The latest medical research on Hospital

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about hospital gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Perinatal mortality and its predictors in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Eastern Ethiopia: population-based prospective study from 2015 to 2020.

BMJ Open

Perinatal mortality is an important outcome indicator for newborn care and directly mirrors the quality of prenatal, intra partum and newborn care. Therefore, this study was aimed at estimating perinatal mortality and its predictors in Eastern Ethiopia using data from Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS).

Perinatal mortality rate was estimated for each year of cohort and the cumulative of 6 years. Predictors of perinatal mortality are identified.

From a total of 29 306 births 783 (26.72 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI 24.88 to 28.66) deaths were occurred during perinatal period. Rural residence (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.43; 95% CI 2.04 to 5.76), birth weight (low birth weight, AOR=3.98; 95% CI 3.04 to 5.20; big birth weight, AOR=2.51; 95% CI 1.76 to 3.57), not having antenatal care (ANC) (AOR=1.67; 95% CI 1.29 to 2.17) were associated with higher odds of perinatal mortality whereas the parity (multipara, AOR=0.46; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.62; grand multipara, AOR=0.31; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.47) was associated with lower odds of perinatal mortality.

The study revealed relatively high perinatal mortality rate. Place of residence, ANC, parity and birth weight were identified as predictors of perinatal mortality. Devising strategies that enhance access to and utilisations of ANC services with due emphasis for rural residents, primipara mothers and newborn with low and big birth weights may be crucial for reducing perinatal mortality.

Landscaping the evidence of intimate partner violence and postpartum depression: a systematic review.

BMJ Open

To assess the evidence of the association between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum depression. IPV during pregnancy can have immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences for the family. Therefore, it has been hypothesised that IPV may affect the risk of developing postpartum depression.

A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Global Health Library, Scopus and Google scholar were searched for published studies without restrictions on language, time or study design (up to May 2020). Studies were included if they assessed postpartum depression using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (cut-off≥10), among women who had been exposed to IPV (emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse). The quality of studies was judged according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.

A total of 33 studies were included in the review (participants n=131 131). The majority of studies found an association between exposure to IPV and the development of signs of postpartum depression. Overall, studies measured both exposure and outcome in various ways and controlled for a vast number of different confounders. Thirty percent of the studies were set in low-income and lower-middle-income countries while the rest were set in upper-middle-income and high-income countries and the association did not differ across settings. Among the studies reporting adjusted OR (aOR) (n=26), the significant aOR ranged between 1.18 and 6.87 (95% CI 1.12 to 11.78). The majority of the studies were judged as 'good quality' (n=20/33).

We found evidence of an association between exposure to IPV and the development of signs of postpartum depression. Meta-analysis or individual patient data meta-analysis is required to quantify the magnitude of the association between IPV and postpartum depression.


Controlled human infection with Neisseria lactamica in late pregnancy to measure horizontal transmission and microbiome changes in mother-neonate pairs: a single-arm interventional pilot study protocol.

BMJ Open


20 healthy pregnant women will receive nasal inoculation with N. lactamica (wild type strain Y92-1009) at 36-38 weeks gestation. Upper respiratory samples, as well as optional breastmilk, umbilical cord blood and infant venous blood samples, will be collected from mother-infant pairs over 1 month post partum. We will assess safety, N. lactamica colonisation (by targeted PCR) and longitudinal microevolution (by whole genome sequencing), and microbiome evolution (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing).

Cross-sectional internet survey exploring women's knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding urinary tract infection-related symptoms in the Netherlands.

BMJ Open

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most prevalent cause for women to consult a general practitioner (GP) and are commonly treated with (broad-spectrum) empirical antibiotics, even though 50% of UTIs are self-limiting. In this study, we aim to explore women's attitudes and experiences regarding UTIs, in order to determine patients' willingness to accept delayed antibiotic prescriptions.

We obtained 1476 responses, of which 975 were eligible for analysis.

We asked women about their knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding UTI-related symptoms. Participants ranked 'confirmation of diagnosis' (43.8%) as the most important reason to consult a GP with urinary symptoms, followed by 'pain relief' (32%), and 'antibiotic prescription' (14.3%). For treatment, 71% of participants reported that their GP prescribed immediate antibiotics, while only 3% received a delayed antibiotic prescription and 1% was advised pain medication. Furthermore, 50% of respondents were aware of the possible self-limiting course of UTIs and 70% would be willing to accept delayed antibiotic treatment, even if a certain diagnosis of UTI was established. Willingness to delay was lower in experienced patients compared to inexperienced patients.

Women are quite receptive to delayed antibiotics as an alternative to immediate antibiotics for UTIs or urinary symptoms. GPs should consider discussing delayed antibiotic treatment more often with women presenting with urinary symptoms.

Effects of switching from a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to oral semaglutide on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparison study (the SWITCH-SEMA 2 study).

BMJ Open

UMIN000045270 in the University Hospital Medical Information Network; jRCT1011210032 in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials.

This study is a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, parallel-group trial. In total, 172 participants with T2D who have been treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor for more than 12 weeks and who have a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7.0%-9.9% will be randomised to continue using their existing DPP-4 inhibitor or switch to oral semaglutide for 24 weeks. Biochemical analyses and physical assessment will be performed, and adverse events will be recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. The primary endpoint will be the effect of oral semaglutide on the change in HbA1c. The secondary endpoints will be the mean changes in body weight, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, the relationship between improvement of metabolic parameters including HbA1c and patient background characteristics, side effects and other laboratory parameters.

Maternal and neonatal peripartum factors associated with late initiation of breast feeding in Bangladesh: a secondary analysis.

BMJ Open

Late initiation of breast feeding (LIBF) is associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to assess the association between intrapartum, early postpartum and neonatal factors, and LIBF in Bangladesh.

Prevalence and associated factors of LIBF.

The prevalence of LIBF was 18.5%. Factors significantly associated with LIBF in multivariable logistic regression were assisted vaginal delivery (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.17, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.27); delivery by caesarean section (AOR 9.67, 95% CI 7.21 to 12.96); maternal health problems during childbirth (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00); preterm newborns (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.78); newborns moved slowly immediately after birth (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94); and sick newborns (AOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29).

Findings from this study suggest that to reduce LIBF, peripartum maternal and neonatal complications should be prevented and treated.


Divergent decennial trends in mental health according to age reveal poorer mental health for young people: repeated cross-sectional population-based surveys from the HUNT Study, Norway.

BMJ Open

Public health trends are formed by political, economic, historical and cultural factors in society. The aim of this paper was to describe overall changes in mental health among adolescents and adults in a Norwegian population over the three last decades and discuss some potential explanations for these changes.

Prevalence estimates of subjective anxiety and depression symptoms stratified by age and gender were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-5 for adolescents and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for adults.

Adolescents' and young adults' mental distress increased sharply, especially between 2006-2008 and 2017-2019. However, depressive symptoms instead declined among adults aged 60 and over and anxiety symptoms remained largely unchanged in these groups.

Our trend data from the HUNT Study in Norway indicate poorer mental health among adolescents and young adults that we suggest are related to relevant changes in young people's living conditions and behaviour, including the increased influence of screen-based media.

Long-term ocular and visual outcomes following symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital CMV infection: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open

This is not a clinical trial, but the protocol has been registered: CRD42021284678 (PROSPERO).

A systematic review and meta-analysis (pending appropriate data for analysis) of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies will be conducted. The PubMed, Embase and CINAHL databases will be searched up to 29 March 2022 without date or language restrictions. Studies will be screened by at least two independent reviewers. Methodological quality of included studies will be assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool. The primary outcome measures will be incidence and/or prevalence of vision impairment or ophthalmic disorders in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic cCMV infection. A narrative synthesis will be conducted for all included studies. The overall prevalence will be estimated by pooling data using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity between studies will be estimated using Cochran's Q and the I2 statistics. Egger's test will be used to assess for publication bias.

Prevalence, geographical distribution and factors associated with pentavalent vaccine zero dose status among children in Sindh, Pakistan: analysis of data from the 2017 and 2018 birth cohorts enrolled in the provincial electronic immunisation registry.

BMJ Open

To estimate the prevalence of zero dose children (who have not received any dose of pentavalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B) vaccine by their first birthday) among those who interacted with the immunisation system in Sindh, Pakistan along with their sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors.

The primary outcome measure was zero dose status among enrolled children. Logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors associated with the zero dose status.

Out of 1 467 975 children enrolled in the ZM-EIR in Sindh, 10.6% (154 881/1 467 975) were zero dose. There were sharp inequities across the 27 districts. Zero dose children had a lower proportion of hospital births (28.5% vs 34.0%; difference 5.5 percentage points (pp) (95% CI 5.26 to 5.74); p<0.001) and higher prevalence from slums (49.5% vs 42.3%; difference 7.2 pp (95% CI 6.93 to 7.46); p<0.001), compared with non-zero dose children. Children residing in urban compared with rural areas were at a higher risk (relative risk (RR): 1.20; p<0.001; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.22), while children with educated compared with uneducated mothers were at a lower risk of being zero dose (RR: 0.47-0.96; p<0.001; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.98).

Despite interacting with the immunisation system, 1 out of 10 children enrolled in the ZM-EIR in Sindh were zero dose. It is crucial to monitor the prevalence of zero dose children and investigate their characteristics and risk factors to effectively reach and follow-up with them.

Video recording as an objective assessment tool of health worker performance in neonatal resuscitation at a district hospital in Pemba, Tanzania: a feasibility study.

BMJ Open

To assess the feasibility of using video recordings of neonatal resuscitation (NR) to evaluate the quality of care in a low-resource district hospital.

Motion-triggered cameras were mounted on resuscitation tables and provided recordings that were analysed for quality of care indicators based on the national NR algorithm. Assessment of feasibility was conducted using Bowen's 8-point framework for feasibility studies.

91% (126 of 139) of women and 96% (24 of 26) of health workers were comfortable or very comfortable with the video recordings. Of 139 newborns, 8 underwent resuscitation with bag and mask ventilation. In resuscitations, heat loss prevention measures were not performed in half of the cases (four of eight), clearing the airway was not performed correctly in five of eight cases, and all newborns were suctioned vigorously and repeatedly, even when not indicated. In a quarter (two of eight) of cases, the newborn's head was not positioned correctly. Additionally, two of the eight newborns needing ventilation were not ventilated within the first minute of life. In none of the eight cases did ventilation appear to be performed effectively.

It proved feasible to use video recordings to assess quality of care during NR in a low-resource setting, and the method was considered acceptable for the delivering women and health workers. Recordings of eight resuscitations all demonstrated deviations from NR guidelines.

Stroke volume variation for predicting responsiveness to fluid therapy in patients undergoing cardiac and thoracic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open

To evaluate the reliability of stroke volume variation (SVV) for predicting responsiveness to fluid therapy in patients undergoing cardiac and thoracic surgery.

Quality of included studies were assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. We conducted subgroup analysis according to different anaesthesia and surgical methods with Stata V.14.0, Review Manager V.5.3 and R V.3.6.3. We used random-effects model to pool sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio with 95% CI. The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic was calculated.

Among the 20 relevant studies, 7 were conducted during thoracic surgery, 8 were conducted during cardiac surgery and the remaining 5 were conducted in intensive critical unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery. Data from 854 patients accepting mechanical ventilation were included in our systematic review. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.83) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.46 to 0.76) in the thoracic surgery group, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.77) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.82) in the cardiac surgery group, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.96) and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74 to 0.92) in cardiac ICU group. The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.77), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77 to 0.83) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.92), respectively. Results of subgroup of FloTrac/Vigileo system (AUC=0.80, Youden index=0.38) and large tidal volume (AUC=0.81, Youden index=0.48) in thoracic surgery, colloid (AUC=0.85, Youden index=0.55) and postoperation (AUC=0.85, Youden index=0.63) in cardiac surgery, passive leg raising (AUC=0.90, Youden index=0.72) in cardiac ICU were reliable.

SVV had good predictive performance in cardiac surgery or ICU after cardiac surgery and had moderate predictive performance in thoracic surgery. Nevertheless, technical and clinical variables may affect the predictive value potentially.

Effect of a brief intervention with small financial incentives on alcohol consumption in China: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open


This study is a three-arm, single-blinded, pragmatic, individually randomised controlled trial with follow-ups at 1,2 and 3 months after randomisation. A total of 440 daily drinkers living in Xichang will be recruited and divided into three groups: brief intervention group, financial incentive group and control group. All participants will receive a urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) test, which detects alcohol consumption in the past 80 hours. Additionally, participants in the brief intervention group will receive three free counselling sessions alongside multimedia messages on the topic of alcohol consumption after each session. The participants in the financial incentive group will receive the same interventions as well as cash incentives according to the results of the EtG test. The primary outcomes are the self-reported drinking quantity, binge drinking frequency, drinking intensity and the proportion of participants who pass the EtG test.