The latest medical research on Eye Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about eye cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Two-year longitudinal study on changes in thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without visual impairment or diabetic retinopathy.

Eye Research

To study changes in the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without visual impairment or diabetic retinopathy (DR) after 2 years of follow-up and analyze the associated factors.

Thirty-seven children with T1DM were enrolled in this study. All children underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation that included swept-source optical coherence tomography at baseline and follow-up. Changes in RNFL and GCL thickness were compared among the children at baseline and follow-up.

The peripapillary RNFL thickness was greater in the temporal (inner, p = 0.015; outer, p = 0.004) and inner superior (p = 0.043) sectors in the follow-up group than in the baseline group. The macular RNFL thickness in the fovea, inner nasal sector, inner inferior sector, and outer ring and the average thickness (all p < 0.05) were greater in the follow-up group than in the baseline group. The peripapillary GCL thickness decreased in the temporal sector (inner, p = 0.049; outer, p = 0.041) and increased in the inner nasal sector (p = 0.006) in the follow-up group compared with the baseline group, and the thickness of the inner temporal, inner superior, inner inferior, outer nasal, and outer inferior sectors and average thickness in the macula were lower in the follow-up group than in the baseline group (all p < 0.05). The total retinal thickness around optic disc in the follow-up group increased in the inner superior sectors (p = 0.006). The total retinal thickness of the macula decreased in inner temporal sector, inner superior sector and outer nasal sector, and increased in outer superior sector (all p < 0.05).

Retinal neurodegenerative changes preceded microvascular changes in children with T1DM in the early stage. Peripapillary RNFL thickness in the nasal sector may be lower in children with T1DM without visual impairment or other ocular pathologies.

Evaluation of a Novel Non-Diffractive Extended Depth of Focus Intraocular Lens - First Results from a Prospective Study.

Eye Research

To evaluate a novel hydrophobic, non-diffractive, extended depth of focus (EDOF) intraocular lens (IOL) design in comparison to two monofocal aspheric lenses.

Inclusion criteria for this prospective, monocentric cohort study were opacification of the crystalline lens and patients' wishes for surgery. In the case of the EDOF IOL, patients asked for a presbyopia correction. All patients received surgery on both eyes. Corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UCDVA), uncorrected and distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA, DCIVA) and defocus curves (all monocular and binocular) were compared three months postoperatively.

Fifty-six eyes were implanted with an EDOF IOL (LuxSmartTM, Bausch & Lomb GmbH, Berlin, Germany), 50 eyes with a monofocal aspheric IOL: 32 eyes with a clear IOL (Polylens® AS 61, Polytech Domilens, Roßdorf, Germany), 16 eyes with a yellow IOL (iSert® 251, Hoya Surgical Optics GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany). Three months postoperatively, UCDVA was comparable with the EDOF IOL, versus the monofocal IOL (P > 0.9). Binocular DCIVA in the EDOF IOL was significantly higher than in the monofocal IOL (P = 0.001). Monocular DCIVA better than 20/23 Snellen was achieved in 10% with the monofocal IOL and in 68% (P < 0.0001) with the EDOF IOL. Defocus curves showed a depth of focus at 20/23 Snellen of 1.6 vs. 0.83 diopters (D) in the EDOF IOL, vs. the monofocal IOL. No patient reported halos or starbursts in non-standardized questioning.

This non-diffractive EDOF IOL provided comparably high UCDVA and significantly higher DCIVA than the mono-focal lenses, causing only mild optical phenomena.

Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Inhibits Corneal Blood and Lymphatic Vessels Temporarily in Alkali-Burned Rabbits.

Eye Research

This study aimed to explore whether corneal cross-linking (CXL) could regress corneal blood vessels (CBV) and corneal lymphatic vessels (CLV) in alkali-burned rabbits.

A total of 80 rabbits 2-3 months old weighing 1.5-2.0 kg were randomly divided into four groups: CXL7 group; CTL7 group; CXL14 group; and CTL14 group. Then, 3% sodium pentobarbital 1 ml/kg and tetracaine eye drop 5 g/L were administered before surgery. NaOH 2 mol/L was topically applied to the central cornea to establish the alkali burning model. Then CXL was administered within 2 h in groups CXL7 and CXL14. Corneal opacity and edema, CBV and CLV volume, cluster differentiation 31 (CD31), and lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE-1) expression levels were analyzed on days 7 and 14.

CXL reduced cornea opacity, CNV, and CLV volumes on day 7 in alkali-burned rabbits. However, CNV and CLV volumes were increased on day 14. CXL also showed down- and upregulation of CD31 and LYVE-1 expression levels on days 7 and 14, respectively.

CXL effectively regulated CBV and CLV in alkali-burned rabbits. The transient angioregression and lymphangioregression induced by CXL may be potentially helpful in vascularized high-risk eyes.

Gonioscopy-Assisted Transluminal Trabeculotomy; A Review.

Eye Research

Gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) is a novel minimally invasive glaucoma surgery that allows the incision of the inner wall of ...

Predictors of Vision Loss after Surgery for Macula-Sparing Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

Eye Research

To determine factors associated with loss of good vision (defined as Snellen visual acuity [VA] < 20/40) after surgery among eyes presenting with macula-on primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with initial VA ≥20/40.

Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study of eyes undergoing scleral buckle (SB), pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), or combined pars plana vitrectomy/scleral buckle (PPV/SB) for non-complex macula-on RRD with initial VA ≥20/40.

Among 646 eyes with macula-on RRDs with initial VA ≥20/40, 106 (16.4%) had VA <20/40 (i.e. lost good vision) at final follow-up. Eyes losing good vision had slightly worse pre-operative logMAR VA (mean 0.15 ± 0.10 [20/28]) compared to eyes that preserved good vision (mean 0.11 ± 0.10 [20/26]) (p = 0.004). RRDs extending greater than 6 clock-hours were more likely to lose good vision than smaller detachments (multivariate OR 4.57 [95% CI 1.44-14.51]; p = 0.0099). Compared to eyes repaired with SB alone, eyes undergoing PPV (multivariate OR 7.22 [95% CI 2.10-24.90]; p = 0.0017) or PPV/SB (multivariate OR 10.74 [95% CI 3.20-36.11]; p = 0.0001) were each more likely to lose good vision. Eyes requiring further RRD-related (multivariate OR 8.64 [95% CI 1.47-50.66]; p < 0.017) and non-RRD related vitreoretinal surgery (multivariate OR 14.35 [95% CI 5.39-38.21]; p <0.0001) were more likely to lose good vision.

Among macula-on RRDs, loss of good vision was associated with worse vision on presentation, vitrectomy-based procedures, greater extent of detachment, and lack of single surgery success. Understanding predictors of visual outcome in macula-on RRD repair may guide pre-operative counseling regarding visual prognosis.

Orbital MRI 3D Reconstruction Based on Volume Rendering in Evaluating Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

Eye Research

To perform orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction based on volume rendering and analyse changes in soft tissues in dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) patients.

Using MRI 3D reconstruction based on volume rendering, orbital model parameters were compared with measurements made by observers. The fat volume (FV) and extraocular rectus muscle volume (EOMV) of subjects were calculated via MRI 3D reconstruction. Visual functions were assessed for all thyroid-associated ophthalmology (TAO) patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analysed to evaluate DON in soft tissues. Correlations between visual function parameters and 3D reconstruction measurement were analysed.

All interclass correlation coefficients between the 3D reconstruction and observer measurements were above 0.950. A total of 21 healthy orbits, 38 TAO orbits without DON and 23 TAO orbits with DON were studied. The FV and EOMV were greater in the DON group than in the healthy and non-DON groups (all p < 0.05). EOM enlargement contributed the most to the DON (odds ratio = 2.79, 95% confidence interval = 1.53, 5.07). The areas under the ROC curves of the reconstruction measurements were as follows: EOMV, 0.850; FV, 0.674; whole volume, 0.726; and EOMV/FV, 0.712. Visual function impairment was positively associated with EOM enlargement. When the EOMV was above 4.035 ml, the occurrence of DON was probable.

MRI 3D reconstruction based on volume rendering is a reliable method for analysing orbital soft tissues. A larger the EOMV was the most relevant factor in DON.

AMPK activation enhances neutrophil's fungicidal activity in vitro and improves the clinical outcome of Fusarium solani keratitis in vivo.

Eye Research

To determine whether Activated 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation enhances Fusarium solani (F.solani) fungicidal capacity of neutrophils.

The expression of AMPK and phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK) proteins was tested using Western Blot. Plate counting studied the effects of the fungicidal capacity of neutrophils enhanced by AMPK activation. Phagocytized spores by neutrophils were assessed by immunostaining, and inhibited hyphal growth images were captured by JULI Stage real-time cell history recorder. Flow cytometry assay tested Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and the percentage of apoptosis neutrophils. ROS Assay Kit also tested ROS production at different time points. The F.solani keratitis murine model was established, and slit-lamp microscopy captured corneal photographs.

Our experiments were divided into the following groups. Neutrophils (N), neutrophils + spores (N + S), neutrophils + spores+ 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) (N + S+A), neutrophils + spores + Compound C (N + S+C). AMPK activator AICAR significantly increased the expression of p-AMPK in neutrophils. The plate counting experiment showed that the number of colonies in the N + S+A was significantly less than in the N + S group. Immunostaining results showed phagocytized spores were significantly increased in the N + S+A group compared with the N + S group. Captured photographs by real-time cell history recorder camera showed F.solani hyphal growth in the N + S+A group was significantly inhibited than in the N + S group. ROS release in the N + S+A group was significantly higher in the N + S+A group than in other groups. The percentage of apoptosis neutrophils in the N + S+A group was decreased than in the N + S group. Captured photographs by slit-lamp showed AICAR eye drop treatment alleviated the severity and decreased clinical score at 12 and 24 hours post-infection (h.p.i).

AMPK activation enhances the efficacy of neutrophils in killing F.solani in vitro and in vivo.

NEDD9 Mediates the FAK/Src Signaling Pathway to Promote the Adhesion of Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells after Dexamethasone Treatment.

Eye Research

The differential gene expression of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells after dexamethasone (Dex) treatment was confirmed through gene expression profiling. However, the regulatory mechanism of NEDD9 expression in HTM cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated NEDD9 expression in HTM cells and gained a better understanding of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma (GIG) pathophysiology.

The Gene Expression Omnibus database and GEO2R tool were used to identify differentially expressed genes in the GSE37474 and GSE124114 datasets, and NEDD9 gene expression was found to be upregulated. Human corneoscleral segments and HTM cells were treated with 100 nM Dex or an equal volume of ethanol (0.01%) for 7 days. NEDD9 expression in TM tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and NEED9 expression in HTM cells was confirmed by RT-qPCR and western blotting. HTM cell adhesive behaviors were assessed with a cell adhesion detection kit. NEDD9 expression was knocked down with short hairpin RNA in HTM cells, and FAK/Src signaling pathway activation was found to be regulated by NEDD9.

After 7 days of HTM cell Dex treatment, NEDD9 expression was upregulated to be approximately twice that of control. FAK, Src, phospho-FAK, and phospho-Src expression in Dex-treated HTM cells was markedly increased. Downregulation of NEDD9 expression reduced HTM cell adhesion to the surface of culture wells and simultaneously led to a reduction in FAK, Src, phospho-FAK and phospho-Src expression.

NEDD9 expression is upregulated in HTM cells after Dex treatment and promotes HTM cell adhesion. These findings underscore the contribution of NEDD9 overexpression to altered HTM cell adhesion during glucocorticoid therapy and may play a key role in GIG pathological progression. Considering the similarity between GIG and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), our findings suggest that targeting NEDD9 may be a new therapeutic strategy for POAG patients.

The Role of Retinal Plasticity in the Formation of Irreversible Retinal Deformations in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Eye Research

To construct a realistic physical model of viscoelastic retinal stretching and, on its basis, derive a universal quantitative criterion of irreversible retinal deformations during age-related macular degeneration.

In this work, standard methods of nonlinear fracture mechanics of ductile and viscoelastic materials were applied to study the evolution of retinal deformation progress in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the area of large druses or subretinal or sub-retinal pigment epithelium fluid accumulation. A two-dimensional rhombic model of viscoelastic Kelvin-Feucht primitives was used to reconstruct the parameters included in the approximation of the creep strain growth rate. A clinical case of a patient with age-related macular degeneration and retinal pigment epithelium detachment in the macula was taken as a basis for theoretical research. The patient underwent retinal optical coherent tomography on DRI Swept-Source OCT.

A closed realistic theoretical model of retinal stretching in the projection of retinal pigment epithelium elevation due to its detachment or drusen based on a two-dimensional rhombic Kelvin-Feucht primitives model was constructed. The calculation of stress in the retinal tissue with consistent consideration of creep effects was performed.

The time of critical retinal loading - a new quantitative criterion for the irreversibility of retinal stretching in age-related macular degeneration is proposed. This criterion allows the prediction of the functional outcome of antiangiogenic therapy in patients with age-related macular degeneration with identical initial retinal morphometric parameters.

Human Oral Mucosal Fibroblasts from Limbal Stem Cell Deficient Patients as an Autologous Feeder Layer for Epithelial Cell Culture.

Eye Research

To investigate if human oral mucosal fibroblasts (HOMF) from patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) can be used as an autologous feeder layer to support the culture of epithelial cells for potential clinical use.

HOMF were isolated from oral mucosal biopsies obtained from the following groups of patients with LSCD: aniridia, mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and ectodermal dysplasia (ED). The ability of these cells to support the culture of human limbal epithelial cells (HLE) was compared to that of HOMF from non-LSCD donors and 3T3s commonly used to culture epithelial cells for use in the clinic to treat LSCD.

HOMF were successfully obtained by explant culture for 3/3 aniridia patients, 3/3 MMP patients, 1/3 SJS patients, and 1/1 ED patients. All HOMF cultured from these LSCD groups supported the expansion of HLE with epithelial culture times and total colony forming efficiency (CFE) comparable to those achieved on HOMF isolated from donors without LSCD. PCR showed that all HLE cultured on LSCD donor HOMF expressed p63α, CK15, PAX6, CK12, and MUC16 as did HLE cultured on the control non-LSCD donor HOMF and 3T3s. Western blotting detected CK15 and MUC16 protein expression in all groups.

HOMF from patients with LSCD can be successfully used to support the expansion of epithelial cells. These cells may therefore be useful as autologous feeder fibroblasts for the expansion of epithelial cells for use in the clinic to treat LSCD.

Management Strategies for Evaporative Dry Eye Disease and Future Perspective.

Eye Research

Dry eye disease (DED) is a common disorder that remains challenging from a clinical perspective. Unstable or deficient tear film is a major factor ...

Ocular aberrations in eyes with Primary Congenital Glaucoma.

Eye Research

To highlight the magnitude of ocular higher order aberrations (HOA) and lower order aberrations (LOA), including component contributions from corneal and internal planes in Primary Congenital Glaucoma (PCG) patients.

Consecutive treated PCG patients co-operative for ocular examination and aberrometry, were enrolled over two years for this cross-sectional, comparative, single centre, unmasked study. Best corrected visual acuity, refraction, IOP, wavefront aberrometry and topography (iTrace) were performed and results were compared with unaffected fellow eyes of unilateral glaucoma patients as well as age and sex matched controls with no ocular anomalies other than treatable refractive error.

Both eyes of 32 consecutive PCG patients (17 unilateral, 15 bilateral) and 39 controls were enrolled. The median LogMAR corrected distance visual acuity of PCG eyes was 0.68 (IQR: 0.2 - 1.8). Total ocular (Root mean square (RMS) 1.7µm vs 0.3µm, p = 0.014), corneal (RMS 1.1µm vs 0.3µm, p = 0.004) and internal (RMS 1.1µm vs 0.2µm, p = 0.013) aberrations, as well as HOAs and LOAs at each plane were significantly higher in PCG eyes than in controls. Component HOAs from corneal and internal planes were positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001; rs: 0.7). Total aberrations were greater in the affected eyes of PCG compared to the rest. The predominant subtype of HOAs in PCG were coma and trefoil. PCG with corneal opacity/Haab's striae had significantly higher astigmatism than the affected eyes with clear corneae at corneal plane (p = 0.02). The aberrations were not statistically associated with the corneal diameter or refractive error in PCG eyes.

Significantly greater aberrations (Total, HOAs and LOAs, at corneal as well as internal plane) were seen among eyes affected with PCG. Though the exact impact of these aberrations on the final visual outcome is difficult to determine, these could play a pertinent role in compromising visual function, thus impacting the management of visual rehabilitation in these patients.