The latest medical research on Nephrology
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Long-Term Immunosuppression Management: Opportunities and Uncertainties.Clinical Journal of the American
The long-term management of maintenance immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients remains complex. The vast majority of patients are treate...
Neural Epidermal Growth Factor-Like 1 Protein-Positive Membranous Nephropathy in Chinese Patients.Clinical Journal of the American
The neural EGF-like 1 (NELL-1) protein is a novel antigen in primary membranous nephropathy. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of NELL-1-positive membranous nephropathy in Chinese individuals with primary membranous nephropathy are unclear.
A total of 832 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary membranous nephropathy were enrolled. The glomerular expression of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) was screened. Glomerular immunohistochemistry staining for NELL-1 was performed in 43 patients with PLA2R- and THSD7A-negative membranous nephropathy, 31 patients with PLA2R-positive membranous nephropathy, and two patients with PLA2R and THSD7A double positivity. The NELL-1 antibody was also detected in the sera of patients with NELL-1-positive membranous nephropathy by western blot. Clinical and pathologic features were comparable between patients with isolated NELL-1-positive, isolated PLA2R/THSD7A-positive, and triple antigen-negative membranous nephropathy.
Among the 832 patients with primary membranous nephropathy, 11 of 54 (20%) patients with PLA2R-negative membranous nephropathy had THSD7A-positive membranous nephropathy. NELL-1-positive membranous nephropathy accounted for 35% (15 of 43) of all patients with PLA2R- and THSD7A-negative membranous nephropathy. One patient was double positive for NELL-1 and PLA2R in glomerular deposits and positive for only the PLA2R antibody in the serum. Most patients with NELL-1-positive membranous nephropathy were women. No tumors were found. There were significant differences in the prevalence of IgG subtypes between patients with different antigen positivity. Among patients with isolated NELL-1-positive membranous nephropathy, although 80% (12 of 15) were IgG4 staining positive, the proportion of IgG4 dominance was only 67% (ten of 15).
About one third of patients who were PLA2R and THSD7A negative were NELL-1 positive in Chinese patients with primary membranous nephropathy. NELL-1-positive membranous nephropathy was more common than THSD7A-positive membranous nephropathy in PLA2R-negative membranous nephropathy.
Recurrent Glomerulonephritis in the Kidney Allograft.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Renal transplantation is the preferred form of renal replacement therapy in patients who develop end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Among the diverse...
Clinico-pathological Profile and Outcome of C-3 Glomerulopathy in Indian Children.Indian Journal of Nephrology
There is paucity of data of C3 glomerulopathy in Indian children.
First Indian pediatric case series where consecutive renal biopsies done over a period of ten years were reviewed to identify those patients who had isolated or predominant C3 deposits on immunofluorescent microscopy, fulfilling the criteria for C-3 glomerulopathy. The clinical, biochemical, serological, histopathological profile, eGFR and the need for renal replacement therapy was analyzed.
Eighteen patients, comprising 5.3% (18/298) of all renal biopsies, had C3 glomerulopathy, four with Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) and fourteen with C3 Glomerulonephritis (C3GN) with a median follow-up of 38.2 months. Median age of presentation was 7.45±3.03 years (2.5yrs- 13.5yrs) with nine boys and nine girls. Presentation was nephrotic syndrome in seven (39%), acute nephritic syndrome in three (16.7%), hematuria in five (27.7%) and acute kidney injury in three (16.7%). Median eGFR was 69 ml/min/1.73m2 (8.2-107 ml/min/1.73m2). Hematuria was seen in 16 (88%), proteinuria in 18 (100%) and low C3 in 16 (88%) at the time of presentation. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis was the predominant pattern in DDD while C3GN showed a mix of mesangioproliferative, membranoproliferative, endocapillary and crescentic GN (p = 0.43).Complete or partial remission was seen in seven patients who received long term alternate day steroids alone or with added mycophenolate mofetil. The cumulative patient survival was 70.8%. Kaplan Meir analyses for renal survival without progression to ESRD was 60.2% at one year and 48.1% at five and ten years.
Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy on renal biopsy was an independent predictor of adverse renal outcome in the cohort (p = 0.013, HR8.1;95% CI -1.6-42).
Contribution of Clinically Indicated Repeat Renal Biopsy in Indian Patients with Lupus Nephritis.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Repeat renal biopsy is usually done for lupus nephritis (LN) flare or resistant disease. We analyzed the changes between first and repeat biopsy and the contribution of repeat biopsy on renal outcome in LN patients.
This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care center in India. Sixty-two LN patients who underwent repeat biopsy for clinical indications, between January 2012 to December 2016, were included. Clinical and histological parameters at first and second biopsies were compared. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine parameters on repeat biopsy predicting response at last visit.
Repeat biopsy was done for relapse in 56% and for resistant disease in 44% patients. Seven (13.7%) out of 51 patients with baseline proliferative histology converted to non-proliferative lesion on second biopsy, while 2 (18.2%) out of 11 with baseline non-proliferative lesion converted to proliferative lesion on second biopsy. On repeat biopsy, the presence of endocapillary proliferation decreased, whereas glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA), and glomerular basement membrane thickening increased. At the last visit (median follow-up of 38.6 months after first biopsy and 13.8 months after second biopsy), 79% of patients were in remission and 6.5% needed renal replacement therapy. The presence of IFTA >30% and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) on second biopsy independently predicted response at last visit.
In Indian patients with LN, chronicity markers and superimposed membranous pattern increased on repeat biopsy done for clinical indications. The presence of IFTA and TMA on second biopsy predicted response at last visit.
Primary Failure of Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistula: Critical Analysis.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Permanent vascular access is an essential intervention in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its success depends on various non-modifiable and modifiable factors. Considering the element of unpredictability and failure, we attempted to analyze various factors responsible for primary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure in presumed high-risk groups.
We conducted an observational study of newly created AVFs at a tertiary referral government hospital in Eastern India between January 2014 and June 2015. All adult CKD patients undergoing AVF creation were included. Primary AVF failure was assessed at 12 weeks and total follow-up was 24 weeks in presumed high-risk groups of females, patients aged ≥65 years and those with diabetes mellitus.
Female gender was at a higher risk of primary AVF failure if aged ≥65 years (P = 0.0026), second AVF creation (P = 0.03), loupe magnification not used (P = 0.03), arterial plaque (P = 0.028), absent immediate thrill, and with radiocephalic AVF (P = 0.02). Absent immediate thrill (<0.0001) and AVF size ≤5 mm (P = 0.002) were important independent risk factors for primary failure. Diabetes or elderly age did not have additional risk, except with uncontrolled hypertension and female gender.
Female gender was at a higher risk of poor unassisted AVF patency if their age was ≥65 years, had second AVF creation, loupe magnification not used or if arterial plaque was present. An absence of thrill immediately or at 24 hours or an AVF diameter ≤5 mm were independent intraoperative factors for poor outcome. On the contrary, diabetics, elderly males and intimal thickness were essentially noncontributors for AVF failure, except in few subsets.
Utility of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Decompensated Cirrhosis.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Renal failure occurring in the setting of cirrhosis increases mortality by more than threefold. Serum creatinine, the conventional marker for renal dysfunction has inherent limitations in identifying and categorizing renal dysfunction in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker which gets upregulated as early as 2-6 hours following the insult to renal tubules. In this study, we aim to check the utility of uNGAL to identify the different phenotypes of renal dysfunction in patients with CLD. We also intend to assess the utility of NGAL to predict 90-day transplant-free survival in patients with CLD.
A total number of 120 adult patients, with cirrhosis of liver were recruited. Those with pre-existing renal parenchymal disease, receiving nephrotoxic medications, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, septic shock, proteinuria, hematuria, urinary tract infection and anuria were excluded. Urine samples for NGAL was measured at admission and at 48 hours thereafter. Patients were followed up for 90 days post admission.
Among the study population, 16 patients (13.3%) had normal kidney function, 43 (35.8%) had prerenal azotemia and 54 (45%) had Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS - AKI) and 7 (5.8%) had acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Urinary NGAL (uNGAL) levels were considerably lower in patients with normal kidney function and prerenal azotemia. An uNGAL level of 124 ng/ml on admission could distinguish severe forms of renal injury, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 84%. The non survivors had higher uNGAL levels at admission [209.6 ng/ml (118.7-376.8) vs. 123 (33.6-344.3); P = 0.013].The receiver operated curves for uNGAL and serum creatinine at admission did not show any significant difference for predicting 90 day mortality (AUC for uNGAL: 0.632 vs 0.580 for serum creatinine; difference in AUC 0.053, P value 0.17).
uNGAL levels are elevated in patients with HRS-AKI and ATN. A higher uNGAL level at admission was suggestive of severe renal dysfunction. An elevated uNGAL on admission is associated with inferior survival. However, uNGAL is not superior to serum creatinine in predicting 90-day mortality.
Effect of Long-term Peritoneal Dialysis on Change in Visceral Fat Area: A Single-Center Experience.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Visceral fat area (VFA) is known to increase after initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the factors contributing to the increase in VFA in long-term PD patients have not been sufficiently elucidated. The present study investigated factors that affect VFA in patients who continue PD for ≥3 years.
Twenty patients (63.1 ± 10.3 years, 9 men, 11 diabetic patients) between January 2008 and January 2015 were included. VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and waist circumference at initiation and follow-up were measured at the level of the umbilicus by computed tomography using an image analysis system. Change in VFA was defined as the value obtained by dividing VFA at the final follow-up by that at the initiation. The correlations between clinical parameters at initiation and changes in VFA were analyzed.
There was no significant change in body weight (57.6 ± 10.4 vs 58.3 ± 7.8 kg, P = 0.296) during the mean final follow-up period of 55 ± 13 months, although VFA increased significantly (103.6 ± 39.2 vs 122.6 ± 38.3 cm2, P = 0.030). Although subcutaneous fat area (SFA) did not change (124.7 ± 52.3 vs 124.5 ± 49.2 cm2, P = 0.989), waist circumference increased significantly (79.4 ± 8.4 vs 83.7 ± 6.9 cm, P = 0.010). SFA (r = -0.735, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = - 0.644, P = 0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.487, P = 0.029), and age (r = 0.507, P = 0.023) correlated significantly with changes in VFA.
VFA might increase with long-term PD in patients with end-stage kidney disease who have high HDL-C, small SFA, and small waist circumference at initiation.
Comparison of Oral and Intravenous N-acetyl Cysteine in Preventing Contrast Nephropathy.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Despite high rates of morbidity and mortality in patients with contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), there is no consensus regarding prevention of this well-known complication of contrast media use. One agent that has been widely used in this regard is N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Nevertheless, its efficacy is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of NAC, both in the oral and intravenous forms, for the prevention of CIN.
This study is a double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. We randomized 434 adult patients with chronic kidney disease (constant serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL) who were candidates for coronary angiography/plasty. The patients were categorized into three groups. One group received 1,200 mg NAC intravenously half an hour before the procedure and oral placebo starting 3 days before angiography. The second group received oral NAC 600 mg twice daily for 3 days, starting the day before the intervention and intravenous placebo half an hour before intervention. The third group received both oral and intravenous placebo. CIN was defined as a 25% relative increase in serum creatinine from baseline value, 48 h after use of contrast medium.
Of the 434 patients, 149 received intravenous NAC, 145 received oral NAC, and the remaining 140 received placebo. The incidence of CIN in the three groups was 6.1%, 7.6%, and 10.8%, respectively (p = 0.34).
In patients with chronic kidney disease, neither intravenous nor oral NAC is superior to placebo for preventing CIN.
A 10-year Study: Renal Outcomes in Patients with Accelerated Hypertension and Renal Dysfunction.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Hypertension is prevalent in 35%-46% of the general population; 1% of them experience accelerated hypertension. Among patients with accelerated hypertension, acute worsening of renal functions occur in 22%-55%. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Partial renal recovery is seen in some, while others rapidly progress to end-stage renal disease.
Patients who presented with accelerated hypertension, renal dysfunction, and had undergone renal biopsy were evaluated and their clinical profile was analyzed. Those who became dialysis dependent were excluded from further follow-up. Study outcome were blood pressure control, renal functions, requirement of renal replacement and mortality.
Of the 30 patients evaluated, age at presentation was 41.2 ± 15.46 years and 26 (86.7%) were males, 10 (33%) had presented with nonspecific complaints. Mean duration of hypertension and blood pressure were 21.93 months and 196 ± 20.8/129 ± 12.4 mmHg, respectively. Glomerulonephritis and hypertensive nephrosclerosis had similar characteristics except proteinuria (P = 0.04). Average follow-up (n = 25) duration was 3.69 years (range: 0.05-9.6). At the end of study, 6 were dialysis dependent, while in others, mean e-GFR was 23.96 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poor renal prognosis was predicted by glomerulonephritis (relative risk-4.6) and degree of interstitial fibrosis. Five-year patient and renal survival were 94.4% and 71.9%, respectively.
Accelerated hypertension occurs among patients with both primary and secondary hypertension. It leaves permanent renal sequelae. Though some patients recover renal function partially, further progression is rapid, especially among those with chronic glomerulonephritis.
Challenges in Management of Disseminated Melioidosis with Endocarditis in a Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Melioidosis is a tropical infection that is increasingly being reported from South India. It is frequently observed in patients with diabetes melli...
Uncracking a Case.Indian Journal of Nephrology
Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) refers to compression of the left renal vein (LRV), most frequently between the aorta and the superior mesenteric arter...