The latest medical research on Occupational Therapy

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The Head Control Scale: Inter-Rater Reliability among Therapy Students.

Occupational Therapy in Health Care

Research has demonstrated the Head Control Scale to have almost perfect inter-rater reliability when utilized by experienced clinicians. This study...

Demand-side Employment Interventions for Individuals with Common Mental Disorders: a Scoping Review.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Traditional approaches to vocational rehabilitation tend to focus on improving worker skills and competencies rather than addressing barriers and i...

Demographic Covariates, Vocational Rehabilitation Services, and Employment Outcomes of Working-Age Adults with Anxiety Disorders: A Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

This study aimed to investigate the relationships between demographic covariates, vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, and employment outcomes of individuals with anxiety disorders. The specific research question for the current study investigate demographic variables and vocational rehabilitation services as predictors of competitive employment outcomes.

Data for the present study were extracted from the most recent United States Rehabilitation Service Administration 2018 Case Service Report (RSA-911) data. A purposeful selection, multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the case service report data of 9266 individuals with anxiety disorders who received vocational rehabilitation services based on their demographic variables and receipt of VR services.

The results indicated that African Americans and Latinx, people who have completed high school or more, people who do not receive disability-related benefits, and those who received more vocational rehabilitation services were more likely to be gainfully employed. In addition, receipt of financial support for life crises and occupational credentials (i.e., other services and maintenance services) and vocational rehabilitation counseling and guidance services were significant predictors of employment outcomes. Conversely, receipt of supported employment and transition services were negatively associated with employment outcome.

In the present study, we identified VR services that can improve and risk factors that can impede employment outcomes of people with anxiety disorders. We also identified medical, psychosocial, and vocational interventions that can lessen the effect of anxiety disorders on physical and mental health functioning.

Evaluation of health service outcomes for an audiology first point of contact retrocochlear clinic: a 6-year retrospective cohort study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Although existing studies of audiology first point of contact clinics which screen for retrocochlear pathology have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, they have provided limited information regarding service impacts. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate both the clinical and health service outcomes of an audiology first point of contact (FPOC) clinic for adults referred to ENT services with suspected retrocochlear pathology.

Retrospective cohort study.

All 1123 patients referred to the clinic over a 6-year period (2013-2019).

Most (73.7%) of the 1123 patients referred to the Retrocochlear Clinic were managed and discharged by the audiologist and did not require ENT appointment. Almost half (43.1%) were directly referred for MRI imaging, of which 4 (1.1%) were diagnosed with Vestibular Schwannoma. Waiting times for first appointments significantly (p < 0.001) reduced from a median of 748 days to 63.5 days over the 6-year period. Attendance rates also significantly (p < 0.001) improved over this time (from 52.2% to 90%). There were no adverse events reported. Of those discharged without attending an ENT appointment, 1.8% were rereferred to ENT within 12 months of discharge.

This audiology FPOC Retrocochlear Clinic was shown to be a safe and effective alternative service model.

Sick Leave Due to Stress, What are the Costs for Dutch Employers?

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Purpose Stress-related illnesses are prevalent in Western society, causing sick leave and putting a heavy economic burden on employers and society....

Effectiveness of Repetitive Facilitative Exercise Combined with Electrical Stimulation Therapy to Improve Very Severe Paretic Upper Limbs in with Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Occupational Therapy International

The difference in the effects of combined therapy with repetitive facilitative exercise (RFE) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on stroke upper limb paralysis was only reported by a pilot study; it has not been investigated in many patients.

We investigated the effect of combined therapy with RFE and NMES on stroke patients with severe upper paresis.

This study included 99 of the very severe paresis stroke patients with scores of zero or 1a in the Finger-Function test of the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS). We randomly divided the patients into four groups, namely, NMES, RFE, RFE under NMES, and conventional training (CT) groups. A total of 20 min of group-specific training in addition to 40 min of conventional exercise per day, seven times a week for 4 weeks after admission, was performed. The upper extremity items of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) were evaluated before and after the training period.

The total score gains of the FMA, FMA wrist item, and FMA finger item were significantly larger in the RFE under NMES group than those in the CT group (p < 0.05).

The combination of voluntary movement and electrical stimulation may promote the activation of paralyzed muscles and improve distal function for very severe paralyzed upper limbs.

Research on the Correlation between Multisource Big Data Virtual Assisted Preschool Education and the Development of Children's Innovative Ability.

Occupational Therapy International

Innovation ability is an important part of children's core literacy and the core goal of science curriculum. As one of the important contents of scientific literacy, innovation ability is the key ability of young children to make informed decisions when facing scientific problems in social and personal life. In order to adapt to the future life, it is very important for children to have the ability to innovate. This research will provide a reference for the cultivation of children's innovative ability.

In the process of database design, certain design principles need to be followed. In this paper, the system and user experience are greatly optimized by reasonably constructing table structure, allocating storage space, and establishing indexes. In this system, the MySQL database is used to store system data, such as user registration information, subscription information, and system-provided services, and the data uploaded by users that needs to be processed is stored in Hive. Although the GFP algorithm can solve the problem of load balancing, when the largest conditional pattern base of a frequent item is projected to other nodes, a large amount of data transmission will occur, resulting in increased communication between nodes. In order to solve this problem, the FP-growth parallel algorithm based on traffic optimization gives priority to assigning each frequent item to the node that needs the least traffic when grouping it. Results/Discussion. Experiments show that the TFP algorithm not only satisfies the load balance of nodes but also ensures a small amount of communication between nodes, which is more efficient than the traditional FP-growth parallel algorithm. The survey results of the influencing factors of children's innovation ability match the theoretical hypothesis, and different influencing factors have different effects on each dimension of children's innovation ability. Through the basic fit index of the model, the evaluation of the external quality of the model and the test of the internal quality of the model, it is shown that the survey results of the influencing factors of children's innovation ability match the theoretical hypothesis. The three influencing factors of family participation and investment, teacher teaching, and peer collaboration and communication have a positive role in promoting children's innovation ability.

The electrophysiological markers of hyperacusis: a scoping review.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Hyperacusis is known as a reduced tolerance to sounds perceived as normal to the majority of the population. There is currently no agreed definition, diagnostic tool, or objective measure of its occurrence. The purpose of this review is to catalogue the research to date on the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) to assess hyperacusis.

A step-by-step methodology was conducted following guidelines. Four databases were searched. A total of 3343 papers were identified. A final yield of 35 articles were retained for analysis.

The analysis identified four types of aetiologies to describe the hyperacusic population in AEP studies; developmental disorders (n = 19), neurological disorders (n = 3), induced hearing damage (n = 8) and idiopathic aetiology (n = 5). Electrophysiological measures were of short (n = 16), middle (n = 13) and long (n = 19) latencies, believed to reflect the activity of the ascending and descending pathways of the auditory system from periphery to cortex.

The results of this review revealed the potential use of electrophysiological measures for further understanding the mechanisms of hyperacusis. However, according to the disparity of concepts to define hyperacusis, definitions and populations need to be clarified before biomarkers specific to hyperacusis can be identified.

Impact of an Interoception-Based Program on Emotion Regulation in Autistic Children.

Occupational Therapy International

The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a 25-week school-based intervention and its ability to improve interoception and emotion regulation in an autistic pediatric population.

One-group pre- and posttest design implementing The Interoception Curriculum: A Guide to Developing Mindful Self-Regulation in a self-contained school. Participants were 14 (11 male, 3 female) students between 9 and 19 years old. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function 2 (BRIEF-2) and the Caregiver Questionnaire for Interoceptive Awareness-2nd Edition (CQIA-2) were used to determine changes in interoceptive awareness and emotion regulation.

Statistically significant improvements were found between the preintervention and postintervention scores for both interoceptive awareness and emotion regulation.

This was the first study to examine the Interoception Curriculum in its entirety, providing evidence that the use of the Interoception Curriculum is feasible in a school setting and suggests that this intervention is effective for improvement of interoception. Findings also suggest that this improvement in interoception is related to improvement in emotional regulation for an autistic pediatric population.

Strategies to Support Learning of Gross Motor Tasks in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review.

Physical and Occupational Therapy in

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display motor difficulties that may impact social and communication interactions and participation in everyday activities. These difficulties may be related to a difference in the way they learn new skills. Therefore, strategies to support motor learning to optimize skill acquisition and retention may be beneficial. This scoping review described current motor learning strategies used to optimize acquisition, retention, transfer, and generalizability of motor tasks in children with ASD.

Three databases were searched from inception through 2021. Studies were included if they involved participants with ASD ≤ 18 years old, evaluated learning of a novel gross motor task, manipulated a motor learning variable, and were written in English.

Twenty-two articles met eligibility criteria. Most articles examined strategies that manipulated the instruction of task, with few articles examining feedback or practice. Skill acquisition was the most represented motor learning outcome, with fewer studies examining retention, transfer, or generalizability.

Positive results in 95% of the articles suggest that the use of support strategies to optimize motor learning is feasible and beneficial for children with ASD, and that modifications to instruction, feedback, and practice schedules should be considered in motor interventions.

Development of a Computational Policy Model for Comparing the Effect of Compensation Scheme Policies on Recovery After Workplace Injury.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Introduction The direct comparison of real-world workers' compensation scheme management policies and their impact on aspects of scheme performance...

Perspectives of International Experts on Collaborative Tiered School-Based Physiotherapy Service Delivery.

Physical and Occupational Therapy in

The purpose of this Phase II study is to identify the perceived strengths and weaknesses of a collaborative tiered school-based physiotherapy (PT) service delivery model, considering its core attributes and tiered interventions identified in the first phase of the study (Phase I), and explore the potential facilitators and barriers to implementing the model internationally.

Three focus group discussions were conducted with international experts (n = 16) Discussions focused on the core attributes and tiered interventions of the model in Phase I. Data were analyzed using a framework approach and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis.

Themes surrounding the perceived characteristics of the model included comprehensiveness, guiding document, collaborative approach, and inclusiveness. Additional themes were related to the implementation that included governance, professional roles, workload, implementation in different countries, advocacy, and available opportunities. A framework table was tabulated to present the strengths and weaknesses of the service delivery model and available opportunities, and potential barriers to implementation.

This study revealed international perspectives regarding a proposed collaborative tiered school-based PT service delivery model and presented a framework to guide clinicians, researchers, and policymakers for the implementation of tiered approaches.Relationships between health and education have been more pronounced in recent years, and interactions between healthcare and the education system have evolved (Zajacova & Lawrence, 2018). Recent recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNESCO suggest that "every school should be a health-promoting school", and provided intervention guidelines for the global standards for health-promoting schools (WHO., 2021a). In the meantime, education sectors in different countries have shifted inclusive education policy, with a focus not only on students with disabilities, but all students (Whitley & Hollweck, 2020). In conjunction with the changes in both education and school health services (WHO., 2021b), researchers in the field of speech-language therapy (SLT), occupational therapy (OT) (Camden et al., 2021), and physiotherapy (PT) (Cinar et al., 2021), have been exploring tiered approaches to delivering services in schools, and searching for collaborative strategies to encourage interaction between stakeholders in health and education sectors.