The latest medical research on Nephrology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about nephrology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The Relationship between Rate and Volume of Intravenous Fluid Administration and Kidney Outcomes after Angiography.

Clinical Journal of the American

Contrast-associated AKI may result in higher morbidity and mortality. Intravenous fluid administration remains the mainstay for prevention. There is a lack of consensus on the optimal administration strategy. We studied the association of periprocedure fluid administration with contrast-associated AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine of at least 25% or 0.5 mg/dl from baseline at 3-5 days after angiography, and 90-day need for dialysis, death, or a 50% increase in serum creatinine.

We conducted a secondary analysis of 4671 PRESERVE participants who underwent angiographic procedures. Although fluid type was randomized, strategy of administration was at the discretion of the clinician. We divided the study cohort into quartiles by total fluid volume. We performed multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clinically important covariates. We tested for the interaction between fluid volume and duration of fluid administration, categorized as <6 or ≥6 hours.

The mean (SD) age was 70 (8) years, 94% of participants were male, and median (interquartile range) eGFR was 60 (41-60) ml/min per 1.73 m2. The range of fluid administered was 89-882 ml in quartile 1 and 1258-2790 ml in quartile 4. Compared with the highest quartile (quartile 4) of fluid volume, we found a significantly higher risk of the primary outcome in quartile 1 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.38) but not in quartiles 2 and 3 compared with quartile 4. There was no difference in the incidence of contrast-associated AKI across the quartiles. The interaction between volume and duration was not significant for any of the outcomes.

We found that administration of a total volume of 1000 ml, starting at least 1 hour before contrast injection and continuing postcontrast for a total of 6 hours, is associated with a similar risk of adverse outcomes as larger volumes of intravenous fluids administered for periods >6 hours. Mean fluid volumes <964 ml may be associated with a higher risk for the primary outcome, although residual confounding cannot be excluded.

Arterial Stiffness and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Children.

Clinical Journal of the American

CKD has been linked to increased arterial stiffness in adults, but data in children with CKD remain conflicting. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal dynamics and determinants of pulse wave velocity in children with CKD and its association with CKD progression.

We performed an analysis of the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) study, which prospectively followed children aged 6-17 years with CKD stages 3-5. Follow-up was censored at the time of KRT initiation. Two separate analyses were performed: with absolute pulse wave velocity (primary outcome) and with pulse wave velocity standardized to height (z score; restricted to participants ≤17 years) as a sensitivity analysis.

In total, 667 patients with a mean baseline eGFR of 27 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were included. Pulse wave velocity above the 95th percentile was observed in 124 (20%) patients at baseline. Absolute pulse wave velocity increased gradually over the median follow-up of 2.7 (interquartile range, 0.7-4.4) years, whereas pulse wave velocity z score remained relatively stable. Absolute pulse wave velocity over time associated with time; older age; higher mean arterial pressure, LDL cholesterol, and albuminuria; and lower ferritin. Pulse wave velocity z score (n=628) was associated with the same variables and additionally, with higher diastolic BP z score, lower height z score, younger age, and girls. Of 628 patients, 369 reached the composite end point of CKD progression (50% eGFR loss, eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2, or the start of KRT) during a median follow-up of 2.4 (interquartile range, 0.9-4.6) years. Pulse wave velocity z score did not associate with CKD progression by univariable or multivariable proportional hazard analysis correcting for the established predictors eGFR, proteinuria, and BP.

Pulse wave velocity is increased in children with CKD but does not associate with eGFR or CKD progression.

Metabolomic profiling reveals muscle metabolic changes following iliac arteriovenous fistula creation in mice.

American Journal of

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), the most advanced stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), requires renal replacement therapy or kidney transplant t...

Role of coagulation in persistent renal ischemia following reperfusion in an animal model.

American Journal of

Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is common, deadly, and accelerates progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet has not specific therapy. Af...

Effect of Music in Reducing Pain during Hemodialysis Access Cannulation: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial.

Clinical Journal of the American

Pain during cannulation for vascular access is a considerable problem for patients with kidney disease who are undergoing hemodialysis. We examined whether listening to music can reduce cannulation pain in these patients.

We conducted a multicenter, single-blind, crossover, randomized trial of 121 patients who reported pain during cannulation for hemodialysis. We compared participants listening to "Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, K.448" or white noise as control while undergoing the cannulation procedure. The cannulation operator was blinded to the intervention, and the hypothesized superiority of music over white noise was concealed during explanations to the participants. The primary end point was the visual analog scale score for cannulation pain independently evaluated by participants.

The primary analysis was on the basis of the modified intention-to-treat principle. The median baseline visual analog scale pain score was 24.7 mm (interquartile range, 16.5-42.3). Median change of the visual analog scale pain score from the "no sound" to the music period was -2.7 mm (interquartile range, -9.2 to 3.6), whereas it was -0.3 mm (interquartile range, -5.8 to 4.5) from "no sound" to white noise. The visual analog scale pain score decreased when listening to music compared with white noise. (Adjusted difference of visual analog scale pain score: -12%; 95% confidence interval, -21 to -2; P=0.02.) There were no significant differences in the secondary outcomes of anxiety, BP, or stress assessed by salivary amylase (adjusted difference of visual analog scale anxiety score -8%, 95% confidence interval, -18 to 4; P=0.17). No intervention-related adverse events were reported.

Listening to music reduced cannulation pain in patients on hemodialysis, although there was no significant effect on anxiety, BP, or stress markers.

Continuous KRT: A Contemporary Review.

Clinical Journal of the American

AKI is a common complication of critical illness and is associated with substantial morbidity and risk of death. Continuous KRT comprises a spectru...

Patient Preferences for Waiting Time and Kidney Quality.

Clinical Journal of the American

Approximately 20% of deceased donor kidneys are discarded each year in the United States. Some of these kidneys could benefit patients who are waitlisted. Understanding patient preferences regarding accepting marginal-quality kidneys could help more of the currently discarded kidneys be transplanted.

This study uses a discrete choice experiment that presents a deceased donor kidney to patients who are waiting for, or have received, a kidney transplant. The choices involve trade-offs between accepting a kidney today or a future kidney. The options were designed experimentally to quantify the relative importance of kidney quality (expected graft survival and level of kidney function) and waiting time. Choices were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model and latent-class analysis.

In total, 605 participants completed the discrete choice experiment. Respondents made trade-offs between kidney quality and waiting time. The average respondent would accept a kidney today, with 6.5 years of expected graft survival (95% confidence interval, 5.9 to 7.0), to avoid waiting 2 additional years for a kidney, with 11 years of expected graft survival. Three patient-preference classes were identified. Class 1 was averse to additional waiting time, but still responsive to improvements in kidney quality. Class 2 was less willing to accept increases in waiting time for improvements in kidney quality. Class 3 was willing to accept increases in waiting time even for small improvements in kidney quality. Relative to class 1, respondents in class 3 were likely to be age ≤61 years and to be waitlisted before starting dialysis, and respondents in class 2 were more likely to be older, Black, not have a college degree, and have lower Karnofsky performance status.

Participants preferred accepting a lower-quality kidney in return for shorter waiting time, particularly those who were older and had lower functional status.

Overexpressed Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Neutrophils Suppresses Glomerular Damage in Crescentic Glomerulonephritis.

American Journal of

While angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) regulates blood pressure by producing angiotensin II as part of the renin-angiotensin system, we recently...

The Effect of Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy on Measures of Kidney Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clinical Journal of the American

Gender-affirming hormone therapy modifies body composition and lean muscle mass in transgender persons. We sought to characterize the change in serum creatinine, other kidney function biomarkers, and GFR in transgender persons initiating masculinizing and feminizing gender-affirming hormone therapy.

We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to September 16, 2020 for randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that evaluated the change in serum creatinine, other kidney function biomarkers, and GFR before and after the initiation of gender-affirming hormone therapy in adult transgender persons. Two reviewers independently screened and abstracted data, and disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the change in outcomes over follow-up of 3, 6, and 12 months.

Of the 4758 eligible studies, 26 met the inclusion criteria, including nine studies that recruited 488 transgender men and 593 women in which data were meta-analyzed. There was heterogeneity in study design, populations, gender-affirming hormone therapy routes, and dosing. At 12 months after initiating gender-affirming hormone therapy, serum creatinine increased by 0.15 mg/dl (95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.29) in 370 transgender men and decreased by -0.05 mg/dl (95% confidence interval, -0.16 to 0.05) in 361 transgender women. No study reported the effect of gender-affirming hormone therapy on albuminuria, proteinuria, cystatin C, or measured GFR.

Gender-affirming hormone therapy increases serum creatinine in transgender men and does not affect serum creatinine in transgender women. The effect on gender-affirming hormone therapy on other kidney function biomarkers and measured GFR is unknown.

Change in Kidney Function Biomarkers in Transgender Persons on Gender Affirmation Hormone Therapy-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, CRD42020214248.

Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment [SGNA] in Children on Chronic Dialysis- A Prospective Observational Study.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Nutritional assessment in children undergoing chronic dialysis is challenging as no single objective reference tool is available. There is a need to explore the application of the subjective global nutritional assessment (SGNA) tool in these children. This study assessed the nutritional status of children on chronic dialysis using SGNA, evaluated the utility of SGNA parameters in the longitudinal assessment of nutrition, and compared the SGNA tool with other nutritional measures.

Children 2-18 years of age on chronic dialysis for at least 1 month were prospectively studied over a period of 18 months with two follow-up visits at least 3 months apart. Malnutrition was diagnosed by SGNA (well-nourished, moderately, and severely malnourished), mid-arm circumference <5th centile for age and gender, and serum albumin <3.8 g/l at baseline and follow-up.

In 41 children on dialysis (age: 124.8 ± 32 months), 73% had moderate or severe malnutrition by SGNA. Height for age (P = 0.008), weight for height (P = 0.004), dietary intake (P = 0.025) functional capacity (P = 0.001), loss of subcutaneous fat (P < 0.001), and muscle wasting (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with the presence and severity of malnutrition. SGNA showed a poor agreement with MUAC and serum albumin. On follow-up, there was no significant change in the category of nutritional status (P = 0.63) and no individual SGNA parameter was associated with the presence or severity of malnutrition.

Two-thirds of the children on chronic dialysis were diagnosed with moderate to severe malnutrition by SGNA, while the majority remained in the same category of nutritional status on follow-up. Only half of the parameters used for assessment were strongly associated with the presence and severity of malnutrition. SGNA showed a poor agreement with objective nutritional measures and was not responsive in identifying a change in the nutritional status on follow-up.

Tunneled Femoral Vein Catheterization for Long-term Hemodialysis - Experience from a Tertiary Care Center.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Tunneled femoral vein hemodialysis catheters are used when all other options for permanent vascular access or jugular central vein catheter are exhausted. There is little published literature on the outcome and survival of tunneled femoral vein catheters.

Using a retrospective database, we identified all tunneled femoral dialysis catheters placed in the Nephrology department of our institute over a one-and-half year period. The outcomes, complications, and patency of these procedures was retrospectively evaluated.

Out of total 21 patients, 14 were female and 7 males with a mean age of 45 (range 17-73 years) and about one-fourth had diabetes mellitus (26%). Right-sided femoral catheter insertion was performed in 18 patients (85.7%) and 3 patients underwent left-sided insertion. Technical success of placement was 100% with no immediate complications. Median follow up period was 24 days. Primary catheter patency at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days were 81, 29, 18, and 12.5%, respectively. Three patients (15.7%) developed catheter-related deep venous thrombosis. Three catheters (14.2%) were removed for catheter-related infection and seven (33.3%) were removed because of absent blood flow.

Our experience with tunneled femoral catheters revealed low catheter survival and significant complications (deep venous thrombosis and malfunction/occlusion).

IgA Nephropathy with Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy with Spinal Cord Involvement in a Young Male: A Case Report.

Indian Journal of Nephrology

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological phenomenon commonly associated with kidney diseases, especially chron...