The latest medical research on Depression

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about depression gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The cross-sectional, longitudinal, and transitional associations between perceived support and suicidal ideation and behavior in late adolescence and emerging adulthood: Adjacent-category logit models.

Suicide Life Threat

Suicidal ideation (SI) and attempts (SA) are prevalent in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Prior research has identified perceived support as a correlate of SI and SA. Less is known, though, about the role of perceived support in differentiating among suicidal outcomes and between the incremental escalation of suicidal outcomes from SI to SA to serious suicide attempts (SSA).

Using ordinal regression, we used Wave 1 and 2 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 4500; 53% female; Mage  = 16.6; 12% Hispanic) to examine cross-sectional, longitudinal, and transitional models of perceived support and suicidality.

Cross-sectional results indicated that youths with higher perceived support were less likely to have suicidal ideation. Longitudinal results showed that youths with higher perceived support at Wave 1 were less likely to have suicidal ideation or serious suicide attempts at Wave 2. Transitional model results revealed that higher perceived support at Wave 1 was negatively associated with escalation in suicidal outcomes from Wave 1 to 2.

We discuss findings in the context of theories of suicide and discuss implications for suicide risk identification, intervention, and prevention efforts in late adolescence and emerging adulthood.

What matters for adolescent suicidality: Depressive symptoms or fixed mindsets? Examination of cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fixed mindsets and suicidal ideation.

Suicide Life Threat

Fixed mindsets or beliefs about the non-malleability of self-attributes are linked to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. Its association with suicidal ideation (SI) among young people has not been explored.

To examine the association of fixed mindsets of depression, anxiety, and stress and SI; and its mediating role underlying the association between depression and SI.

A sample of 1393 adolescents (Mage  = 13.04, SD = 0.85, 640 boys) from 11 middle schools voluntarily participated in a two-wave longitudinal study before and during the COVID-19 pandemic with a 9-month interval.

Both depressive symptoms and fixed mindsets were positively and significantly associated with concurrent and future suicidality, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic status and previous SI. Participants with stronger fixed mindsets were more likely to have SI than those with only depressive symptoms. Also, fixed mindsets mediated the association between depressive symptoms and SI in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models.

The current study provides empirical evidence of the effects of fixed mindsets and SI and the mediating role of fixed mindset between depressive symptoms and SI among young people. Interventions to foster a growth mindset may enhance hope and reduce suicidality among adolescents.

Profiles of patients using emergency departments or hospitalized for suicidal behaviors.

Suicide Life Threat

This study identified profiles of patients with suicidal behaviors, their sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and assessed the risk of death within a 12-month follow-up period.

Based on administrative databases, this 5-year study analyzed data on 5064 patients in Quebec who used emergency departments (ED) or were hospitalized for suicidal behaviors over a 2-year period. Latent class analysis was used for patient profiles, bivariate analysis for patient correlates over 2 years, and survival analysis for risk of death within a 12-month follow-up.

Four profiles were identified: high suicidal behaviors and high service use (Profile 1: 23%); low suicidal behaviors and moderate service use (Profile 2: 46%); low suicidal behaviors and low service use (Profile 3: 25%); and high suicidal behaviors and high acute care, but low outpatient care (Profile 4: 6%). Profiles 1 and 4 patients had more serious conditions, with a higher risk of death in Profile 1 versus Profiles 2 and 3. Profile 2 patients had relatively more common mental disorders, and Profile 3 patients had less severe conditions. Profiles 3 and 4 included more men and younger patients.

Programs better adapted to patient profiles should be deployed after ED use and hospitalization in coordination with outpatient services.

The feasibility and acceptability of using smartphones to assess suicide risk among Spanish-speaking adult outpatients.

Suicide Life Threat

Hispanic/Latino adults, particularly Spanish speakers, are underserved in mental healthcare, and little is known about the day-to-day variation in their suicide risk. Smartphones have the potential to overcome geographical and linguistic barriers to mental health assessment and intervention. The purpose of the current study was to examine (a) the feasibility/acceptability of smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess suicide ideation and suicide risk factors among high-risk Spanish-speaking adults and (b) the degree of within-person variation of suicide ideation and suicide risk in this population.

Sixteen primary Spanish-speaking psychiatry outpatients completed EMA measures of suicide ideation and suicide risk factors four times a day for 14 days.

A majority of participants consented to active and passive remote assessments and reported the acceptability of study procedures. Adherence to EMA was high and not associated with symptom severity. EMA instances completed were not associated with symptom severity at follow-up. Average point-to-point variability in suicide ideation and risk factors were moderate to high, respectively. EMA captured more dramatic changes than standard baseline and follow-up assessments.

Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and acceptability of using smartphones to assess suicide risk in a real-time and real-world setting among high-risk Spanish-speaking adults.

The nosological status of unipolar mania and hypomania within UK Biobank according to objective and subjective measures of diurnal rest and activity.

Bipolar Disorders

There is uncertainty whether unipolar mania is a discrete sub-type of bipolar disorder. Disrupted rest/activity rhythms are a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD) but have not been well characterised in unipolar mania/hypomania (UM). We compared subjective and objective rest/activity patterns, demographic and mental health outcomes across BD, UM and control groups.

UK residents aged 37-73 years were recruited into UK Biobank from 2006 to 2010. BD, UM and control groups were identified via a mental health questionnaire. Demographic, mental health and subjective sleep outcomes were self-reported. Accelerometery data were available for a subset of participants, and objective measures of sleep and activity were derived.

A greater proportion of males met UM criteria, and more females were in the BD group. Both BD and UM groups had poor mental health outcomes vs. controls. Objectively-measured activity differed between all three groups: UM had highest levels of activity and BD lowest. The UM group had shorter sleep duration compared to controls. Subjective rest/activity measures showed that both mood disorder groups (compared to controls) had later chronotype preference, more disturbed sleep and increased difficulty getting up in the morning. However, the UM group were more likely to report an early chronotype compared to BD and control groups.

BD and UM share features in common, but key differences support the proposition that UM may be a distinct and more clinically homogenous disorder. UM was characterised by a higher proportion of males, early chronotype, increased activity and shorter sleep duration.

Altered motivation of effortful decision-making for self and others in subthreshold depression.

Depression and Anxiety

Amotivation is a typical feature in major depressive disorders and refers to individuals exhibiting reduced willingness to exert effort for rewards. However, the motivation pattern when deciding whether to exert effort for self versus others in people with depression remains unclear.

We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study and employed an adapted Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task in subthreshold depressive (SD) participants (n = 33) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 32). This required participants to choose between a fixed low-effort/low-reward and a variable high-effort/high-reward option, and then immediately exert effort to obtain corresponding rewards for themselves or for unfamiliar people.

Compared with the HC group, the SD group showed blunted activity in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula (AI), and right putamen-left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity when choosing to exert effort for themselves. Additionally, the SD group exhibited increased willingness and greater activation in the bilateral AI when choosing to exert effort for others. Furthermore, these brain activations and functional connectivity were positively related to self-reported motivation.

These findings show altered motivation during effort-based decision-making in individuals with the mild depressive state, particularly with higher motivation for others. Thus, this suggests that motivational behaviors and prefrontal-striatal circuitry are altered in individuals with SD, which can be utilized to discover treatment targets and develop strategies to address mental illness caused by motivation disorders.

Virtual versus Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Depression: Meta-Analytic Test of a Noninferiority Hypothesis and Men's Mental Health Inequities.

Depression Research and Treatment

Global rates of depression have increased significantly since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how the recent shift of many me...

Maltreatment history and reasons for self-injurious behavior among adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury versus adolescents who attempted suicide.

Suicide Life Threat

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a significant public health concern in the United States, especially among adolescents with histories of maltreatment. This study compared maltreatment characteristics and reasons for SIB between three homogenous samples of adolescents with either: (1) non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI); (2) suicide attempt/s (SA), and (3) typically developing controls (TDC).

Participants (N = 124) aged 13-17 years completed questionnaires about their maltreatment and SIB histories.

Maltreatment rates were as follows: 90% NSSI group, 76% SA group, and 40% TDC group. Adolescents in the NSSI group reported significantly higher rates of emotional neglect compared to the SA group. Maltreated adolescents in the NSSI and SA groups reported the same top three SIB reasons: (1) get rid of bad feelings, (2) mental state at the time, and (3) problems with family. However, maltreated NSSI participants were significantly more likely to engage in SIB for emotion regulation reasons than maltreated SA participants, who were more likely to engage in SIB for interpersonal reasons. Physical neglect and physical abuse also arose as significant predictors of specific SIB reasons.

Our findings help elucidate the maltreatment profiles and reasons for SIB among adolescents engaged in NSSI or SA. Specific maltreatment experiences may also influence the reasons why adolescents engaged in SIB.

Depressive and anxious symptoms among young adults in the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from monitoring the future.

Depression and Anxiety

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is associated with worsening mental health among young adults, but further research is necessary to quantify the associations with depression and anxiety.

Using Monitoring the Future data (N = 1244 young adults, modal age: 19, Fall 2020 supplement), we examined internalizing symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 separately), dividing the sample into those without clinically significant scores, significant scores but minimal pandemic-attributed symptoms, and significant scores with substantial pandemic-attributed symptoms. Logistic regression analyses linked demographic factors, pandemic-related experiences, and coping methods to symptom groups.

Internalizing symptoms were highly prevalent, with many occurring among a majority at least several days over the past 2 weeks. Major changes in education, employment, and resource availability predicted elevated symptom risk (e.g., lacking a place to sleep or money for rent, gas, or food led to 4.43 [95% confidence interval: 2.59-7.55] times the risk of high depressive symptoms significantly attributed to the pandemic). High internalizing symptoms were linked to underutilization of healthy coping behaviors, substance use overutilization, and dietary changes. High depressive and anxious symptoms attributed to the pandemic were marked by high levels of taking breaks from the news/social media and contacting healthcare providers.

The pandemic's associations with young adults' depressive and anxious symptoms warrants urgent attention through improved mental health treatment infrastructure and stronger structural support.

Trauma-focused guided self-help interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Depression and Anxiety

Trauma-focused guided self-help (TF-GSH) is an important alternative to psychological therapy delivered by a therapist. This meta-analysis evaluate...

Individuals who text crisis text line: Key characteristics and opportunities for suicide prevention.

Suicide Life Threat

Text-based crisis services are increasingly prominent, with inclusion in the national 988 crisis number launching in 2022. Yet little is known about who uses them. This study seeks to understand the population served by Crisis Text Line (CTL), the largest crisis text service in the United States.

Secondary data analysis was conducted on de-identified Crisis Counselor reports, texter post-conversation survey responses, and anonymized text conversation data from 85,877 texters who contacted CTL during a 12-month period. We examined Crisis Counselor's ratings of suicide ideation severity, texters' reports of race, gender, sexual orientation, recent mental health symptoms, and additional sources of help, and logs of frequency of contact.

76% of texters were under 25. 79% were female. 48% identified as other than heterosexual/straight. 64% had only one conversation. 79% were above the clinical cutoff for depression and 80% for anxiety, while 23% had thoughts of suicide. 23% received help from a doctor or therapist, and 28% received help only from CTL.

CTL reaches a highly distressed, young, mostly female population, including typically underserved minorities and a substantial percentage of individuals who do not receive help elsewhere. These findings support the decision to include texting in the forthcoming national 988 implementation.

Suicide bereavement in the UK: Descriptive findings from a national survey.

Suicide Life Threat

Those bereaved by suicide are a high-risk group of adverse health outcomes and suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the experiences and support needs of these individuals in the UK.

We conducted a national cross-sectional study using an online survey and analyzed the experiences of 7158 participants who had been bereaved or affected by suicide.

Suicide had a major impact on 77% of participants, including those who had lost a friend and those exposed to suicide at a professional level. Mental and physical health problems linked to the suicide were reported in half. Adverse social outcomes and engaging in high-risk behaviors following the suicide were common. Over a third reported suicidal ideation and 8% had attempted suicide as a direct result of the suicide loss. Most had not accessed support services, with the majority viewing provision of local suicide bereavement support as inadequate.

Our results highlight the need for a multi-disciplinary approach in postvention and the provision of proactive outreach to support those bereaved by suicide. Postvention efforts need to acknowledge the death of a friend by suicide as a significant loss.