The latest medical research on Nephrology
The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about nephrology gathered by our medical AI research bot.
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Environment-Wide Association Study of CKD.Clinical Journal of the American
Exposure to environmental chemicals has been recognized as one of the possible contributors to CKD. We aimed to identify environmental chemicals that are associated with CKD.
We analyzed the data obtained from a total of 46,748 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2016). Associations of chemicals measured in urine or blood (n=262) with albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g), reduced eGFR (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and a composite of albuminuria or reduced eGFR were tested and validated using the environment-wide association study approach.
Among 262 environmental chemicals, seven (3%) chemicals showed significant associations with increased risk of albuminuria, reduced eGFR, or the composite outcome. These chemicals included metals and other chemicals that have not previously been associated with CKD. Serum and urine cotinines, blood 2,5-dimethylfuran (a volatile organic compound), and blood cadmium were associated with albuminuria. Blood lead and cadmium were associated with reduced eGFR. Blood cadmium and lead and three volatile compounds (blood 2,5-dimethylfuran, blood furan, and urinary phenylglyoxylic acid) were associated with the composite outcome. A total of 23 chemicals, including serum perfluorooctanoic acid, seven urinary metals, three urinary arsenics, urinary nitrate and thiocyanate, three urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and seven volatile organic compounds, were associated with lower risks of one or more manifestations of CKD.
A number of chemicals were identified as potential risk factors for CKD among the general population.
Gene expression profiling of proximal and distal renal tubules in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) acclimated to fresh water and seawater.American Journal of
Euryhaline teleost kidneys undergo a major functional switch from being filtratory in fresh water (FW) to being predominantly secretory in seawater...
MiR-21 promotes calcium oxalate-induced renal tubular cell injury by targeting PPARA.American Journal of
Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed in kidneys which has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. MicroRNA...
Upregulated proteoglycan-related signaling pathways in fluid flow shear stress-treated podocytes.American Journal of
The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) on podocytes. Hyperfiltration-associated inc...
APOL1 Nephropathy: From Genetics to Clinical Applications.Clinical Journal of the American
Rates of many types of severe kidney disease are much higher in blacks than most other groups. Much of this disparity can now be attributed to gene...
External Validation of the International IgA Nephropathy Prediction Tool.Clinical Journal of the American
The International IgA Nephropathy Network recently developed and externally validated two models to predict the risk of progression of IgA nephropathy: full models without and with race. This study sought to externally validate the International IgA Nephropathy Prediction Tool in a large, independent, and contemporary cohort in China.
We included 1373 patients with biopsy-confirmed primary IgA nephropathy from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to May 2018 and calculated predicted risks for each patient. The outcomes of interest were a 50% decline in eGFR or kidney failure. We assessed the performance of both models using discrimination (concordance statistics and Kaplan-Meier curves between subgroups), calibration (calibration plots), reclassification (net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement), and clinical utility (decision curve analysis).
The median follow-up was 29 months (interquartile range, 21-43 months; range, 1-95 months), and 186 (14%) patients reached the kidney outcomes of interest. Both models showed excellent discrimination (concordance statistics >0.85 and well separated survival curves). Overall, the full model without race generally underestimated the risk of primary outcome, whereas the full model with race was well calibrated for predicting 5-year risk. Compared with the full model without race, the full model with race had significant improvement in reclassification, as assessed by the net reclassification improvement (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.59) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.08). Decision curve analysis showed that both full models had a higher net benefit than default strategies, and the model with race performed better.
In this study, both full models demonstrated remarkable discrimination, acceptable calibration, and satisfactory clinical utility. The relatively short follow-up time may have limited the validation of these models.
Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients with CKD.Clinical Journal of the American
Little is known about the burden of adverse drug reactions in CKD. We estimated the incidence of overall and serious adverse drug reactions and assessed the probability of causation, preventability, and factors associated with adverse drug reactions in patients seen by nephrologists.
The Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network cohort included 3033 outpatients (65% men) with CKD and eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, with follow-up for 2 years. Adverse drug reactions were identified from hospitalization reports, medical records, and participant interviews and finally assessed for causality, preventability, and immediate therapeutic management by experts in pharmacology.
Median (interquartile range) age was 69 (60-76) years old; 55% had eGFR≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 45% had eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Participants were prescribed a median (range) of eight (five to ten) drugs. Over 2 years, 536 patients had 751 adverse drug reactions, 150 (in 125 participants) classified as serious, for rates of 14.4 (95% confidence interval, 12.6 to 16.5) and 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 4.3) per 100 person-years, respectively. Among the serious adverse drug reactions, 32% were considered preventable or potentially preventable; 16 caused death, directly or indirectly. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (15%), antithrombotic agents (14%), and diuretics (10%) were the drugs to which the most adverse drug reactions were imputed, but antithrombotic agents caused 34% of serious adverse drug reactions. The drug was discontinued in 71% of cases, at least temporarily. Adjusted hazard ratios for serious adverse drug reaction were significantly higher in patients with eGFR<30 versus ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.6), in those prescribed more than ten versus less than five medications (2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.2), or in those with poor versus good adherence (1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 2.4).
Adverse drug reactions are common and sometimes serious in patients with CKD. Many serious adverse drug reactions may be preventable. Some specific pharmacologic classes, particularly antithrombotic agents, are at risk of serious adverse drug reactions.
Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN), NCT03381950.
The Importance of Kidney Medullary Tissue for the Accurate Diagnosis of BK Virus Allograft Nephropathy.Clinical Journal of the American
The published tissue adequacy requirement of kidney medulla for BK virus allograft nephropathy diagnosis lacks systematic verification and competes against potential increased procedural risks from deeper sampling.
We evaluated whether the presence of kidney medulla improved the diagnostic rate of BK nephropathy in 2244 consecutive biopsy samples from 856 kidney transplants with detailed histologic and virologic results.
Medulla was present in 821 samples (37%) and correlated with maximal core length (r=0.35; P<0.001). BK virus allograft nephropathy occurred in 74 (3% overall) but increased to 5% (42 of 821) with medulla compared with 2% (32 of 1423) for cortical samples (P<0.001). Biopsy medulla was associated with infection after comprehensive multivariable adjustment of confounders, including core length, glomerular number, and number of cores (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 3.21; P=0.04). In viremic cases (n=275), medulla was associated with BK virus nephropathy diagnosis (39% versus 19% for cortex; P<0.001) and tissue polyomavirus load (Banff polyomavirus score 0.64±0.96 versus 0.33±1.00; P=0.006). Biopsy medulla was associated with BK virus allograft nephropathy using generalized estimating equation (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.96; n=275) and propensity matched score comparison (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.54; P=0.03 for 156 balanced pairs). Morphometric evaluation of Simian virus 40 large T immunohistochemistry found maximal infected tubules within the inner cortex and medullary regions (P<0.001 versus outer cortex).
Active BK virus replication concentrated around the corticomedullary junction can explain the higher detection rates for BK virus allograft nephropathy with deep sampling. The current adequacy requirement specifying targeting medulla can be justified to minimize a missed diagnosis from undersampling.
Hypertensive Female Sprague Dawley rats require an intact nitric oxide synthase system for compensatory increases in renal T regulatory cells.American Journal of
We have previously shown that hypertensive female rats have more T regulatory cells (Tregs) which contribute more to blood pressure (BP) control in...
Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is Present in Patients with CKD before Initiation of Maintenance Hemodialysis.Clinical Journal of the American
Patients with CKD suffer from frailty and sarcopenia, which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Skeletal muscle mitochondria are important for physical function and could be a target to prevent frailty and sarcopenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the severity of CKD. We also evaluated the interaction between mitochondrial function and coexisting comorbidities, such as impaired physical performance, intermuscular adipose tissue infiltration, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
Sixty-three participants were studied, including controls (n=21), patients with CKD not on maintenance hemodialysis (CKD 3-5; n=20), and patients on maintenance hemodialysis (n=22). We evaluated in vivo knee extensors mitochondrial function using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to obtain the phosphocreatine recovery time constant, a measure of mitochondrial function. We measured physical performance using the 6-minute walk test, intermuscular adipose tissue infiltration with magnetic resonance imaging, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in plasma. In skeletal muscle biopsies from a select number of patients on maintenance hemodialysis, we also measured markers of mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission).
We found a prolonged phosphocreatine recovery constant in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (53.3 [43.4-70.1] seconds, median [interquartile range]) and patients with CKD not on maintenance hemodialysis (41.5 [35.4-49.1] seconds) compared with controls (38.9 [32.5-46.0] seconds; P=0.001 among groups). Mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with poor physical performance (r=0.62; P=0.001), greater intermuscular adipose tissue (r=0.44; P=0.001), and increased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (r=0.60; P=0.001). We found mitochondrial fragmentation and increased content of dynamin-related protein 1, a marker of mitochondrial fission, in skeletal muscles from patients on maintenance hemodialysis (0.86 [0.48-1.35] arbitrary units (A.U.), median [interquartile range]) compared with controls (0.60 [0.24-0.75] A.U.).
Mitochondrial dysfunction is due to multifactorial etiologies and presents prior to the initiation of maintenance hemodialysis, including in patients with CKD stages 3-5.
Patient and Caregiver Perspectives on Terms Used to Describe Kidney Health.Clinical Journal of the American
The language used to communicate important aspects of kidney health is inconsistent and may be conceptualized differently by patients and health professionals. These problems may impair the quality of communication, care, and patient outcomes. We aimed to describe the perspectives of patients on terms used to describe kidney health.
Patients with CKD (n=54) and caregivers (n=13) from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia participated in ten focus groups to discuss terms for kidney health (including kidney, renal, CKD, ESKD, kidney failure, and descriptors for kidney function). We analyzed the data using thematic analysis.
We identified four themes: provoking and exacerbating undue trauma (fear of the unknown, denoting impending death, despair in having incurable or untreatable disease, premature labeling and assumptions, judgment, stigma, and failure of self); frustrated by ambiguity (confused by medicalized language, lacking personal relevance, baffled by imprecision in meaning, and/or opposed to obsolete terms); making sense of the prognostic enigma (conceptualizing level of kidney function, correlating with symptoms and effect on life, predicting progression, and need for intervention); and mobilizing self-management (confronting reality, enabling planning and preparation, taking ownership for change, learning medical terms for self-advocacy, and educating others).
The obscurity and imprecision of terms in CKD can be unduly distressing and traumatizing for patients, which can impair decision making and self-management. Consistent and meaningful patient-centered terminology may improve patient autonomy, satisfaction, and outcomes.
Metabolic Alkalosis: A Brief Pathophysiologic Review.Clinical Journal of the American
Metabolic alkalosis is a very commonly encountered acid-base disorder that may be generated by a variety of exogenous and/or endogenous, pathophysi...