The latest medical research on COVID-19

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about covid-19 gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Network analysis-guided drug repurposing strategies targeting LPAR receptor in the interplay of COVID, Alzheimer's, and diabetes.

COVID 19

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has greatly affected global health. Emerging evidence suggests a complex interplay between Alz...

A cross-sectional and population-based study from primary care on post-COVID-19 conditions in non-hospitalized patients.

COVID 19

Current research on post-COVID-19 conditions (PCC) has focused on hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and often lacks a comparison group. This study assessed the prevalence of PCC in non-hospitalized COVID-19 primary care patients compared to primary care patients not diagnosed with COVID-19.

This cross-sectional, population-based study (n = 2539) analyzed and compared the prevalence of PCC in patients with a positive COVID-19 test (n = 1410) and patients with a negative COVID-19 test (n = 1129) never hospitalized for COVID-19 related conditions. Participants were identified using electronic health records and completed an electronic questionnaire, available in English and Spanish, including 54 potential post COVID-19 symptoms. Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association of PCC with COVID-19.

Post-COVID-19 conditions are prevalent in both groups, and significantly more prevalent in patients with COVID-19. Strong significant differences exist for the twenty most reported conditions, except for anxiety. Common conditions are fatigue (59.5% (COVID-19 positive) vs. 41.3% (COVID-19 negative); OR 2.15 [1.79-2.60]), difficulty sleeping (52.1% (positive) vs. 41.9% (negative); OR 1.42 [1.18-1.71]) and concentration problems (50.6% (positive) vs 28.5% (negative); OR 2.64 [2.17-3.22]). Similar disparities in prevalence are also observed after comparing two groups (positive vs. negative) by age, sex, time since testing, and race/ethnicity.

PCC is highly prevalent in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients in primary care. However, it is important to note that PCC strongly overlaps with common health symptoms seen in primary care, including fatigue, difficulty sleeping, and headaches, which makes the diagnosis of PCC in primary care even more challenging.

Nursing workforce plays a significant role in reducing COVID-19 deaths worldwide: A cross-sectional analysis of data from 178 countries.

COVID 19

Worldwide, the role of nursing workforce in reducing COVID-19 case fatality ratio (CFR) is analyzed with scatter plots, Pearson's r and nonparametr...

Tracking long-term services and supports rebalancing through workforce data.

COVID 19

To understand trends in the long-term services and supports (LTSS) workforce and assess workforce data as a measure of progress in shifting LTSS resources from institutional to community-based settings.

A sample of 336,316 LTSS workers and 3,015,284 people with LTSS needs over the study period was derived from American Community Survey data.

From 2008 to 2022, the percentage of the LTSS workforce employed in the community rose from 44% to 58%. Thirty states saw more than a 10 percentage point increase. From 2008 to 2013, the size of the community workforce expanded dramatically but has since stagnated. In contrast, the institutional workforce entered a long-term decline beginning in 2015 that accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. State fixed effects regressions showed that measures of workforce supply have a strong relationship with LTSS utilization measures for older adults, but not for younger people with disabilities.

Workforce data can serve as an effective measure of changes in LTSS utilization for older adults. This offers researchers and policymakers a useful alternative to administrative claims, bypassing threats to comparability from coding changes and the shift to managed care. Additional data is needed on workforce trends in services for younger LTSS consumers.

Rhinovirus infection and co-infection in children with severe acute respiratory infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

COVID 19

Rhinovirus causes respiratory tract infections in children and is found in co-infections. The objective of this research was to study the clinical ...

Nucleocapsid and Spike Protein-Based Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Assay Performance in the Minority and Rural Coronavirus Insights Study: Characteristics of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Populations with Health Disparities.

COVID 19

COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on Black, Hispanic, and other underserved, disadvantaged populations. Here anti-SARS-CoV-2 tests are characterized in disadvantaged patients to examine equivalence in US populations.

Underserved participant adults (age > 18 years) were enrolled before the availability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in Federal Qualified Health Centers in California, Florida, Louisiana, Illinois, and Ohio and contributed samples to the Minority and Rural Coronavirus Insights Study (MRCIS). A subset coined the MRCIS SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Cohort of 2365 participants was tested with the Roche Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay (Cobas e601). Five hundred ninety-five of these were also tested with the Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (VITROS-5600); 1770 were also tested with the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (ARCHITECT-2000). Assay-specific cutoffs classified negative/positive results.

Eight point four percent (199/2365) of the MRCIS SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Cohort was SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive at enrollment. Agreement between the Ortho/Roche and the Abbott/Roche antibody testing did not vary by enrollment RNA status. The Ortho (anti-spike protein) vs Roche (anti-nucleocapsid protein) comparison agreed substantially: kappa = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.57-0.69); overall agreement, 83%. However, agreement was even better for the Abbott vs Roche assays (both anti-nucleocapsid protein tests): kappa = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.87); overall agreement, 95%. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 comparisons stratified by demographic criteria demonstrated no significant variability in agreement by sex, race/ethnicity, or age.

Analytical agreement is 96.4% for anti-spike-protein vs anti-nucleocapsid-protein comparisons. Physiologically, seroreversion of anti-nucleocapsid reactivity after infection occurred in the disadvantaged population similarly to general populations. No anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays included demonstrated a clinically significant difference due to the demographics of the disadvantaged MRCIS SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Cohort.

Pediatricians' Career Satisfaction and Wellbeing by Sex Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

COVID 19

To compare pediatrician career satisfaction and wellbeing by sex during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic with prepandemic years using longitudinal survey data.

Data from a cohort study, the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatrician Life and Career Experience Study, were used to examine career satisfaction and wellbeing from 2012 to 2021 among 2002-2004 and 2009-2011 residency graduates (n = 1760). Mixed effects logistic regression, including key pediatrician characteristics, examined career satisfaction and wellbeing measures for sex (female vs male), pandemic year (2012-2019 vs 2020-2021), and their interaction effect. Adjusted predicted percentage values (PVs) were determined.

In total, 73.4% of participants identified as female. Adjusting for key pediatrician characteristics, differences were found by sex for satisfaction and 4 of 5 wellbeing measures, by pandemic year for 2 wellbeing measures, and the interaction of sex and pandemic year for 3 wellbeing measures. Female pediatricians reported higher levels of anxiety, sadness, and work stress, with greater differences during the pandemic. For example, female pediatricians (PV = 22.6, confidence interval [CI] = 21.0-24.3) were more likely than male pediatricians (PV = 14.2, CI = 12.0-16.4) to report anxiety during pre-pandemic years, and the difference between female pediatricians (PV = 29.3, CI = 26.7-32.0) and male pediatricians (PV = 12.4, CI = 9.3-15.5) increased during pandemic years (sex by pandemic year interaction, P < .001).

Compared with male pediatricians, female pediatricians reported worse anxiety, sadness, and stress at work, and the differences were more pronounced during the pandemic.

Pharmacological targeting of the hyper-inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2-infected K18-hACE2 mice using a cluster of differentiation 36 receptor modulator.

COVID 19

The scientific and medical community faced an unprecedented global health hazard that led to nearly 7 million deaths attributable to the rapid spre...

Relative effectiveness of bivalent COVID-19 vaccine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

COVID 19

The rapid development of COVID-19 bivalent vaccines (BVs) has encompassed both the original virus strains and the variant strain. However, the effectiveness of BVs is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of BVs.

Literature research was conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science up until November 4, 2023. Both randomized control trials and observational studies were considered for inclusion. Pooled estimates were calculated using a random effects model. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the risk of bias in cohort and case-control studies.

A total of 1,174 articles were reviewed and 22 eligible studies were included. All included studies were observational (15 cohort studies, 7 case-control studies). The total number of participants was 39,673,160, and the number of people vaccinated with BVs as an intervention group was 11,585,182. Two mRNA BVs were mainly involved, including the ancestral strain and the BA.1 or BA.4-5 variants. Meta-analysis results showed, compared with the monovalent vaccines (MVs), the relative effectiveness (rVE) of the BVs in COVID-19-associated infections/symptomatic infections, illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths was 30.90% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.43-53.37], 39.83% (95% CI, 27.34-52.32), 59.70% (95% CI, 44.08-75.32), and 72.23% (95% CI, 62.08-82.38), respectively. For those aged 50 years and older, BVs provided an additional 49.69% (95% CI, 41.44-57.94) effective protection compared with MVs. During the dominance period of the omicron XBB variant strain, BVs provided an additional 47.63% (95% CI, 27.45-67.82) effective protection compared with MVs.

Our findings show that the rVE of BVs in preventing COVID-19-associated infections, symptomatic infections, illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths is higher compared to MVs. Particularly for people over 50 years of age and during the Omicron variant XBB dominance phase, BVs provided superior protection. Therefore, BVs may have a broader application in the prevention and control of coronaviruses variant.

Making respiratory care safe for neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit staff: mitigation strategies and use of filters.

COVID 19

Many medical devices in pediatric and newborn intensive care units can potentially expose healthcare workers (HCWs) and others to transmission of respiratory and other viruses and bacteria. Such fomites include ventilators, nebulizers, and monitoring equipment.

We report the general, novel approach we have taken to identify and mitigate these risks and to protect HCWs, visitors and patients from exposure while maintaining the optimal performance of such respiratory equipment.

The approach combined a high level of personal protective equipment (PPE), strict hand hygiene, air filtration and air conditioning and other relevant viral risk mitigation guidelines. This report describes the experiences from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to provide a reference framework that can be applied generally. The steps we took consisted of auditing our equipment and processes to identify risk through sources of potentially contaminated gas that may contain aerosolized virus, seeking advice and liaising with suppliers/manufacturers, devising mitigation strategies using indirect and direct approaches (largely filtering), performing tests on equipment to verify proper function and the absence of negative impacts and the development and implementation of relevant procedures and practices. We had a multidisciplinary team to guide the process. We monitored daily for hospital-acquired infections among staff caring for SARS-CoV-2 patients.

Our approach was successful as we have continued to offer optimal intensive care to our patients, and we did not find any healthcare worker who was infected through the course of caring for patients at the bedside. The lessons learnt will be of benefit to future local outbreaks or pandemics.

Investigating the employment motivation, job satisfaction, and dissatisfaction of international high school teachers in China: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID 19

International education has become increasingly challenging to manage in an unpredictable world beset by pandemics, regional disputes, and evolving...