The latest medical research on Eye Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about eye cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Atropine Affects the Outer Retina During Inhibiting Form Deprivation Myopia in Guinea Pigs.

Eye Research

Atropine has been proven to be effective in retarding myopia progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Our purpose was to detect morphological and functional changes caused by atropine during myopic inhibition.

Twenty 2-week-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to either the saline group (n = 10) or the atropine group (n = 10). Form-deprived myopia (FDM) and intravitreal injections were applied on the right eyes. The injections were given every 3 days, lasting for 2 weeks. The left eyes served as control. Ocular refraction, axial length, retinal, and choroidal thickness were collected at the start and the end of the experiment. Retinal function was evaluated via full-field electroretinogram (ERG) at the end of treatment.

The interocular differences (experimental eye minus control eye) of refraction error (RE), vitreous chamber depth (VCD), and axial length (AL) in the saline group were significantly greater than those in the atropine group (RE, VCD: P < .001, AL: P < .0001). The differences in choroidal thickness between the two groups did not reach statistical significance. However, a decreasing trend of choroidal thickness was observed in the saline group but not in the atropine group. Furthermore, the interocular differences of total retinal and outer retinal thickness in the atropine group were much thicker than in the saline group (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively). The treatment did not affect inner retinal thickness. In photopic ERG, the atropine-treated FDM eyes showed significantly greater a-wave amplitudes compared to the saline group.

During the process of inhibiting FDM, atropine showed an effect on the outer retina, most likely on the cones, in guinea pigs.

Delivering Endothelial Keratoplasty Grafts: Modern Day Transplant Devices.

Eye Research

To summarize the graft loading, transporting and delivery devices used for endothelial keratoplasty (EK).

A literature search of electronic databases was performed.

New techniques and devices have been introduced and implemented to prepare, load, transport and transplant the grafts for EK. The advantages are not only limited to the surgical theatre but also widely spread across the eye banking field. Investigation of advanced materials and designs have been rapidly growing with continuous evolution in the field of eye banking and corneal transplantation. Innovative techniques and modern devices have been evaluated to reduce the endothelial cell loss and increase the precision of the transplant in order to benefit both surgeons and the patients.

It is extremely important to reduce any potential wastage and optimize the use of every available donor cornea due to the limited availability of healthy cadaveric donor corneas required for transplants. As a result, the use of pre-cut and pre-loaded grafts supplied by the eye banks in calibrated devices have been gaining momentum. Innovation in the field of bioengineering for the development of new devices that facilitate excellent clinical outcomes along with reduction in learning curve has shown promising results.

The Influence of Coronary Heart Disease on Retinal Electrophysiological Examination (Full-field, Pattern and Multifocal Electroretinograms).

Eye Research

To evaluate the influence of coronary heart disease (CHD) on retinal function using a battery of electrophysiological measures.

We conducted a prospective pilot study comparing 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CHD with 21 healthy participants. Further inclusion criteria were a decimal visual acuity (VA) of 0.8 or better and patient age between 40 and 80 years. All participants were divided into three groups according to the severity of CHD (1, 2 or 3 vessels involved) and one healthy control group. Testing was performed on one eye per patient, either selecting the eye with higher VA or, when equal, selecting randomly. The test procedure consisted of a pattern electroretinogram (ERG), a full-field ERG, a multifocal ERG and an ophthalmic screening examination.

Implicit times of the b-wave measured using scotopic full-field ERG were significantly prolonged in all CHD patient groups (p < .000). Thus, full-field ERG allowed clinicians to differentiate between healthy patients and those suffering from CHD. The multifocal ERG showed significantly different results concerning the amplitude density (p < .008) in each patient group compared with the control group. CHD had a significant impact on cone-pathway function, although the severity of CHD did not correlate with functional deficiencies of cone cells.

Confirmed coronary vascular diseases are correlated with macular cone and bipolar cell function, which can be detected by measuring electrophysiological retinal signals.

Research Progress of circRNAs in Inflammatory Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Emerging Star with Potential Therapeutic Targets.

Eye Research

 We summarized the existing studies to elaborate the biogenesis and function of circRNAs, the effect of aberrant circRNAs expression in the mechani...

Circ_0000527 Drives Retinoblastoma Progression by Regulating miR-1236-3p/SMAD2 Pathway.

Eye Research

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play essential roles in the progression of human tumors, including retinoblastoma (RB). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions and potential mechanisms of circ_0000527 in RB.

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay were conducted to determine the levels of circ_0000527, microRNA-1236-3p (miR-1236-3p) and SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2). RNase R assay and actinomycin D assay were conducted to analyze the characteristic of circ_0000527. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, and colony formation assay were performed for cell proliferation ability. Wound healing assay and transwell assay were applied to assess cell migration and invasion. Tube formation assay was utilized for angiogenesis ability. Flow cytometry analysis was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay were performed to analyze the relationships among circ_0000527, miR-1236-3p, and SMAD2. Murine xenograft model assay was conducted for the role of circ_0000527 in vivo.

Circ_0000527 was overexpressed in RB patients and related to advanced TNM stages, optic nerve invasion and choroidal invasion. Circ_0000527 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis and promoted apoptosis in RB cells in vitro. Circ_0000527 sponged miR-1236-3p, which directly targeted SMAD2. MiR-1236-3p level was decreased in RB tissues and cells. MiR-1236-3p inhibition reversed circ_0000527 knockdown-mediated effects on RB cell malignant behaviors. Moreover, miR-1236-3p overexpression suppressed RB cell progression, with SMAD2 elevation abrogated the effect. Additionally, circ_0000527 knockdown restrained tumor formation in vivo.

Circ_0000527/miR-1236-3p/SMAD2 axis played a positive role in the progression of RB.

The Effect of Irradiated Riboflavin in Human Tenon's Fibroblast - A Study on Cellular Viability.

Eye Research

The main purpose of this work is to study the cellular viability effect of irradiated riboflavin in cultured human tenon fibroblasts.

The tenon tissue was harvested from a patient undergoing strabismus surgery. The human tenon fibroblast cell culture and isolation were performed according to the standard laboratory cell culturing protocol. The cells were divided into three groups: control, treatment with irradiated and non-irradiated riboflavin. There were five different concentrations (0.00156%, 0.003125%, 0.00625%, 0.0125%, 0.025%) in each group of riboflavin. The fibroblasts were treated with riboflavin and the cellular viability was assessed at 24-hour and 48-hour post treatment with MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The absorbance values were analysed using Magellan microplate reader data analysis. A triplicate of readings was taken. The data were presented as mean ± standard deviation of the triplicates. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) analysis version 23.

Irradiated riboflavin caused a concentration-dependent cell death in human tenon fibroblast cell culture (p < .05). The antiproliferative difference between irradiated and non-irradiated riboflavin was significant up to 48 hours (p < .05). Post hoc multiple comparisons showed higher concentrations of irradiated riboflavin (0.0125% and 0.025%) caused more reduction in cellular viability in human tenon fibroblast cells (p < .05). The duration of treatment is not a causative factor in this study.

This pilot experiment demonstrated that irradiated riboflavin induced cell death in human tenon fibroblast culture in a concentration-dependent manner, but is not time-dependent. Further exploratory investigations should be performed to determine the mechanism of cell death. We postulate that apoptosis occurred in these irradiated riboflavin-treated cells.

Circ-MKLN1/miR-377-3p/CTGF Axis Regulates the TGF-β2-induced Posterior Capsular Opacification in SRA01/04 Cells.

Eye Research

Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common postoperative ocular complication after cataract surgery. Little research focused on the regulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in PCO. This study was designed to investigate the function of circRNA-muskelin (circ-MKLN1) in PCO.

SRA01/04 cells were treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2. Cell viability was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Transwell assay was used for cell migration and invasion detection. Cell migration was also measured by wound healing assay. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were quantified using western blot.

Cell viability, migration, invasion and EMT process in SRA01/04 cells were facilitated by TGF-β2. Circ-MKLN1 expression was enhanced in 17 PCO lens samples relative to 19 normal lens samples and TGF-β2-treated SRA01/04 cells contrasted to control cells. Downregulation of circ-MKLN1 inhibited the effects of TGF-β2 on SRA01/04 cells. Circ-MKLN1 targeted miR-377-3p and the regulation of si-circ-MKLN1 for the TGF-β2-induced influences was related to the upregulation of miR-377-3p. CTGF was the target gene for miR-377-3p. CTGF knockdown also abolished the TGF-β2-mediated cell growth, migration and invasion of SRA01/04 cells. The function of miR-377-3p was achieved by reducing the CTGF level. TGF-β2-induced CTGF expression promotion was alleviated by si-circ-MKLN1 through upregulating the expression of miR-377-3p.

These results showed that circ-MKLN1 contributed to the progression of PCO in vitro by increasing the CTGF expression via sponging miR-377-3p. Circ-MKLN1 might be important for improving the molecular target therapy in PCO.

An evaluation of the inhibition effects of cell migration of Aspirin soaking 360°square-edge intraocular lens in an in vitro lens capsule model.

Eye Research

This study performs to evaluate the Hydrophobic and Hydrosmart 360°square-edge intraocular lens drug delivery of Aspirin using an in vitro lens capsular model.

Cell counting kit-8 assay was used to calculate 50% inhibiting concentration values in both SRA01/04 and HLE-B3 cells. Hoechst staining and transwell assay were used to detect cell proliferation and cell migration. The in vitro lens capsule model was established mainly with a special transwell-col and cell climbing sheet, in which an intraocular lens and the TGF-β2 were added. The ultraviolet spectrophotometer was used to measure the drug concentrations released in vitro. Cell-exclusion zone assay was used to detect the cell migration in the in vitro capsular model.

It shows that cell morphology and distribution of SRA01/04 in the in vitro lens capsular model were closer to those in vivo. The results revealed that there could be significant inhibiting effects on cell migration of the hydrosmart intraocular lens with a sustained drug release in vitro in 7 days, while the hydrophobic intraocular lens drug delivery of Aspirin was mainly performed only from day 1 to day 3.

Results showed the developed hydrosmart intraocular lens could release Aspirin continuously in vitro to inhibit the cell migration of lens epithelial cells.

Comparing the Differences in Slowing Myopia Progression by Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A Scleral Cross-linking before and after Lens-induced Myopia in Guinea Pigs.

Eye Research

To compare the effectiveness and differences in slowing myopia progression in Guinea pigs by riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) scleral cross-linking (sCXL) before and after lens-induced myopia (LIM).

Forty 4-week-old Guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): CXL-A, CXL-B, LIM, and Control groups. The right eyes in CXL-A, CXL-B, LIM groups were treated with -10.00 D lenses from 4 to 10-week old and the left eyes were untreated. In CXL-A and CXL-B groups, riboflavin/UVA sCXL was performed on the right eyes at 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age, respectively. Both eyes were untreated in Control group. The intraocular pressure (IOP), the axial length (AXL), and the refraction were measured in vivo at 4, 8, and 10 weeks of age. At 10 weeks of age, the right eyes were enucleated for the tensile test and transmission electron microscopy observations.

The myopia has been successfully induced in LIM and CXL-B groups during 4-8 weeks. In CXL-A group, the growth rate of AXL and myopic refraction was markedly inhibited during 4-8 weeks and the inhibitory effects diminished during 8-10 weeks. During 8-10 weeks, the growth rate of AXL and myopic refraction in CXL-B were marked suppressed. At 10 weeks of age, the myopia refraction was lower and the AXL was shorter in CXL-A group in comparison to CXL-B group. The IOP was not significantly different among the 4 groups of eyes at 4, 8, and 10 weeks of age. The scleral stiffness, the fibril diameters, and the fibril density of the sclera were significantly increased in CXL-A and CXL-B groups compared to LIM group.

Riboflavin/UVA sCXL administrated before and after the myopia modeling could both slow the myopia progression in Guinea pigs. The before-myopia preventative sCXL showed lower myopic refraction in the same age comparison between the cross-linked groups. The effect of riboflavin/UVA sCXL might reduce over time and the long-term effect should be further investigated. This sCXL intervention might control the ultrastructure alterations of the sclera during the myopia remodeling.

Outcomes of a Toric Monofocal Piggyback Intraocular Lens for Residual Astigmatic Refractive Error in Pseudophakic Eyes.

Eye Research

To evaluate the visual outcomes, refractive outcomes and rotational stability of a toric piggyback intraocular lens (1stQ AddOn, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) for astigmatic refractive error in pseudophakic eyes.

Visual and refractive outcomes were assessed based on the standard graphs for reporting refractive surgery outcomes. Rotational stability was assessed according to the Intraocular Lens (IOL) standards of the International Organisation for Standards.

Twenty-two eyes of 17 patients (age: 65.1 ± 9.3 years) underwent toric piggyback IOL insertion. After a minimum follow-up of 3 months, 18 eyes (82%) achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 0.00 logMAR (20/20) or better and all eyes achieved 0.1 logMAR (20/25). Mean UDVA improved from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 and 0.04 ± 0.04 at one and 3 months (all p < .05). Nineteen eyes (86%) achieved an UDVA at least equal to the pre-operative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). No eyes lost more than one line of CDVA. All eyes achieved within 0.5D of target spherical equivalent (SE). In 18 eyes (82%), the residual astigmatism magnitude was 0.5D or less. The mean absolute difference between the target axis and the achieved axis 1 and 3 months postoperatively was 2.5° ± 2.7° and 3.2° ± 3.3°, respectively. The final IOL orientation was within 10 degrees of target axis in 19 of 22 (86.4%) eyes, within 20 degrees in 21 of 22 (95.2%) eyes and within 30 degrees in 22 of 22 (100%) eyes. IOL rotational repositioning was required in two eyes (9.1%).

In this cohort of patients, the 1stQ AddOn toric monofocal piggyback IOL resulted in very good visual and refractive outcomes and showed reasonable rotational stability. This IOL appears to be an effective treatment option for residual astigmatic refractive error in pseudophakic eyes.

Inter-Eye Comparison in Highly Myopic Patients with Unilateral Myopic Traction Maculopathy.

Eye Research

To evaluate the risk factors for myopic traction maculopathy (MTM) through inter-eye comparisons of asymmetric ocular features in patients with unilateral MTM.

Highly myopic patients with unilateral MTM were enrolled in the study. The results of comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations, color fundus images, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were reviewed. MTM and myopic atrophic maculopathy was evaluated according to the ATN classification system. The status of the posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), posterior precortical vitreous pocket, vitreoretinal interface abnormalities, posterior staphyloma height (PSH), and the location of the protrusion of the sclera were assessed through OCT.

Among the 54 eyes of 27 patients 48.89 ± 12.78 years of age, the affected eyes had worse best-corrected visual acuity, a longer axial length (AXL), greater PSH, and higher rates of posterior staphylomas, vitreovascular traction and epiretinal membranes (ERMs) than the fellow eyes (P < .001; P < .001; P < .001; P = .010; P = .002; P < .001). Thirteen cases present obvious anisometropia with an inter-eye AXL difference of more than 1 mm. In the 14 cases without obvious anisometropia, the eyes with MTM still had longer AXL, greater PSH and a higher ERMs rate than the fellow eyes (P = .039; P = .017; P = .001). Besides, in the 7 cases with an inter-eye AXL difference of less than 1 mm and asymmetrical stages of PVD, 5 cases with greater PVD in the affected eyes. Multiple risk factors coexisted in 96% of cases.

In patients with unilateral MTM, a longer AXL, greater PSH, posterior staphyloma, vitreovascular traction, and ERMs were the main factors contributing to the occurrence of MTM. The process of PVD might involve in MTM development.

Effects of Acute Intracranial Pressure Changes on Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Humans and Pig Model.

Eye Research

The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a layer of fenestrated connective tissue tethered to the posterior sclera across the scleral canal in the optic nerve head (ONH). It is located at the interface of intracranial and intraocular compartments and is exposed to intraocular pressure (IOP) anteriorly and intracranial pressure (ICP) or Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure (CSFP) posteriorly. We hypothesize that the pressure difference across LC will determine LC position and meridional diameter of scleral canal (also called Bruch's membrane opening diameter; BMOD).

We enrolled 19 human subjects undergoing a medically necessary lumbar puncture (LP) to lower CSFP and 6 anesthetized pigs, whose ICP was increased in 5 mm Hg increments using a lumbar catheter. We imaged ONH using optical coherence tomography and measured IOP and CSFP/ICP at baseline and after each intervention. Radial tomographic ONH scans were analyzed by two independent graders using ImageJ, an open-source software. The following ONH morphological parameters were obtained: BMOD, anterior LC depth and retinal thickness. We modeled effects of acute CSFP/ICP changes on ONH morphological parameters using ANOVA (human study) and generalized linear model (pig study).

For 19 human subjects, CSFP ranged from 5 to 42 mm Hg before LP and 2 to 19.4 mm Hg after LP. For the six pigs, baseline ICP ranged from 1.5 to 9 mm Hg and maximum stable ICP ranged from 18 to 40 mm Hg. Our models showed that acute CSFP/ICP changes had no significant effect on ONH morphological parameters in both humans and pigs.

We conclude that ONH does not show measurable morphological changes in response to acute changes of CSFP/ICP. Proposed mechanisms include compensatory and opposing changes in IOP and CSFP/ICP and nonlinear or nonmonotonic effects of IOP and CSFP/ICP across LC.