The latest medical research on Osteopath
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Foot evaluation via telephone and video virtual medical visits.Musculoskeletal care
Telemedicine plays a very important role in our society by allowing providers to treat patients who do not have easy access to a healthcare facility, especially in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We aimed to create an extensive, yet concise guide for medical providers to virtually evaluate patients with foot concerns.
This article outlines how to conduct a well-planned virtual consultation with specific questions, instructions, and examination manoeuvres to navigate musculoskeletal foot problems.
With this narrative review, we have provided a guide with suggestions, questions and interpretations of answers to help physicians new to the practice of telemedicine have successful virtual encounters with patients suffering from foot musculoskeletal ailments.
The effectiveness of group and home-based exercise on psychological status in people with ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Musculoskeletal care
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease in which the physical impact has been evaluated; however, the psychological consequences are less well explored. The primary aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of group versus home-based exercises on psychological status of patients with AS.
Six databases were searched until January 2020. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including group or home-based exercise interventions. Risk of bias (RoB) was evaluated using the Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool. Relative percentage difference (RPD) between groups and effect sizes were presented as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Five studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 240), outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety and mental health. Three studies were low-risk RoB, one study was high-risk RoB and one study there was 'some concerns' of bias. Group-based exercise was more effective than home-based exercise for improving depression at 6-week (RPD 18%) and 3-month (RPD 42%), anxiety (RPD 17%) and mental health (RPD 20%). Home-based exercise was more effective than control interventions for improving depression (RPD 33%). A meta-analysis demonstrated group-based exercises compared to home exercises, improved depression (SMD: -0.54; 95% CI: [-0.89; -0.18]; p = 0.003) and physical function (SMD: -0.49; 95% CI: [-0.84; -0.14]; p = 0.006).
Supervised group-based demonstrated improvements in depression, anxiety and mental health compared to home-based exercise. Individualised home-based exercise is more effective than no intervention for improving depression in people with AS.
The psychological impact of Behçet's disease.Musculoskeletal care
Bechet's disease (BD), a chronic multiorgan involving disease, has a significant impact on quality of life in spite of effective treatment modalities. Disease manifestations such as arthritis, orogenital ulcerations, rashes, angiitis, and neurological involvement affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through its impact on depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
We aimed explore the psychological impact of BD, taking into consideration the effect on the HRQoL, as well as the association with depression, anxiety, wellbeing, and fatigue.
This is a narrative review of the literature that looks into the association of BD on the HRQoL including all studies that have assessed such as association.
Depression and anxiety are prevalent among patients with BD, and contribute significantly to fatigue, a common symptom among BD patients. In addition, the psychological wellbeing is affected by the disease, however, more studies are needed to assess this relationship.
Depression and anxiety are strongly associated with BD, and contribute significantly to fatigue, a common symptom among BD patients. In addition, the psychological wellbeing is affected by the disease, however, more studies are needed to assess this relationship. Besides, the controlling factors of the psychological impact are still to be deciphered.
Patient's perception of exercise for management of chronic low back pain: A qualitative study exercise for the management of low back pain.Musculoskeletal care
Pathoanatomical beliefs about the cause of low back pain may negatively influence patients' perceptions of 'best care', such as the inclusion of exercise for low back pain (LBP) management. The aims of this study were to explore what patients receiving manual therapy are told and understand about their LBP diagnosis, and how this affects their perceptions regarding the role of exercise in the management of their LBP.
An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study design was utilised using semi-structured telephone interviews of patients who experience persistent LBP and seek care at an outpatient clinic at the University of South Wales. Ten participants were interviewed for the study (six male). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an IPA approach.
Three main themes were generated: (1) Constructing explanation of pain. (2) Expectations of exercise within care seeking behaviours. (3) Resolving conflict between exercise and back pain narratives. Participants linked their pain to a pathoanatomical cause, impacting their beliefs on exercise as a treatment approach.
Diagnostic models used by clinicians which are grounded within a pathoanatomical framework influence patients' perceptions and rationale for exercise. Exercise prescription using contemporary pain science and biopsychosocial approaches should be emphasised in practice and education.
Exercise physiologists use of pain neuroscience education for treating knee osteoarthritis: A qualitative interview study.Musculoskeletal care
To explore how Australian exercise physiologists (EPs) utilise pain neuroscience education (PNE) in their management of patients with knee osteoarthritis.
A semi-structured interview concerning a knee osteoarthritis vignette was designed to understand each participant's beliefs about physical activity, pain, injury and coping strategies and quantify their use of pain neuroscience concepts. Themes were derived from pre-determined pain target concepts as well as others that emerged from thematic analysis.
Thirty EPs (57% male, mean clinical experience 7 years (SD 7.1) participated in the semi-structured interviews. 13 themes emerged. EPs primarily focussed on: (1) active treatment strategies are better than passive, (2) pain and tissue damage rarely relate, and (3) learning about pain can help individuals and society. Other themes included the use of biomedical-based education, pain during exercise and delivery of PNE. Underutilised themes included the role of the brain in pain, validation that pain is real and personal, the concept of danger sensors as opposed to pain sensors, and pain depends on the balance between safety and danger.
EPs primarily advised on active treatment approaches (e.g. exercise and self-management). Quality of care is likely to improve through increasing focus on the systemic benefits of exercise in overcoming psychological barriers (e.g. fear avoidance and pain catastrophising) that may prevent exercise treatment engagement. Broadening PNE to reconceptualise knee osteoarthritis pain as a sign of an overprotective nervous system, rather than structural damage, may facilitate greater patient engagement in exercise therapies, thus improving patient outcomes.
No gain without pain education: Improving knowledge and biopsychosocial attitudes and beliefs in a predominantly non-health-related undergraduate target audience.Musculoskeletal care
Chronic pain (CP) impacts individuals and society and is the leading cause of disability globally. Pain education interventions are often evaluated in patients and health professional students, but not in non-health student groups. Increasing knowledge of pain may facilitate shifts in attitudes and beliefs towards sufferers. We report on changes in pain knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of predominantly non-health-related tertiary degree students participating in online education.
Quantitative cohort study design. Students reported demographics and completed the Chronic Pain Myth Scale and 12-item Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) before (T1) and after (T2) the 7-week online module at The University of Sydney in 2020.
Twenty-two students undertaking predominantly non-health-related bachelor's degrees (16.5% response rate, 90.9% female, mean = 19.5 years) participated. NPQ scores increased from 47.3% to 62.9%. Attitudes and beliefs towards biopsychosocial impact improved (p < 0.027) but not towards individuals suffering from CP or treatment of CP. A negative correlation was found between age and people suffering from CP (ρ = -0.437, p < 0.042) and age and towards treatment of CP; ρ = -0.556, p < 0.007) at T2.
Completing the elective online module resulted in improved knowledge and biopsychosocial attitudes towards CP in this predominantly non-health cohort, as reported in health and patient cohorts.
Use, and acceptability, of digital health technologies in musculoskeletal physical therapy: A survey of physical therapists and patients.Musculoskeletal care
Determine (a) frequency of digital health use to obtain/record clinical information (pre-COVID-19); (b) willingness to use digital technologies among physical therapists and patients with musculoskeletal conditions.
102 physical therapists, and 103 patients were recruited in Australia. An electronic survey ascertained (a) demographic/clinical characteristics, (b) frequency of methods to obtain and record clinical information; (c) willingness to use digital technologies to support musculoskeletal care.
Physical therapists mostly used non-digital methods to obtain subjective (e.g., face-to-face questioning, n = 98; 96.1%) and objective information (e.g., visual estimation, n = 95; 93.1%). The top three digital health technologies most frequently used by therapists: photo-based image capture (n = 19; 18.6%), accessing information logged/tracked by patients into a mobile app (n = 14; 13.7%), and electronic systems to capture subjective information that the patient fills in (n = 13; 12.7%). The top three technologies used by patients: activity trackers (n = 27; 26.2%), logging/tracking health information on mobile apps or websites (n = 12; 11.7%), and entering information on a computer (n = 12; 7.8%). Physical therapists were most willing to use technologies for: receiving diagnostic imaging results (n = 99; 97.1%), scheduling appointments (n = 92; 90.2%) and capturing diagnostic results (n = 92; 90.2%). Patients were most willing to use technologies for receiving notifications about health test results (n = 91; 88.4%), looking up health information (n = 83; 80.6%) and receiving personalised alerts/reminders (n = 80; 77.7%).
Physical therapists and patients infrequently use digital health technologies to support musculoskeletal care, but expressed some willingness to consider using them for select functions.
Red flags useful to screen for gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases in patients with shoulder pain: A scoping review.Musculoskeletal care
In most patients, shoulder pain has a neuromusculoskeletal cause. However, it might conceal other types of disorders, hiding a non-neuromusculoskeletal condition. The main aim of this scoping review is to map and summarise findings to identify red flags for gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases in the assessment of patients with shoulder pain.
Five databases were searched up to 31 May 2021. Additional studies have been identified through grey literature, and the reference lists of the included studies have been screened. Any study design and publication type have been considered to be eligible for inclusion. No time, geographical setting and language restrictions have been applied.
A total of 157 records have been identified, with 40 studies meeting the inclusion criteria (37 case reports, 2 retrospective studies and 1 systematic review with meta-analysis). The most prevalent red flags associated with shoulder pain were abdominal pain (14 cases) and abdominal discomfort (3 cases), reported by 47% of patients. As for comorbidities, hepato-gastric, cardiac, visceral and systemic diseases were the most common ones.
Abdominal pain, right and left hypochondriac pain, and epigastric pain represent the most prevalent symptoms in patients with an abdominal disease that could mimic a shoulder problem. Clinicians should be encouraged to screen for red flags when assessing patients with shoulder pain.
Service evaluation of telehealth in a physiotherapy musculoskeletal setting: Patient outcomes and results from risk stratification.Musculoskeletal care
Due to COVID-19 the ability to see all patients face-to-face (FTF) was removed. Services implemented telehealth to cater for patients requiring musculoskeletal care. A service evaluation was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of a mixed telehealth/FTF approach and identify if stratifying patients could help tailor intervention.
Retrospective analysis of data collected from patients who were assessed by Musculoskeletal Physiotherapists in one Scottish health board was undertaken. Patients were divided into low, medium and high risk sub-groups through the Keele STarT MSK tool. Outcome measures for pain and musculoskeletal health were taken at baseline/discharge along with satisfaction/preference. Descriptive and Inferential statistical analysis was conducted to establish whether changes in the outcome measures within and between risk sub-groups were statistically significant.
Pain level difference from baseline to discharge demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvements across all risk groups (N = 89). Musculoskeletal health demonstrated clinically significant improvements across all risk groups and statistically significant improvements in the medium/high risk groups but not the low risk. Patients with knee osteoarthritis and low back pain in the medium risk group had fewest appointments while patients with chronic shoulder pain had the most. The majority of patients were satisfied with all mediums but preferred FTF or an option between telehealth/FTF in the future.
Telehealth is a promising model of care when utilised in combination with FTF for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Through stratification, identifying specific conditions and shared decision making it may be possible to treat certain patient groups via telehealth.
The effectiveness of post-professional physical therapist training in the treatment of chronic low back pain using a propensity score approach with machine learning.Musculoskeletal care
Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability in the United States creating substantial hardships through negative social, financial, and health effects. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) accounted for above half of patients treated in physical therapy (PT) clinics for LBP. However, research shows small benefit from PT in CLBP treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests clinician-level training variables may affect outcomes, but requires further investigation to determine whether patients with CLBP benefit from treatment by providers with post-professional training. This study examined the relationship between clinician training levels and patient-reported outcomes in CLBP treatment.
Physical therapies were surveyed using a large patient outcome assessment system to determine and categorise them by level of post-professional education. To account for the possibility that clinicians with higher levels of training are referred more-complex patients, a machine learning approach was used to identify predictive variables for clinician group, then to construct propensity scores to account for differences between groups. Differences in functional status score change among pooled data were analysed using linear models adjusted for propensity scores.
There were no clinically meaningful differences in patient outcomes when comparing clinician post-professional training level. The propensity score method proved to be a valuable way to account for differences at baseline between groups.
Post-professional training does not appear to contribute to improved patient outcomes in the treatment of CLBP. This study demonstrates that propensity score analysis can be used to ensure that differences observed are true and not due to differences at baseline.
Lifestyle modification and inflammation in people with axial spondyloarthropathy-A scoping review.Musculoskeletal care
People with axial spondyloarthritis (AS) have an inflammatory profile, increasing the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidaemia. Consequently, AS is linked with co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical inactivity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity influence inflammation, but knowledge of the interaction between these with inflammation, disease activity, and CVD risk in AS is dominated by cross-sectional research.
A review of the literature was conducted between July 2020 and December 2021. The focus of the scoping review is to summarise longitudinal and randomised control trials in humans to investigate how tracking or modifying lifestyle influences inflammation and disease burden in patients with AS. KEY MESSAGES: (1) Lifestyle modifications, especially increased physical activity (PA), exercise, and smoking cessation, are critical in managing AS. (2) Smoking is negatively associated with patient reported outcome measures with AS, plus pharmaceutical treatment adherence, but links with structural radiographic progression are inconclusive. (3) Paucity of data warrant structured studies measuring inflammatory cytokine responses to lifestyle modification in AS.
Increased PA, exercise, and smoking cessation should be supported at every given opportunity to improve health outcomes in patients with AS. The link between smoking and radiographic progression needs further investigation. Studies investigating the longitudinal effect of body weight, alcohol, and psychosocial factors on disease activity and physical function in patients with AS are needed. Given the link between inflammation and AS, future studies should also incorporate markers of chronic inflammation beyond the standard C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurements.
The Keystone device as a clinical tool for measuring the supination resistance of the foot: A reliability study.Musculoskeletal care
The supination resistance test (SRT) is a kinetic test used in clinical and research contexts to estimate the amount of force required to supinate the foot. Previous studies either used a manual, less reliable version of this test or a more reliable instrumented version, but with devices inconvenient for clinical use. The clinically available Keystone device has been developed for the SRT, and could be better suited for clinical purposes. The objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Keystone device for the SRT.
Thirty young adults underwent two prospective experimental sessions, 1 week apart, during which SRT measures with the Keystone device were registered. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable difference (MDD) and limits of agreements (LoA).
The intrarater reliability of the SRT was good (ICC = 0.86, p < 0.001). The SEM, MDD and 95% LoA were 7.3, 20.4 and -31.6-14.3 N, respectively. The interrater reliability of the SRT was good (ICC = 0.76, p < 0.001). The SEM, MDD and 95% LoA were 9.0, 24.9 and -36.6-24.9 N, respectively.
The Keystone device is a reliable tool that can be used in clinical and research contexts. Prospective studies aiming to determine if SRT measures are predictors of musculoskeletal injuries or if they can predict the effects of external supports on the biomechanics of the foot and ankle are warranted.