The latest medical research on Breast Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about breast cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Gut microbiota shed new light on the management of immune-related adverse events.

Thoracic Cancer

Immunotherapy has dramatically revolutionized the therapeutic landscape for patients with cancer. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors are now acc...

Esophagobronchial fistula successfully managed with a self-expandable metallic stent followed by fixation using a silicon Y stent.

Thoracic Cancer

Esophagobronchial fistula (EBF) formation is a severe complication of advanced thoracic malignancies, that affects the prognosis and quality of lif...

Omission of axillary surgery for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence with negative nodes after previous breast-conserving surgery: is it oncologically safe?

Breast Cancer

Salvage mastectomy is traditionally recommended for patients who developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in light of previous breast irradiation. However, it remains controversial whether surgical axillary staging (SAS) is necessary for IBTR patients with negative nodes. This study aimed to evaluate the oncologic safety of omitting SAS for IBTR.

We retrospectively identified patients who developed invasive IBTR with negative nodes after undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) from 2010 to 2018. Patterns of care in nodal staging were analyzed based on prior axillary staging status. Clinicopathologic characteristics and adjuvant treatment of the initial tumor, as well as the IBTR, were compared between the SAS and no SAS groups. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model were utilized to compare the locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) rates after IBTR removal between the two groups.

A total of 154 IBTR patients were eligible for final analysis. Compared to the no SAS group, SAS group was less likely to undergo ALND (15.1 vs 73.3%, p < 0.001) at initial BCS, had a longer recurrence interval (2.8 vs 2.1 years, p = 0.03), and were more likely to have discordant molecular subtype (35.8 vs 12.9%, p = 0.001) and different quadrant location (37.7 vs 19.8%, p = 0.02) with primary tumor. However, the extent of axillary staging did not affect systemic or radiation recommendations. In the subgroup of patients without previous ALND, the clinicopathologic characteristics were roughly comparable. No significant differences were observed in LRRFS, DMFS or OS between the two groups.

For node-negative IBTR patients, we observed selection bias on the basis of prior ALND, shorter recurrence interval, and concordant molecular subtype favoring no SAS but comparable LRRFS, DMFS, and OS. These results support a wider consideration of sparing SAS in the management of IBTR, especially in patients without previous ALND.

Postmenopausal overweight and breast cancer risk; results from the KARMA cohort.

Breast Cancer

To study the risk of incident breast cancer and subtype-specific breast cancer in relation to excess body weight in a contemporary Swedish prospective cohort study, The Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer, KARMA.

A total of 35,412 postmenopausal women attending mammography and included in the KARMA study provided baseline data on body mass index (BMI) and potential confounders. During eight years of follow-up, 822 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified.

Women with overweight (BMI ≥ 25-< 30 kg/m2) constituting 34% of the study cohort had an increased risk of incident breast cancer with an adjusted Hazard Ratio (HRadj) 1.19 (95% CI 1.01-1.4). A similar, however, non-significant, association was found for women with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) conferring 13% of the cohort, with a HRadj of 1.19 (95% CI 0.94-1.5). Overweight was associated with risk of node-negative disease (HRadj 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.58), whereas obesity was associated with node-positive disease (HRadj 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.48). Both overweight and obesity were associated with risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease (HRadj 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44 and HRadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.71, respectively), and low-grade tumors (HRadj 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.54, and HRadj 1.40, 95% CI 1.05-1.86, respectively). Finally, obesity was associated with ER+HER2 negative disease (HRadj 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.78) and similarly luminal A tumors (HRadj 1.43, 95% CI 1.02-2.01).

Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, specifically ER+, low-grade, and for obesity, node-positive, high-risk breast cancer indicating a further need for risk communication and preventive programs.

USP17L2-SIRT7 axis regulates DNA damage repair and chemoresistance in breast cancer cells.

Breast Cancer

Sirtuin7 (SIRT7), as a member of the sirtuin and NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme family, plays an important role in regulating cellular metabolism, stress responses, tumorigenesis, and aging. Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible post-translational modifications that regulate protein stability, enzyme activity, protein-protein interactions, and cellular signaling transduction. However, whether SIRT7 is regulated by deubiquitination signaling is unclear. This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of SIRT7 via deubiquitination signaling.

USP17L2 or SIRT7-targeting shRNAs were used to deplete USP17L2 or SIRT7. Western blot was applied to assess the effects of USP17L2 or SIRT7 depletion. A co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect the interaction relationship. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were applied to assess the viability of breast cancer cells. An immunohistochemistry assay was employed to detect the protein level in samples from breast cancer patients, and the TCGA database was applied to analyze the survival rate of breast cancer patients. Statistical analyses were performed with the Student's t test (two-tailed unpaired) and χ2 test.

We find that the deubiquitinase USP17L2 interacts with and deubiquitinates SIRT7, thereby increasing SIRT7 protein stability. In addition, USP17L2 regulates DNA damage repair through SIRT7. Furthermore, SIRT7 polyubiquitination is increased by knocking down of USP17L2, which leads to cancer cells sensitizing to chemotherapy. In breast cancer patient samples, high expression of USP17L2 is correlated with increased levels of SIRT7 protein. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the USP17L2-SIRT7 axis is the new regulator in DNA damage response and chemo-response, suggesting that USP17L2 may be a prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Our results highlighted that USP17L2 regulates the chemoresistance of breast cancer cells in a SIRT7-dependent manner. Moreover, the role of USP17L2 as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer and a prognostic factor for patients was elucidated.

What does radiomics do in PD-L1 blockade therapy of NSCLC patients?

Thoracic Cancer

With the in-depth understanding of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PD-L1 has become a vital immunot...

Incident comorbidities after tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor therapy in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of women with breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

As survival with early-stage, hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast has improved, it is essential to understand the long-term risks of incident comorbidities with different adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) options.

Women treated with tamoxifen and/or an aromatase inhibitor (AI) for stages 1-3, HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer from 2000 to 2016 in either of two healthcare systems in the San Francisco Bay Area were included. We considered the following comorbidities: cerebrovascular accidents, congestive heart failure, dementia, depression/anxiety, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoporosis/fracture, peripheral vascular disease, and venous thromboembolism. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were fit to time-to-new-diagnosis for each comorbidity, accounting for death as a competing risk. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tamoxifen versus AI were reported.

Among 2,902 analyzed patients, the median age at diagnosis was 58.3 years; 67.6% were non-Hispanic white, 22.3% Asian, 7.5% Hispanic, and 1.7% non-Hispanic Black. Half (54.7%) used AIs only, 27.6% used tamoxifen only and 17.7% used both tamoxifen and AIs sequentially. Tamoxifen was associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis than AI (multivariable HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62). No other incident comorbidity risk varied between users of tamoxifen versus AIs.

In a diverse, multi-institutional, contemporary breast cancer cohort, the only incident comorbidity that differed between ET options was osteoporosis, a known side effect of AIs. These results may inform clinical decision-making about ET, and reassure patients who have bothersome symptoms on AIs that they are unlikely to develop worse comorbidities if they switch to tamoxifen.

Modulation of Breast Cancer Cell FASN Expression by Obesity-Related Systemic Factors.

Breast Cancer

The objective of this study is to determine the impact of exposure to obesity-related systemic factors on fatty acid synthase enzyme (FASN) expression in breast cancer cells.

MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to sera from patients having obesity or not having obesity and subjected to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Subsequent MTT and colony-forming assays using both MCF-7 and T-47D cells exposed to sera and treated with or without FASN inhibitor, TVB-3166, were used. MCF-7 cells were then treated with insulin and the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) processing inhibitor, betulin, prior to analysis of FASN expression by quantitative RT-qPCR and western blot. Insulin-induced SREBP-FASN promoter binding was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with an anti-SREBP antibody.

In response to sera exposure (body mass index [BMI] >30) there was an increase in FASN expression in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with the FASN inhibitor, TVB-3166, resulted in a decreased breast cancer cell survival and proliferation while increasing apoptosis upon sera exposure (BMI >30). Insulin-exposed MCF-7 cells exhibited an increased FASN messenger RNA and protein expression, which is abrogated upon SREBP inhibition. In addition, insulin exposure induced enhanced SREBP binding to the FASN promoter.

Our results implicate FASN as a potential mediator of obesity-induced breast cancer aggression and a therapeutic target of patients with obesity-induced breast cancer.

Racial inequities in second-line treatment and overall survival among patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

Black women in the USA have a higher incidence and mortality of metastatic breast cancer (mBC) than White women, while Hispanic women have lower rates. Previous studies have focused on first-line (1L) treatment, but little is known about racial differences in treatment beyond 1L and their impact on outcomes.

This analysis utilized data from an electronic health record derived de-identified database and included patients with HR+HER2- mBC initiating 2L treatment (including CDK4/6-inhibitor [CDKi]-based, endocrine monotherapy, everolimus combination therapy, and chemotherapy and other systemic therapies) between 2/3/2015 and 7/31/2021. Real-world overall survival (rwOS) was defined as time from 2L initiation to death. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the likelihood of 2L treatment between race/ethnicity groups. Median rwOS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

Among all patients who received 2L, non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic/Latino patients were less likely to receive 2L CDKi compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients (36%, 39% vs 42%, respectively). Median rwOS was 20.4, 37.6, and 25.3 months, in NHB, Hispanic/Latino and NHW patients, respectively. The rwOS remained poorer among NHB patients after adjustment (HR = 1.16; p = 0.009). In stratified analysis, adjusted rwOS was similar between NHB and NHW patients among those who received 1L CDKi.

These findings suggest that among patients with HR+HER2- mBC, NHB patients had worse survival beyond front-line setting, mainly among the subset of women who did not receive CDKi at 1L. This inequities in rwOS between race/ethnicity groups was not observed among patients who received 1L CDKi.

PD-L1 protein expression in relation to recurrence score values in early-stage ER + breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

We assessed associations between PD-L1 protein expression, RS, tumor grade, and stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) count in early-stage ER + cancers.

FFPE tissue blocks of 213 patients with RS in 2012-2017 were identified. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry was performed with SP142 assay, cases with ≥ 1% tumor-infiltrating immune cell positivity in the tumor area were considered PD-L1 + . TIL scores were determined following the international TIL counting guidelines. PD-L1 expression positivity rates were compared across RS (< 11, 11-25, > 25) and TIL categories (< 10%, 10-29%, > 30%), and tumor grade using Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression.

PD-L1 and TIL results were available for 201 and 203 patients. Overall, 53% of cases were PD-L1 +. PD-L1 expression was higher among cases with RS > 25, versus RS < 11 (p = 0.00019) and RS 11-25 (p = 0.0017). PD-L1 positivity also correlated with TIL score, tumor grade, and tumor size. Among cancers with TIL > 30%, 92% were PD-L1 + versus 44% PD-L1 + among TIL < 10% (p = 2.8 × 10-6). Grade 3 cancers had higher PD-L1 positivity (79% PD-L1 +) versus grade 2 (49% PD-L1 +) or 1 tumors (48% PD-L1 +) (p = 0.00047). T2 and T3 tumors had more frequent PD-L1 positivity (67% and 83%, respectively) versus T1 cancers (46%) (p = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, only TIL and RS remained as independent predictors of PD-L1 positivity.

PD-L1 expression is significantly more frequent and higher in larger tumors (T2, T3), grade 3 cancers, and in cancers with RS > 25. PD-L1 expression also correlates with TIL score.

Stabilization of c-Myc by the atypical cell cycle regulator, Spy1, decreases efficacy of breast cancer treatments.

Breast Cancer

c-Myc is frequently upregulated in breast cancers, however, targeting c-Myc has proven to be a challenge. Targeting of downstream mediators of c-Myc, such as the 'cyclin-like' cell cycle regulator Spy1, may be a viable therapeutic option in a subset of breast cancer subtypes.

Mouse mammary tumor cells isolated from MMTV-Myc mice and human breast cancer cell lines were used to manipulate Spy1 levels followed by tamoxifen or chemotherapeutic treatment with a variety of endpoints. Patient samples from TNBC patients were obtained and constructed into a TMA and stained for c-Myc and Spy1 protein levels.

Over time, MMTV-Myc cells show a decreased response to tamoxifen treatment with increasing levels of Spy1 in the tamoxifen-resistant cells. shRNA against Spy1 re-establishes tamoxifen sensitivity. Spy1 was found to be highly elevated in human TNBC cell and patient samples, correlating to c-Myc protein levels. c-Myc was found to be stabilized by Spy1 and knocking down Spy1 in TNBC cells shows a significant increase in response to chemotherapy treatments.

Understanding the interplay between protein expression level and response to treatment is a critical factor in developing novel treatment options for breast cancer patients. These data have shown a connection between Spy1 and c-Myc protein levels in more aggressive breast cancer cells and patient samples. Furthermore, targeting c-Myc has proven difficult, these data suggest targeting Spy1 even when c-Myc is elevated can confer an advantage to current chemotherapies.

Cost-effectiveness of clinical breast examination screening programme among HER2-positive breast cancer patients: a modelling study.

Breast Cancer

For many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), breast cancer (BC) screening based on mammography is not a viable option. Clinical breast examination (CBE) may represent a pragmatic and cost-effective alternative. This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of CBE screening programme among a patient group for whom its cost-effectiveness is likely to be least evident (HER2-positive patients) and discuss the wider implications for BC screening in LMICs.

A Markov model was used to examine clinical and economic outcomes over a life-time horizon from the patient, public payer, and healthcare sector perspective. HER2-positive patients entered the model at either disease-free survival or metastatic BC state. The downstaging effect of CBE determined the starting probabilities in the no-screening and screening scenarios. The model used a monthly cycle length, with half-cycle correction. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 1.5% annually.

Compared with no-screening, the cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year gained for the CBE screening programme was $1801, $2381, and $4179 from three mentioned perspectives, respectively. The finding of cost-effectiveness remained robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. The parameters to which ICERs are most sensitive are average age of cohorts, reduction in proportion of metastatic patients at diagnosis, cost of CBE, and BC detection rate of the programme.

For HER2-positive patients and compared with no-screening, CBE screening programme in Vietnam is cost-effective from all investigated perspectives. CBE is a 'good value' intervention and should be considered for implementation throughout Vietnam as well as in LMICs where mammography is not feasible.