The latest medical research on Depression

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about depression gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Long gun suicides in the state of Maryland following the firearm safety act of 2013.

Suicide Life Threat

In 2013, the state of Maryland passed the Firearms Safety Act limiting the private sales of handguns, which did not apply to long guns often used for hunting (e.g., rifles and shotguns). This decreased the accessibility of handguns relative to long guns. We assessed the frequency of long gun suicides in the years before and after the policy change during winter season, which encompasses hunting season in Maryland.

We performed a retrospective analysis on all 4107 well-characterized adult suicides caused by firearms in Maryland from 2003 through 2019. Logistic regression was performed, stratifying by decedent sex, race, and age.

While handgun suicides decreased in the period after 2013's Firearm Safety Act (p < 0.008), wintertime long gun suicides increased after 2013 (p < 0.004). Caucasian race (p < 0.006), male sex (p < 0.005), and middle age (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with wintertime long gun suicides after 2013.

Our findings suggest that while the 2013 Firearms Safety Act decreased handgun suicides significantly, it did not reduce long gun suicides and there may even have been replacement with long guns during hunting season, when rifles are out and accessible. This association was most prominent among the demographics most likely to hunt (Caucasian, middle-aged, and male).

Validations of the Farsi versions of the depressive symptom inventory suicidality subscale (F-DSI-SS) and suicide rumination scale (F-SRS) among Iranian college students.

Suicide Life Threat

Suicidal thoughts are relatively common among college students in Iran. However, measures frequently used to assess suicidality or specific aspects of suicidal ideation in the United States have yet to be validated in Iran. Thus, the present study validated Farsi versions of the Depressive Symptom Inventory Suicidality Subscale (F-DSI-SS) and Suicide Rumination Scale (F-SRS) among Iranian college students.

College students (N = 1043; 88.1% women) completed the F-DSI-SS. Forty-six percent (n = 481) of participants reported the presence of suicidal thoughts and were eligible to fill out the F-SRS. Analyses focused on validating the factor structure, construct, and convergent validity of the F-DSI-SS and F-SRS among college students, as well as testing measurement invariance by gender of the F-DSI-SS.

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the F-DSI-SS and F-SRS had good fit to the data and each displayed a one-factor structure. Furthermore, the F-DSI-SS showed strong measurement invariance across genders. Internal consistency of the F-DSI-SS and F-SRS was good. Lastly, the F-DSI-SS and F-SRS's items and their total scores were intercorrelated and demonstrated good convergent validity.

Findings suggest that the F-DSI-SS and F-SRS will enable researchers to examine suicidal thoughts and suicide-specific rumination in Iran.

Longitudinal mediation by perceived burden of the pathway from thwarted belonging to suicidal ideation.

Suicide Life Threat

Whereas the interpersonal theory of suicide entails the assumption that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are equally important, mutually moderating, proximal causes of active ideation, evidence suggests these may not be co-moderating processes. We tested an alternative perspective, hypothesizing that burden mediates the longitudinal relationship of thwarted belonging with active ideation.

A 6-week, four-wave prospective online survey was completed by 298 undergraduates. We tested cross-sectional and cross-lagged panel models (CLPM, with and without random effects) with belonging, burden, and ideation at 2-week lags, and post hoc models with burden as a concurrent mediator of ideation.

Approximately 28% of undergraduates reported active ideation at baseline. Cross-sectionally, thwarted belonging had no direct influence on ideation but indirectly affected ideation via burden. This result was not confirmed in the 2-week CLPM analyses. In post hoc analyses, we found belonging operated indirectly via later burden to influence contemporaneous ideation.

Findings suggest thwarted belonging influences active ideation indirectly via perceived burden. The effect of burden as a mediator appears to depend on its temporal proximity to ideation. Future research should delimit the period during which perceived burden is an active mediator, accommodate dual-process approaches, and explore other mediation alternatives to co-moderation.

Diminished body trust uniquely predicts suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury among people with recent self-injurious thoughts and behaviors.

Suicide Life Threat

Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) are difficult to predict, and novel risk factors must be identified. While diminished interoception is associated with SITBs cross-sectionally, the current study assesses whether multiple measures of interoception predict future SITBs.

Adults (N = 43) with recent SITBs completed assessments of interoception during a baseline visit. Participants then completed biweekly assessments for 6 months in which they reported the presence and severity/frequency of suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI).

Multilevel models were performed, where baseline interoceptive measures predicted presence and severity/frequency of suicidal ideation and NSSI at follow-up. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) Trusting subscale was the only significant predictor of the presence/severity of suicidal ideation. The MAIA Trusting, Emotional Awareness, and Body Listening subscales significantly predicted the presence of NSSI. The MAIA Emotional Awareness subscale and the Body Perception Questionnaire significantly predicted NSSI frequency.

Diminished body trust predicted both suicidal ideation and NSSI, indicating a potential shared risk pathway. However, two interoception measures (Body Listening subscale and Body Perception Questionnaire) were associated with NSSI only, indicating potentially unique risk pathways. Given the differential associations between interoception measures and SITBs, results highlight the importance of clearly defining how interoception is measured.

Risk factors of suicidal behaviors in a high-risk longitudinal veteran sample: A network analysis.

Suicide Life Threat

Suicide is a substantial public health burden, particularly among veterans. Risk factors have been delineated for suicide; however, the dynamic interrelations between risk factors have not been fully examined. Such research has the potential to elucidate processes that contribute to suicide risk between individuals with a past suicide attempt (attempters) and those without a past suicide attempt (nonattempters).

In the current study, network analysis was used to compare networks between attempters and nonattempters in a high-risk veteran sample (N = 770; Mage  = 32.3 years, SD = 6.8; 326 with a past suicide attempt) who were followed over 1 year. Networks were estimated to examine (1) concurrent relations of suicide risk factors at baseline and (2) predictability of prospective suicidal behavior (SB).

There were no differences in the overall connectivity of attempter and nonattempter networks. Perceived burdensomeness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were most central in the attempters' network, whereas PTSD symptoms and insomnia were most central in the nonattempters' network. The risk factors prospective SB in either network. However, attempters were more likely to engage in SB over the course of the study.

These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting who will attempt suicide.

Sexual dysfunction among males and females with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects: the burden of illness severity.

Bipolar Disorders

Sexual dysfunction has wide-ranging impacts on the person's functioning and quality of life, being associated with a higher severity of psychiatric illnesses and poor therapeutic response. Given the paucity of data on this topic in bipolar disorder (BD), we investigated sexual functioning among males and females with BD and healthy controls (HCs) as well as whether illness severity markers and subthreshold mood symptoms were associated with sexual dysfunctions in BD patients.

The study included 80 BD outpatients and 70 HCs. Sexual functioning was evaluated using the validated, gender-specific Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ-14).

BD patients had a significantly poorer sexual functioning than HCs (P<0.00001). The odds of sexual dysfunction doubled given a one-unit increase in the number of suicide attempts (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI:1.23-3.55; P<.01) and increased by 60% for every additional hospitalization (P<.05). Greater illness duration was associated with arousal/orgasmic (P<.05) and overall sexual dysfunctions (P<.01). BD patients with more mixed or (hypo)manic episodes had a lower likelihood of libido loss and arousal/orgasmic disturbances (P<.01), respectively. Higher levels of subthreshold depressive symptoms increased by 20% the odds of sexual interest/frequency dysfunctions (P<.05), and up to 60% regarding orgasmic disturbances (P<.01).

Sexual functioning may be a useful proxy of illness severity as well as a relevant dimension to more deeply characterize BD patients. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings, to evaluate temporal associations between sexual dysfunctions and illness severity across the BD mood and treatment spectrums, and to explore neurobiological underpinnings of these associations.

A Risk Calculator to Predict Suicide Attempts Among Individuals with Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder.

Bipolar Disorders

To build a one-year risk calculator (RC) to predict individualized risk for suicide attempt in early-onset bipolar disorder.

394 youth with bipolar disorder who completed >2 follow-up assessments (median follow-up length=13.1 years) in the longitudinal Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study were included. Suicide attempt over follow-up was assessed via the A-LIFE Self-Injurious/Suicidal Behavior scale. Predictors from the literature on suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder that are readily assessed in clinical practice were selected and trichotomized as appropriate (presence past 6 months/lifetime history only/no lifetime history). The RC was trained via boosted multinomial classification trees; predictions were calibrated via Platt scaling. Half of the sample was used to train, and the other half to independently test the RC.

There were 249 suicide attempts among 106 individuals. Ten predictors accounted for >90% of the cross-validated relative influence in the model (AUC=0.82; in order of relative influence): 1) age of mood disorder onset; 2) non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (trichotomized); 3) current age; 4) psychosis (trichotomized); 5) socioeconomic status; 6) most severe depressive symptoms in past 6 months (trichotomized none/subthreshold/threshold); 7) history of suicide attempt (trichotomized); 8) family history of suicidal behavior; 9) substance use disorder (trichotomized); 10) lifetime history of physical/sexual abuse. For all trichotomized variables, presence in the past 6 months reliably predicted higher risk than lifetime history.

This RC holds promise as a clinical and research tool for prospective identification of individualized high-risk periods for suicide attempt in early-onset bipolar disorder.

Minority stressors and suicidal ideation in sexual and gender minority youth assigned female at birth: Prospective associations and racial differences.

Suicide Life Threat

Suicidal ideation (SI) disproportionately affects sexual and gender minority (SGM) versus cisgender/heterosexual youth, likely due to the minority stressors (MS) they face. Research has shown cross-sectional associations between SGM MS and suicidality; however, few studies have used longitudinal data or examined racial differences in the effects of MS on SI. The current study tested whether MS prospectively predict next-year SI and whether race moderates these prospective associations.

Three hundred and sixty-nine Black, Latinx, and White SGM youth completed baseline measures of MS, SI, and demographics, and SI 6 and 12 months later.

Internalized stigma, microaggressions, and low support from family and from significant others demonstrated associations with next-year SI. When controlling for baseline SI, however, only low significant other support predicted next-year SI. Moderation analyses indicated that internalized stigma predicted SI for White, but not Black or Latinx, individuals and that lower friend support was associated with SI for Latinx, but not White or Black, individuals.

Though minority stressors appear to raise risk for SI among SGM, effects may differ by race. Internalized stigma may be particularly influential for SI among White SGM whereas lack of support from friends may be most influential for SI among Latinx SGM youth.

One-year incidence, predictors, and accuracy of prediction of suicidal thoughts and behaviors from the first to second year of university.

Depression and Anxiety

Research is scarce on the prospective predictors of first onset suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) and the accuracy of these predictors in university students, particularly in low-and-middle income countries. Therefore, we assessed the 1-year incidence of STB among first-year students, a broad range of prospective predictors of STB incidence, and evaluated the prediction accuracy of a baseline multivariate risk prediction model to identify students at highest risk for STB onset over the subsequent 12 months.

Students (n = 3238) from 13 universities in Mexico completed an online survey developed for the World Mental Health International College Student Surveys in their first year and again 12 months after. We ran generalized linear models and receiver operator curves.

The 1-year incidence of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt was 8.53%, 3.75%, and 1.16%, respectively. Predictors in final models were female sex (ideation only), minority sexual orientation (ideation only), depression, eating disorders, ADHD (ideation and plan), ongoing arguments or breakup with a romantic partner (ideation only), emotional abuse (ideation only), parental death (ideation, plan), not Catholic/Christian (ideation, plan), not having someone to rely on, psychotic experiences (plan only), and insufficient sleep (attempt only). Prediction accuracy for ideation, plan and attempt was area under the curve = 0.76, 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Targeting the top 10% of students at highest risk could reduce STB in the subsequent year up to 36%.

By assessing these risk/protective factors in incoming students we identified students at greatest risk for developing STB to whom suicide prevention strategies could be targeted.

100,000 lumens to treat seasonal affective disorder: A proof of concept RCT of Bright, whole-ROom, All-Day (BROAD) light therapy.

Depression and Anxiety

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is common and debilitating. The standard of care includes light therapy provided by a light box; however, this treatment is restrictive and only moderately effective. Advances in LED technology enable lighting solutions that emit vastly more light than traditional light boxes. Here, we assess the feasibility of BROAD (Bright, whole-ROom, All-Day) light therapy and get a first estimate for its potential effectiveness.

Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment for 4 weeks; either a very brightly illuminated room in their home for at least 6 h per day (BROAD light therapy) or 30 min in front of a standard 10,000 lux SAD light box. Feasibility was assessed by monitoring recruitment, adherence, and side effects. SAD symptoms were measured at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks, with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorders 29-items, self-report version.

All 62 patients who started treatment were available at 4-week follow-up and no significant adverse effects were reported. SAD symptoms of both groups improved similarly and considerably, in line with previous results. Exploratory analyses indicate that a higher illuminance (lux) is associated with a larger symptom improvement in the BROAD light therapy group.

BROAD light therapy is feasible and seems similarly effective as the standard of care while not confining the participants to 30 min in front of a light box. In follow-up trials, BROAD light therapy could be modified for increased illuminance, which would likely improve its effectiveness.

Common and Differential Neural Mechanisms underlying Mood Disorders.

Bipolar Disorders

Despite homogenous clinical presentations between bipolar and unipolar disorders , there are distinct neurobiological differences. Chronicity of illness may be a factor impacting and sustaining certain neural features. The goal of this study was to investigate common and shared neural mechanisms underlying mood disorders, and possible sustained neural changes relating to illness chronicity by investigating a cohort of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD), unipolar depression who had responded to treatment (treatment-sensitive depression, TSD) and a chronically treatment-resistant depressed (TRD) group.

172 participants (40 BD, 39 TSD, 40 TRD and 53 age-gender matched healthy controls) underwent resting-state fMRI scans. Seed-based and independent component analyses were performed to investigate group differences in resting-state connectivity between the four groups.

All 3 clinical groups had significantly lower connectivity within the frontoparietal network (FPN) relative to controls. TRD and BD were significantly different from TSD (TRD,BD>TSD) but were not significantly different to each other. TRDs were also significantly different from both BD and TSD for salience network connectivity with the posterior cingulate (DMN) and the FPN with frontal pole (DMN). Additionally, the BD group exhibited greater DMN-FPN (sgACC-RDLPFC) connectivity relative to TRD, TSD and controls, which was correlated with previous number of depressive episodes, in the BD group only.

BD demonstrated shared and differential connectivity features relative to symptomatic TRD and euthymic TSD groups. The increased sgACC-RDLPFC connectivity in BD and its correlation with number of depressive episodes could be a neural feature associated with illness chronicity.

Determinants of Pregnancy-Related Anxiety among Women Attending Antenatal Checkup at Public Health Institutions in Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia.

Depression Research and Treatment

Pregnancy-related anxiety has been associated with many pregnancy adverse outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, postpartum depression, and resulting in long-term sequels on the child's emotional, cognitive, and behavioral development. This study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of pregnancy-related anxiety and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal checkup at Debre Markos town public health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia.

An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 pregnant women at Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 1st to March 30th, 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected sing a structured, pretested, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered with Epi-data version 4.6 and then exported to SPSS version 23. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significantly associated variables with pregnancy-related anxiety. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) at a p value of ≤0.05 was used to claim statistical association.

In this study, a total of 408 pregnant women participated, giving a 96.4% response rate. The prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety was found to be 43.9% (95% CI: 39.5, 49.2). Having no formal education (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.32, 8.58), primigravida (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.24), intimate partner violence (AOR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.64), and poor social support (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.56) was significantly associated with pregnancy-related anxiety.

In this study, the prevalence of pregnancy-related anxiety was found to be high when compared to other study findings. The regional educational department should give emphasis for gender pedagogies which pay attention to the specific learning needs of girls. In addition, interventions on violence against women and social support for the women may reduce the problem.