The latest medical research on Nephrology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about nephrology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Intravenous Albumin for Mitigating Hypotension and Augmenting Ultrafiltration during Kidney Replacement Therapy.

Clinical Journal of the American

Among its many functions, owing to its oversized effect on colloid oncotic pressure, intravascular albumin helps preserve the effective circulatory...

AMP-activated protein kinase contributes to cisplatin-induced renal epithelial cell apoptosis and acute kidney injury.

American Journal of

Cisplatin, a commonly used anti-cancer drug, has been shown to induce acute kidney injury, which limits its clinical use in cancer treatment. Emerg...

Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition mitigates renal fibrosis by suppressing TGFß and EGFR signaling pathways in obstructive nephropathy.

American Journal of

We have recently shown that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. Its role in renal fibr...

Beyond the tubule: Pathogenic variants in LRP2, encoding the megalin receptor, result in glomerular loss and early progressive chronic kidney disease.

American Journal of

Pathogenic variants in the LRP2 gene, encoding the multiligand receptor megalin, cause a rare autosomal recessive syndrome: Donnai-Barrow/Facio-Ocu...

Validation of a Core Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Fatigue in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The SONG-HD Fatigue Instrument.

Clinical Journal of the American

Fatigue is a very common and debilitating symptom and identified by patients as a critically important core outcome to be included in all trials involving patients receiving hemodialysis. A valid, standardized measure for fatigue is needed to yield meaningful and relevant evidence about this outcome. This study validated a core patient-reported outcome measure for fatigue in hemodialysis.

A longitudinal cohort study was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of a new fatigue measure (Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis Fatigue [SONG-HD Fatigue]). Eligible and consenting patients completed the measure at three time points: baseline, a week later, and 12 days following the second time point. Cronbach α and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated to assess internal consistency, and Spearman rho was used to assess convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted. Hemodialysis units in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Romania participated in this study. Adult patients aged 18 years and over who were English speaking and receiving maintenance hemodialysis were eligible to participate. Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis, the Visual Analog Scale for fatigue, the 12-Item Short Form Survey, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue were used.

In total, 485 participants completed the study across the United Kingdom, Australia, and Romania. Psychometric assessment demonstrated that Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis is internally consistent (Cronbach α =0.81-0.86) and stable over a 1-week period (intraclass correlation coefficient =0.68-0.74). The measure demonstrated convergence with Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue and had moderate correlations with other measures that assessed related but not the same concept (the 12-Item Short Form Survey and the Visual Analog Scale). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor model.

SONG-HD Fatigue seems to be a reliable and valid measure to be used in trials involving patients receiving hemodialysis.

Racial Disparities in the Arteriovenous Fistula Care Continuum in Hemodialysis Patients.

Clinical Journal of the American

Arteriovenous fistulas are the optimal vascular access type for patients on hemodialysis. However, arteriovenous fistulas are used less frequently in Black than in White individuals. The arteriovenous fistula care continuum comprises a series of sequential steps. A better understanding is needed of where disparities exist along the continuum in order to mitigate racial differences in arteriovenous fistula use.

Using Medicare claims data from the United States Renal Data System, longitudinal analyses of patients ≥67 years initiating hemodialysis with a central venous catheter between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012 were performed. Three patient cohorts were identified: patients initiating hemodialysis with a catheter (n=41,814), patients with arteriovenous fistula placement within 6 months of dialysis initiation (n=14,077), and patients whose arteriovenous fistulas were successfully used within 6 months of placement (n=7068). Three arteriovenous fistula processes of care outcomes were compared between Blacks and Whites: (1) arteriovenous fistula creation, (2) successful arteriovenous fistula use, and (3) primary arteriovenous fistula patency after successful use.

An arteriovenous fistula was placed within 6 months of dialysis initiation in 37% of patients initiating dialysis with a catheter. Among the patients with arteriovenous fistula placement, the arteriovenous fistula was successfully used for dialysis within 6 months in 48% of patients. Among patients with successful arteriovenous fistula use, 21% maintained primary arteriovenous fistula patency at 3 years. After adjusting for competing risks, Black patients on hemodialysis were 10% less likely to undergo arteriovenous fistula placement (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.94); 12% less likely to have successful arteriovenous fistula use after placement (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.93); and 22% less likely to maintain primary arteriovenous fistula patency after successful use (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.84).

Lower arteriovenous fistula use among Blacks older than 67 years of age treated with hemodialysis was attributable to each step along the continuum of arteriovenous fistula processes of care.

Infection-Related Acute Care Events among Patients with Glomerular Disease.

Clinical Journal of the American

Infections contribute to patient morbidity and mortality in glomerular disease. We sought to describe the incidence of, and identify risk factors for, infection-related acute care events among Cure Glomerulonephropathy Network (CureGN) study participants.

CureGN is a prospective, multicenter, cohort study of children and adults with biopsy sample-proven minimal change disease, FSGS, membranous nephropathy, or IgA nephropathy/vasculitis. Risk factors for time to first infection-related acute care events (hospitalization or emergency department visit) were identified using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.

Of 1741 participants (43% female, 41% <18 years, 68% White), 163 (9%) experienced infection-related acute care events over a median follow-up of 17 months (interquartile range, 9-26 months). Unadjusted incidence rates of infection-related acute care events were 13.2 and 6.2 events per 100 person-years among pediatric and adult participants, respectively. Among participants with versus without corticosteroid exposure at enrollment, unadjusted incidence rates were 50.6 and 28.6 per 100 person-years, respectively, during the first year of follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio for time to first infection, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.93), and 4.1 and 1.1 per 100 person-years, respectively, after 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.54 to 5.79). Hypoalbuminemia combined with nephrotic-range proteinuria (serum albumin ≤2.5 g/dl and urinary protein-creatinine ratio >3.5 mg/mg), compared with serum albumin >2.5 g/dl and urinary protein-creatinine ratio ≤3.5 mg/mg, was associated with higher risk of time to first infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.51 to 4.12).

Among CureGN participants, infection-related acute care events were common and associated with younger age, corticosteroid exposure, and hypoalbuminemia with proteinuria.

The Complicated Role of Mitochondria in the Podocyte.

American Journal of

Mitochondria play a complex role in maintaining cellular function including ATP generation, generation of biosynthetic precursors for macromolecule...

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and the AKI to CKD Transition.

American Journal of

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been widely recognized as an important risk factor for the occurrence and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...

Effect of Urate-Lowering Therapy on Cardiovascular and Kidney Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clinical Journal of the American

Several clinical practice guidelines noted the potential benefits of urate-lowering therapy on cardiovascular disease and CKD progression; however, the effect of this regimen remains uncertain. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of urate-lowering therapy on major adverse cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, kidney failure events, BP, and GFR.

We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane databases for trials published through July 2020. We included prospective, randomized, controlled trials assessing the effects of urate-lowering therapy for at least 6 months on cardiovascular or kidney outcomes. Relevant information was extracted into a spreadsheet by two authors independently. Treatment effects were summarized using random effects meta-analysis.

We identified 28 trials including a total of 6458 participants with 506 major adverse cardiovascular events and 266 kidney failure events. Overall urate-lowering therapy did not show benefits on major adverse cardiovascular events (risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.18) and all-cause mortality (risk ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.39) or kidney failure (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.54). Nevertheless, urate-lowering therapy attenuated the decline in the slope of GFR (weighted mean difference, 1.18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.91) and lowered the mean BP (systolic BP: weighted mean difference, -3.45 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6.10 to -0.80; diastolic BP: weighted mean difference, -2.02 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -3.25 to -0.78). There was no significant difference (risk ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.94 to 1.08) in the risk of adverse events between the participants receiving urate-lowering therapy and the control group.

Urate-lowering therapy did not produce benefits on the clinical outcomes, including major adverse cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and kidney failure. Thus, there is insufficient evidence to support urate lowering in patients to improve kidney and cardiovascular outcomes.

Major Bleeding and Risk of Death after Percutaneous Native Kidney Biopsies: A French Nationwide Cohort Study.

Clinical Journal of the American

The risk of major bleeding after percutaneous native kidney biopsy is usually considered low but remains poorly predictable. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of major bleeding and to build a preprocedure bleeding risk score.

Our study was a retrospective cohort study in all 52,138 patients who had a percutaneous native kidney biopsy in France in the 2010-2018 period. Measurements included major bleeding (i.e., blood transfusions, hemorrhage/hematoma, angiographic intervention, or nephrectomy) at day 8 after biopsy and risk of death at day 30. Exposures and outcomes were defined by diagnosis codes.

Major bleeding occurred in 2765 of 52,138 (5%) patients (blood transfusions: 5%; angiographic intervention: 0.4%; and nephrectomy: 0.1%). Nineteen diagnoses were associated with major bleeding. A bleeding risk score was calculated (Charlson index [2-4: +1; 5 and 6: +2; >6: +3]; frailty index [1.5-4.4: +1; 4.5-9.5: +2; >9.5: +3]; women: +1; dyslipidemia: -1; obesity: -1; anemia: +8; thrombocytopenia: +2; cancer: +2; abnormal kidney function: +4; glomerular disease: -1; vascular kidney disease: -1; diabetic kidney disease: -1; autoimmune disease: +2; vasculitis: +5; hematologic disease: +2; thrombotic microangiopathy: +4; amyloidosis: -2; other kidney diagnosis: -1) + a constant of 5. The risk of bleeding went from 0.4% (lowest score group =0-4 points) to 33% (highest score group ≥35 points). Major bleeding was an independent risk of death (500 of 52,138 deaths: bleeding: 81 of 2765 [3%]; no bleeding: 419 of 49,373 [0.9%]; odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.50 to 2.54; P<0.001).

The risk of major bleeding after percutaneous native kidney biopsy may be higher than generally thought and is associated with a twofold higher risk of death. It varies widely but can be estimated with a score useful for shared decision making and procedure choice.

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Native Kidney Biopsy Complications.

Clinical Journal of the American

Native kidney biopsies are commonly performed in the diagnosis of acute kidney diseases and CKD. Because of the invasive nature of the procedure, bleeding-related complications are not uncommon. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-sponsored Kidney Precision Medicine Project requires that all participants undergo a kidney biopsy; therefore, the objective of this analysis was to study complication rates of native kidney biopsies performed using automated devices under kidney imaging.

This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature published from January 1983 to March 2018. The initial PubMed search yielded 1139 manuscripts. Using predetermined selection criteria, 87 manuscripts were included in the final analysis. A random effects meta-analysis for proportions was used to obtain combined estimates of complication rates. Freeman-Tukey double-arcsine transformations were used to stabilize variance as complications were rare.

A total of 118,064 biopsies were included in this study. Patient age ranged from 30 to 79 years, and 45% of patients were women. On the basis of our meta-analysis, pain at the site of biopsy is estimated to occur in 4.3% of biopsied patients, hematomas are estimated to occur in 11%, macroscopic hematuria is estimated to occur in 3.5%, bleeding requiring blood transfusions is estimated to occur in 1.6%, and interventions to stop bleeding are estimated to occur in only 0.3%. Death attributed to native kidney biopsy was a rare event, occurring only in an estimated 0.06% of all biopsies but only 0.03% of outpatient biopsies. Complication rates were higher in hospitalized patients and in those with acute kidney disease. The reported complications varied on the basis of study type and geographic location.

Although the native kidney biopsy is an invasive diagnostic procedure, the rates of bleeding complications are low. Albeit rare, death can occur postbiopsy. Complications are more frequently seen after kidney biopsies of hospitalized patients with AKI.