease management.

The results indicated that treatment sequences starting with infliximab were less costly and more effective than those starting with vedolizumab for patients with UC in the United Kingdom and France, and patients with just CD in France. For patients with CD in the United Kingdom, treatment sequences starting with infliximab resulted in better health outcomes with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) near the threshold.

Based on the ICERs, treatment sequences starting with infliximab are the dominant option for patients with UC in the United Kingdom, and patients with UC and CD in France. In UK patients with CD, ICERs were near the assumed "willingness to pay" threshold. These results reinforce the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations for using infliximab prior to using vedolizumab in biologics-naïve patients.

Occurrence and Clinical Impact of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in a Large Cohort of Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

Scarce data have investigated the association between pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We, therefore, aimed to describe the epidemiology and the possible peculiar phenotype and natural history of such an association.

Case-control study is based on the Italian Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology (SIGENP) national registry. All children with a combined diagnosis of IBD and EoE were included. The overall prevalence and incidence in 2 periods, 2009 to 2015, and 2016 to 2021, were calculated. Cases were matched with IBD only and EoE only patients in a 1:3:3 ratio. Phenotype and outcomes (courses of steroids, risk of complications, surgery, treatment escalation, and hospitalization) were compared between groups.

Eleven patients (age 11.2 ± 2.8 years, Males 91%) with EoE-IBD out of 3090 patients with IBD were identified, resulting in an overall prevalence of 0.35% and an incidence of 0.18% for 2009 to 2015 and 0.45% for 2016 to 2021. Treatment escalation rates for IBD were significantly higher in patients with IBD compared with EoE-IBD at 12- and 24-month follow-up (0% vs 30%, P = .04; and 9% vs 45.5%, P = .03, respectively). Furthermore, patients with IBD were at a significantly higher risk of hospitalization than both EoE-IBD and EoE patients (log rank P < .001). We found no significant differences in major outcomes related to the EoE course in EoE-IBD patients compared with EoE ones.

The incidence and prevalence of EoE in children with IBD are low, although the incidence seems to be rising in recent years. Having EoE appears to be associated with a milder IBD disease course, whereas having IBD does not seem to affect the natural history of EoE. More data are needed to better define the phenotype of such association.

Renal and Urological Disorders Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bowel Cancer

Renal and urinary tract complications related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been relatively understudied in the literature compared with...