The latest medical research on Nephrology

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Outcomes of Primary Arteriovenous Fistula for Hemodialysis in Elderly Patients (>65 Years) with End Stage Renal Disease: A Study on Indian Population.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

The outcome of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for hemodialysis (HD) in elderly population remains an issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas created at our institute in patients older than 65 years.

All chronic HD patients with age >65 years who had an AVF created between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2017 were included retrospectively. Baseline demographic information including age, gender, etiology of renal failure and comorbidities were recorded. Access characteristics including access type and anatomic location were recorded. The end point of study was primary and secondary patency. Minimum follow up period of study was 1 year.

A total of 422 AVF were created within the study period. The mean age was 69.3 years. The anatomical site of AVF creation was radiocephalic (RCF) in 74.8% (n = 316), brachiocephalic (BCF) in 18.9% (n = 80) and brachiobasilic (BBF) in 6.1% (n = 26). At one year after creation, cumulative survival of the AVF was 64.7%. At 36 months the primary and secondary patency of RCF, BCF and BBF was 43.6%, 58.6%, 42.6% and 47.3%, 62.5%, 56.9% respectively. The overall median survival did not differ between RCF and BBF fistulas. However, when both were compared with BCF (median survival 1034 days), BBF (median survival 741 days) and RCF (median survival 592 days) had significantly poorer survival (P = 0.004). The most common reason for access failure was thrombosis (28.4%) followed by failure to mature (9%) and aneurysm related complications (9%).

Age should not be a limiting factor when choosing AVF as the preferred HD access. Brachiocephalic AVF has better primary and secondary patency with higher overall median survival. However RCF also provides reasonably good survival rates with acceptable complications in elderly population. Thrombosis and fistulas that fail to mature present as a primary concern to patients in elderly population, and demand further study.

Hand Grip Strength in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: An Observational Cohort Study from India.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Malnutrition is a common manifestation in patients with dialysis and is a major cause of mortality in these patients. Various biochemical parameters are used to detect and monitor malnutrition in these patients. Confounding variables present in hemodialysis have an effect on the sensitivity and specificity of these tests.

We studied hand grip strength (HGS) as a monitoring tool for protein malnutrition in these patients.

In a prospective observational study over 18 months, 83 patients (60 males) consented to be part of the study. The biochemical parameters showed the mean (±sd) of haemoglobin and albumin as 10.(±1.9) gm/dl and 3.5 (±0.5) gm/dl respectively. Majority of the patients (54/83) were well nourished according to subjective global assessment (SGA). The hand grip score in the cohort was weak in the majority of patients. It is interesting to note that majority of the males have weak HGS as compared with the general population of the same age group. The female patients had HGS which were in the normal range of values that of the population. A multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant association with serum creatinine and HGS.

No correlation between albumin and HGS was noted. Of the anthropometric variables a significant correlation was noted between mid arm muscle circumference and HGS.

Direct Correlation between Age at Diagnosis and Severity of Nephropathy in Fabry Disease Patients.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Nephropathy is one of the major complications of Fabry disease and mainly includes reduced glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. Affected patients show different degrees of annual loss of renal function according to the magnitude of proteinuria and decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the baseline.

To analyze the relationship between age at diagnosis and severity of nephropathy in a Fabry disease population.

Cross-sectional design with retrospective data collection.

Seventy-two patients were studied with mean age of 26.26 ± 16.48 years and 30 men (41.6%). Twenty-seven paediatric patients and 45 adults were included. Thirteen genotypes were found: E398X, L415P, c886A>G, L106R, c.680G>A, A292T, c. 448.delG, R363H, C382Y, R301Q, D109G, del 3 and 4 exons, W81X, all pathogenic mutations of GLA gene. The mean eGFR in paediatric population was 115.81 ± 20.87 ml/min/1.73 m2 and in adults was 80.63 ± 42.22 ml/min/1.73 m2. The Pearson's bilateral correlation coefficient test (value = -0.462) between the age at diagnosis and eGFR indicates inverse correlation between both variables with a strong statistical significance (P = < 0.01). Spearman's bilateral correlation coefficient (value = +0.385) between the variables at diagnosis and the degree of proteinuria indicates direct correlation between both variables with a strong statistical significance (P = <0.01).

Diagnosis of Fabry disease patients at a younger age could be a key to improve the nephropathy prognosis and allow early and effective interventions.

Heavy Metals and Pesticides in Chronic Kidney Disease - Results from a Matched Case-Control Study from a Rural Population in Shivamogga District in South India.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

There is a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the rural agrarian population of South India and it often appears unrelated to major known causes such as diabetes or glomerulonephritis.

In a matched case-control study conducted in a rural population in Shivamogga district in South India, the association of heavy metals - lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) - and pesticides in CKD was studied. Blood and spot urine samples were tested quantitatively for heavy metals and qualitatively for pesticides.

In all, 69 matched pairs (40 female, 58%) were recruited. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) was 60.1 (14.2) in cases and 83.4 (13.4) in controls. Elevated blood lead level >5 μg/dL was seen in 15 cases and 25 controls, respectively [P = 0.035, matched odds ratio (MOR) 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-1.05]. Urinary Pb was elevated in 16 cases and 13 controls, respectively (P = 0.28, MOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.58-2.73). There was no significant association with As and Cd, while pesticide residues were undetectable in cases as well as controls. These results did not change even after excluding CKD cases with diabetes, stage 2 hypertension, and significant proteinuria.

There was no statistical significant association between any of the studied heavy metals and CKD, although there was a significant burden of heavy metals in the studied subjects.

Low Concentration Trisodium Citrate as a Non-inferior Locking Agent for Non-tunneled Dialysis Catheters in the Asian Setting.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Unfractionated heparin is the commonly used catheter lock solution in patients with temporary dialysis catheters as hemodialysis access. The effectiveness of trisodium citrate as an alternate catheter lock agent has not been studied in Asian population.

In this prospective quasi-experimental study, which included 180 patients with central venous dialysis catheter, patients were randomly allotted to citrate 4.67% and heparin 5000 units/ml arms in the ratio of 2:1. Baseline demographic and dialysis related data, incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections, and mean catheter days in both the study cohorts were collected and compared. Formal cost analysis for citrate 4.67% use as catheter lock was done.

The mean age of the total study population was 50.49 ± 14.87 years. Sixty-six females (36.7%) and 80 (44.4%) diabetic patients were included in the study. The overall incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) was 11.11%. The majority had nontunneled dialysis catheters (95%; n = 114). On analyzing the data of patients with nontunneled catheters, it was found that the total number of catheter days for the citrate and heparin groups were 4,795 and 2,419 days, respectively. The number of CRBSI episodes per 1,000 catheter days for the citrate and heparin groups were 2.711 and 2.89, respectively. Citrate catheter lock cost only 6% of that of heparin lock.

The incidence of catheter related bloodstream infections was comparable between the heparin and citrate 4.67% lock cohorts. The use of low concentration citrate as catheter lock was cost-effective when compared with heparin.

Gastrointestinal Involvement in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Case Report and Review.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) commonly affects upper/lower respiratory tract and kidneys. It causes necrotizing vasculitis of small and me...

A Rare Case of Acute Kidney Injury Due to Levofloxacin-induced Crystal Nephropathy.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. ...

Atheroembolic Renal Disease: A Case Series.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD), a part of systemic cholesterol embolization syndrome, is caused by the occlusion of small arteries in the kidne...

Epidemiology of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in Olmsted County.

Clinical Journal of the American

The prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remains controversial. Incidence rates in Olmsted County, Minnesota, during 1935-1980 were previously reported. The current work extends this study to 2016.

The Rochester Epidemiology Project and radiology databases of Mayo Clinic and Olmsted Medical Center (healthcare providers for Olmsted County) were searched to identify all subjects meeting diagnostic criteria for definite, likely, and possible ADPKD. Annual incidence rates were calculated using incident cases during 1980-2016 as numerator and age- and sex-specific estimates of the population of Olmsted County as denominator. Point prevalence was calculated using prevalence cases as numerator and age- and sex-specific estimates of the population of Olmsted County on January 1, 2010 as denominator. Survival curves from the time of diagnosis were compared with expected survival of the Minnesota population.

The age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence of definite and likely ADPKD diagnosis during 1980-2016 was 3.06 (95% CI, 2.52 to 3.60) per 100,000 person-years, which is 2.2 times higher than that previously reported for 1935-1980 (1.38 per 100,000 person-years). The point prevalence of definite or likely ADPKD on January 1, 2010 was 68 (95% CI, 53.90 to 82.13) per 100,000 population. Much higher incidence rates and point prevalence were obtained when possible ADPKD cases were included. Contrary to the previous Olmsted County study, patient survival in this study was not different from that in the general population.

The point prevalence of definite and likely ADPKD observed in this study is higher than those reported in the literature, but lower than genetic prevalence based on estimates of disease expectancy or on analysis of large population-sequencing databases.

Nitro-oleic acid inhibits the high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in peritoneal mesothelial cells and attenuates peritoneal fibrosis.

American Journal of

As an electrophilic nitroalkene fatty acid, nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) exerts multiple biological effects that contribute to anti-inflammation, anti...

Trends in Peritoneal Dialysis Use in the United States after Medicare Payment Reform.

Clinical Journal of the American

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for ESKD is associated with similar mortality, higher quality of life, and lower costs compared with hemodialysis (HD), but has historically been underused. We assessed the effect of the 2011 Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for dialysis on PD initiation, modality switches, and stable PD use.

Using US Renal Data System and Medicare data, we identified all United States patients with ESKD initiating dialysis before (2006-2010) and after (2011-2013) PPS implementation, and observed their modality for up to 2 years after dialysis initiation. Using logistic regression models, we examined the associations between PPS and early PD experience (any PD 1-90 days after initiation), late PD use (any PD 91-730 days after initiation), and modality switches (PD-to-HD or HD-to-PD 91-730 days after initiation). We adjusted for patient, dialysis facility, and regional characteristics.

Overall, 619,126 patients with incident ESKD received dialysis at Medicare-certified facilities, 2006-2013. Observed early PD experience increased from 9.4% before PPS to 12.6% after PPS. Observed late PD use increased from 12.1% to 16.1%. In adjusted analyses, PPS was associated with increased early PD experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.47 to 1.55; P<0.001) and late PD use (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.50; P<0.001). In subgroup analyses, late PD use increased in part due to an increase in HD-to-PD switches among those without early PD experience (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.52 to 1.66; P<0.001) and a decrease in PD-to-HD switches among those with early PD experience (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.98; P=0.004).

More patients started, stayed on, and switched to PD after dialysis payment reform. This occurred without a substantial increase in transfers to HD.

Validation of an efficient and continuous urodynamic monitoring system for awake, unrestrained, chronic rodent studies.

American Journal of

The post-void residual (PVR) is an important measure of bladder function, but obtaining PVR is burdensome because bladder volume must be measured a...