The latest medical research on Osteopath

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Reproducibility of resistance exercise therapy interventions in trials for chronic low back pain is challenging: A systematic review.

Musculoskeletal care

Determine reproducibility of resistance exercise regimens in trials for CLBP and determine if recently available checklists are effective.

Four databases (Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL) were searched for keywords related to back pain and resistance exercise. Reproducibility was assessed using two checklists, the 12-item Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) and the 19-item Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT). The proportion reporting was analysed, with additional comparison of trials pre- and post-availability of each checklist. A generalised linear regression was conducted with checklist items as the dependent variable and year of publication as the independent (PROSPERO ID = #CRD42020186036).

Overall, details that facilitate reproducibility were under-reported. No trials reported all checklist items, while only 18 trials (35.5%) and 5 trials (9.8%) reported 75%+ of checklist items for the TIDieR and CERT, respectively. A median of 8 (IQR 2) of 12 TIDieR criteria were reported and a median of 9 (IQR 7) of 19 criteria were reported for the CERT. There was no difference pre/post checklist publication (TIDieR median before = 8 (IQR 2), after = 8 (IQR 2.25); CERT mean before = 9 (IQR 5.25), after = 9 (IQR 7)). Regression failed to support improved reporting over time. The majority of studies (86.3%) were scored as having an elevated risk of bias.

Reproducibility of resistance exercise in CLBP trials appears questionable due to low levels of reporting. The publication reporting checklists have not resulted in improvement. Real-world reproducibility is questionable. There is a need to improve reporting to maximise reproducibility.

The present results reveal a demand in improved reporting to ensure both enhanced clinical translation in the real-world and replicability to enhance knowledge of best-practice for resistance exercise in the CLBP population.

Long-term retention of golimumab treatment in clinical practice in a large cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis.

Musculoskeletal care

To assess the golimumab retention rate during up to 8 years of follow up, and any associated factors.

Retrospective analysis of the BIOBADASER (Spanish registry of biological drugs) database, assessing all adults who had ever started golimumab >6 months before the analysis for an approved indication (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], axial spondyloarthritis [SpA] or psoriatic arthritis [PsA]).

Among 885 patients (RA 267, axial SpA 370, PsA 248) receiving 944 cycles of golimumab, the retention rate of golimumab was 71.1% (95% confidence interval: 68.0-73.9) at year 1% and 37.7% (95% CI: 33.3-42.1) at year 7 and at year 8. Retention was higher when golimumab was used as the first biological drug (81.7% at year 1, 49.9% at year 7, p < 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, factors associated with golimumab retention included use as first-line therapy (hazard ratio [HR] for discontinuation 1.52 for second- and 1.79 for third/later-line vs. first-line), use in axial SpA or PsA rather than RA (HR for axial SpA vs. RA 0.59, for PsA vs. Rheumatoid arthritis 0.67), and treatment with concomitant methotrexate (HR 0.67). Factors associated with golimumab discontinuation were corticosteroid use (HR 1.46) and disease activity above median (HR 1.29) at golimumab initiation.

Based on this retrospective analysis of the BIOBADASER registry, nearly two-fifths (37.7%) of adult rheumatology patients initiating golimumab will remain on treatment for 8 years, with a higher probability of retention in axial SpA or PsA indications and when golimumab is used as first biologic.

Consensus-based recommendations on communication and education regarding primary care physical therapy for patients with systemic sclerosis.

Musculoskeletal care

This study aimed to develop recommendations for communication and postgraduate education regarding primary care physical therapy for systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients.

A virtual Nominal Group Technique was used with tasks forces for communication (n = 18) and education (n = 21). Both included rheumatologists, physical therapists (PTs) in primary, secondary or tertiary care, rheumatology nurses, advanced nurse practictioners and patient representatives. Three online meetings were organised for each task force to discuss (1) current bottlenecks; (2) potential solutions; and (3) the resulting draft recommendations. After the final adjustments, participants rated their level of agreement with each recommendation on a scale from 0 (not at all agree) to 100 (totally agree), using an online questionnaire.

19 and 34 recommendations were formulated for communication and education, respectively. For communication the main recommendations concerned the provision of an overview of primary care physical therapists with expertise in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases to patients and rheumatologists, the inclusion of the indication by the rheumatologist in the referral to the physical therapist and low-threshold communication with the rheumatologist in case of questions or concerns of the physical therapist. For postgraduate education three types of "on demand" educational offerings were recommended with varying levels of content and duration, to match the competencies and preferences of individual primary care physical therapists.

Using a systematic qualitative approach, two multi-stakeholder task forces developed practical recommendations for primary care physical therapists' communication with hospital-based care providers and postgraduate education regarding the treatment of SSc patients.

The effect of exercise on health-related quality of life in persons with musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis of randomised control trials.

Musculoskeletal care

Exercise has positive effects on musculoskeletal pain. In this project, the impact of exercise was studied on improving health-related quality of life in persons with musculoskeletal pain.

The study design was a systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was conducted to find original studies in four sources, including PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Scopus, and this search was limited to the original articles published until April 2021, which were in English. For each study, the effect size was calculated. The analysis was based on the random-effects method.

Twenty-Seven randomised control trial studies were included in the meta-analysis. The total population of participants in the meta-analysis was 1927 persons. Exercise improves health-related quality of life in these persons and the hedges' g was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.38-0.94; I2  = 88.29%).

Overall, based on the findings, exercise is associated with improving the health-related quality of life of persons with musculoskeletal pain, and therefore the health implications of this finding are beneficial to the general population and professionals.

Foot evaluation via telephone and video virtual medical visits.

Musculoskeletal care

Telemedicine plays a very important role in our society by allowing providers to treat patients who do not have easy access to a healthcare facility, especially in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We aimed to create an extensive, yet concise guide for medical providers to virtually evaluate patients with foot concerns.

This article outlines how to conduct a well-planned virtual consultation with specific questions, instructions, and examination manoeuvres to navigate musculoskeletal foot problems.

With this narrative review, we have provided a guide with suggestions, questions and interpretations of answers to help physicians new to the practice of telemedicine have successful virtual encounters with patients suffering from foot musculoskeletal ailments.

The effectiveness of group and home-based exercise on psychological status in people with ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Musculoskeletal care

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease in which the physical impact has been evaluated; however, the psychological consequences are less well explored. The primary aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of group versus home-based exercises on psychological status of patients with AS.

Six databases were searched until January 2020. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including group or home-based exercise interventions. Risk of bias (RoB) was evaluated using the Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool. Relative percentage difference (RPD) between groups and effect sizes were presented as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Five studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 240), outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety and mental health. Three studies were low-risk RoB, one study was high-risk RoB and one study there was 'some concerns' of bias. Group-based exercise was more effective than home-based exercise for improving depression at 6-week (RPD 18%) and 3-month (RPD 42%), anxiety (RPD 17%) and mental health (RPD 20%). Home-based exercise was more effective than control interventions for improving depression (RPD 33%). A meta-analysis demonstrated group-based exercises compared to home exercises, improved depression (SMD: -0.54; 95% CI: [-0.89; -0.18]; p = 0.003) and physical function (SMD: -0.49; 95% CI: [-0.84; -0.14]; p = 0.006).

Supervised group-based demonstrated improvements in depression, anxiety and mental health compared to home-based exercise. Individualised home-based exercise is more effective than no intervention for improving depression in people with AS.

The psychological impact of Behçet's disease.

Musculoskeletal care

Bechet's disease (BD), a chronic multiorgan involving disease, has a significant impact on quality of life in spite of effective treatment modalities. Disease manifestations such as arthritis, orogenital ulcerations, rashes, angiitis, and neurological involvement affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through its impact on depression, anxiety, and fatigue.

We aimed explore the psychological impact of BD, taking into consideration the effect on the HRQoL, as well as the association with depression, anxiety, wellbeing, and fatigue.

This is a narrative review of the literature that looks into the association of BD on the HRQoL including all studies that have assessed such as association.

Depression and anxiety are prevalent among patients with BD, and contribute significantly to fatigue, a common symptom among BD patients. In addition, the psychological wellbeing is affected by the disease, however, more studies are needed to assess this relationship.

Depression and anxiety are strongly associated with BD, and contribute significantly to fatigue, a common symptom among BD patients. In addition, the psychological wellbeing is affected by the disease, however, more studies are needed to assess this relationship. Besides, the controlling factors of the psychological impact are still to be deciphered.

Patient's perception of exercise for management of chronic low back pain: A qualitative study exercise for the management of low back pain.

Musculoskeletal care

Pathoanatomical beliefs about the cause of low back pain may negatively influence patients' perceptions of 'best care', such as the inclusion of exercise for low back pain (LBP) management. The aims of this study were to explore what patients receiving manual therapy are told and understand about their LBP diagnosis, and how this affects their perceptions regarding the role of exercise in the management of their LBP.

An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study design was utilised using semi-structured telephone interviews of patients who experience persistent LBP and seek care at an outpatient clinic at the University of South Wales. Ten participants were interviewed for the study (six male). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an IPA approach.

Three main themes were generated: (1) Constructing explanation of pain. (2) Expectations of exercise within care seeking behaviours. (3) Resolving conflict between exercise and back pain narratives. Participants linked their pain to a pathoanatomical cause, impacting their beliefs on exercise as a treatment approach.

Diagnostic models used by clinicians which are grounded within a pathoanatomical framework influence patients' perceptions and rationale for exercise. Exercise prescription using contemporary pain science and biopsychosocial approaches should be emphasised in practice and education.

Exercise physiologists use of pain neuroscience education for treating knee osteoarthritis: A qualitative interview study.

Musculoskeletal care

To explore how Australian exercise physiologists (EPs) utilise pain neuroscience education (PNE) in their management of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

A semi-structured interview concerning a knee osteoarthritis vignette was designed to understand each participant's beliefs about physical activity, pain, injury and coping strategies and quantify their use of pain neuroscience concepts. Themes were derived from pre-determined pain target concepts as well as others that emerged from thematic analysis.

Thirty EPs (57% male, mean clinical experience 7 years (SD 7.1) participated in the semi-structured interviews. 13 themes emerged. EPs primarily focussed on: (1) active treatment strategies are better than passive, (2) pain and tissue damage rarely relate, and (3) learning about pain can help individuals and society. Other themes included the use of biomedical-based education, pain during exercise and delivery of PNE. Underutilised themes included the role of the brain in pain, validation that pain is real and personal, the concept of danger sensors as opposed to pain sensors, and pain depends on the balance between safety and danger.

EPs primarily advised on active treatment approaches (e.g. exercise and self-management). Quality of care is likely to improve through increasing focus on the systemic benefits of exercise in overcoming psychological barriers (e.g. fear avoidance and pain catastrophising) that may prevent exercise treatment engagement. Broadening PNE to reconceptualise knee osteoarthritis pain as a sign of an overprotective nervous system, rather than structural damage, may facilitate greater patient engagement in exercise therapies, thus improving patient outcomes.

No gain without pain education: Improving knowledge and biopsychosocial attitudes and beliefs in a predominantly non-health-related undergraduate target audience.

Musculoskeletal care

Chronic pain (CP) impacts individuals and society and is the leading cause of disability globally. Pain education interventions are often evaluated in patients and health professional students, but not in non-health student groups. Increasing knowledge of pain may facilitate shifts in attitudes and beliefs towards sufferers. We report on changes in pain knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of predominantly non-health-related tertiary degree students participating in online education.

Quantitative cohort study design. Students reported demographics and completed the Chronic Pain Myth Scale and 12-item Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) before (T1) and after (T2) the 7-week online module at The University of Sydney in 2020.

Twenty-two students undertaking predominantly non-health-related bachelor's degrees (16.5% response rate, 90.9% female, mean = 19.5 years) participated. NPQ scores increased from 47.3% to 62.9%. Attitudes and beliefs towards biopsychosocial impact improved (p < 0.027) but not towards individuals suffering from CP or treatment of CP. A negative correlation was found between age and people suffering from CP (ρ = -0.437, p < 0.042) and age and towards treatment of CP; ρ = -0.556, p < 0.007) at T2.

Completing the elective online module resulted in improved knowledge and biopsychosocial attitudes towards CP in this predominantly non-health cohort, as reported in health and patient cohorts.

Use, and acceptability, of digital health technologies in musculoskeletal physical therapy: A survey of physical therapists and patients.

Musculoskeletal care

Determine (a) frequency of digital health use to obtain/record clinical information (pre-COVID-19); (b) willingness to use digital technologies among physical therapists and patients with musculoskeletal conditions.

102 physical therapists, and 103 patients were recruited in Australia. An electronic survey ascertained (a) demographic/clinical characteristics, (b) frequency of methods to obtain and record clinical information; (c) willingness to use digital technologies to support musculoskeletal care.

Physical therapists mostly used non-digital methods to obtain subjective (e.g., face-to-face questioning, n = 98; 96.1%) and objective information (e.g., visual estimation, n = 95; 93.1%). The top three digital health technologies most frequently used by therapists: photo-based image capture (n = 19; 18.6%), accessing information logged/tracked by patients into a mobile app (n = 14; 13.7%), and electronic systems to capture subjective information that the patient fills in (n = 13; 12.7%). The top three technologies used by patients: activity trackers (n = 27; 26.2%), logging/tracking health information on mobile apps or websites (n = 12; 11.7%), and entering information on a computer (n = 12; 7.8%). Physical therapists were most willing to use technologies for: receiving diagnostic imaging results (n = 99; 97.1%), scheduling appointments (n = 92; 90.2%) and capturing diagnostic results (n = 92; 90.2%). Patients were most willing to use technologies for receiving notifications about health test results (n = 91; 88.4%), looking up health information (n = 83; 80.6%) and receiving personalised alerts/reminders (n = 80; 77.7%).

Physical therapists and patients infrequently use digital health technologies to support musculoskeletal care, but expressed some willingness to consider using them for select functions.

Red flags useful to screen for gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases in patients with shoulder pain: A scoping review.

Musculoskeletal care

In most patients, shoulder pain has a neuromusculoskeletal cause. However, it might conceal other types of disorders, hiding a non-neuromusculoskeletal condition. The main aim of this scoping review is to map and summarise findings to identify red flags for gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases in the assessment of patients with shoulder pain.

Five databases were searched up to 31 May 2021. Additional studies have been identified through grey literature, and the reference lists of the included studies have been screened. Any study design and publication type have been considered to be eligible for inclusion. No time, geographical setting and language restrictions have been applied.

A total of 157 records have been identified, with 40 studies meeting the inclusion criteria (37 case reports, 2 retrospective studies and 1 systematic review with meta-analysis). The most prevalent red flags associated with shoulder pain were abdominal pain (14 cases) and abdominal discomfort (3 cases), reported by 47% of patients. As for comorbidities, hepato-gastric, cardiac, visceral and systemic diseases were the most common ones.

Abdominal pain, right and left hypochondriac pain, and epigastric pain represent the most prevalent symptoms in patients with an abdominal disease that could mimic a shoulder problem. Clinicians should be encouraged to screen for red flags when assessing patients with shoulder pain.