The latest medical research on Occupational Therapy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about occupational therapy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Telerehabilitation for Children and Youth with Developmental Disabilities and Their Families: A Systematic Review.

Physical and Occupational Therapy in

To determine the level of evidence for the effectiveness of telerehabilitation against comparison interventions in improving child- and parent-related outcomes in children and youth with developmental disabilities.

A systematic approach, comprised of a comprehensive search; transparent study selection, data extraction, quality assessment by independent reviewers; and synthesis of sufficiently similar data (per diagnostic group, health profession, and overall level of evidence for each outcome) was undertaken.

Fifty-five studies (29 randomized trials) were included across six diagnostic groups and ten health professions. Common telerehabilitation targets varied across diagnostic groups and included motor function, behavior, language, and parental self-efficacy. Telerehabilitation was found to be either more effective or as effective versus comparison intervention in improving 46.9% or 53.1% of outcomes, respectively. It was never found to be detrimental or less effective. Strong to moderate, limited, and insufficient levels of evidence were found for 36.5%, 24.5%, and 38.6% of the outcomes, respectively.

There is sufficient evidence suggesting that telerehabilitation is a promising alternative when face-to-face care is limited. It is comparable to usual care and is more effective than no treatment. Blending in-person and telerehabilitation approaches could be beneficial for the post-pandemic future of rehabilitation in pediatric care.

A qualitative investigation of the hearing and hearing-aid related emotional states experienced by adults with hearing loss.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Despite previous research into the psychosocial impact of hearing loss, little detail is known regarding the hearing and hearing-aid-related emotional states experienced by adults with hearing loss in everyday life, and how they occur.

Individual remote semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed with reflexive and inductive thematic analysis.

Seventeen participants (9 female) with hearing loss (age range 44-74 years) participated. Ten used bilateral hearing aids, four unilateral and three used no hearing aids at the time of interviews.

The four main themes which emerged from the data were: identity and self-image, autonomy and control, personality and dominant emotional states and situational cost/benefit analysis with respect to use of hearing aids.

This study goes beyond previous literature by providing a more detailed insight into emotions related to hearing and hearing-aids in adults. Hearing loss causes a multitude of negative emotions, while hearing aids generally reduce negative emotions and allow for more positive emotions. However, factors such as lifestyle, personality, situational control, the relationship with those in conversation and the attribution of blame are key to individual emotional experience. Clinical implications include the important role of social relationships in assessment and counselling.

Evaluation of auditory pathway excitability using a pre-operative trans-tympanic electrically evoked auditory brainstem response under local anesthesia in cochlear implant candidates.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Subjective promontory stimulation is used to evaluate cochlear implant (CI) candidacy, but the test reliability is low. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) can verify the function of the auditory system objectively. This study's procedure uses a trans-tympanic rounded bent-tip electrode to perform pre-operative EABR under local anaesthesia (LA-TT-EABR) using MED-EL Software and Hardware. This study aimed to determine usability and effectiveness for CI candidates.

We hypothesised that LA-TT-EABR waveforms of good quality would be related to successful hearing outcomes. We assumed that the duration of hearing loss/deafness was a confounding factor to study outcomes.

19 borderline CI candidates.

Positive LA-TT-EABR results were confirmed in 14 patients. LA-TT-EABR's mean latency was 2.05 ± 0.31 ms (eII/eIII) and 4.24 ± 0.39 ms (eIV/eV). Latencies weren't statistically different from intra-operative EABR elicited by basal CI contacts. All positive LA-TT-EABR patients benefitted from CI and speech performance improved one year after implantation. One patient with negative LA-TT-EABR was cochlear-implanted and had no hearing sensation.

LA-TT-EABR is a tool in the frame of pre-operative objective testing the auditory pathway. It seems useful for clinical testing CI candidacy. Based on this study's outcomes, LA-TT-EABR should be recommended for uncertain CI candidates.

Correlation Analysis between Residents' Income Satisfaction and Mental Health Based on Big Data.

Occupational Therapy International

This paper presents an in-depth study and analysis of the correlation between satisfaction with rural residents' income and mental health well-bein...

The Effect of ICF-Core Set-Based Occupational Therapy Interventions on the Function and Satisfaction of Individuals with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Occupational Therapy in Health Care

Stroke can affect all aspects of a person's health and functioning. Therefore, it is important occupational therapists, have a comprehensive unders...

Research on Children's Cognitive Education Based on Pathological Linguistics.

Occupational Therapy International

The value of pathological linguistics in children's cognitive development has attracted more and more experts' attention. Based on pathological lin...

Art Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review.

Am J Occ Therapy

To provide occupational therapists evidence of the benefit of creative arts interventions for children with ASD by evaluating treatment efficacy and connecting the evidence with the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (4th ed.; OTPF-4).

We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to extract data. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) Level 1b or 2b study; (2) quantitative data; (3) published in English; (4) population of children (ages <18 yr); (5) primary diagnosis of ASD; and (6) creative arts intervention in the forms of drawing, painting, or coloring; music; or theater.

Creative arts interventions benefited children with ASD in two OTPF-4 areas (process and social interaction) pertaining to the Performance Skills domain and one OTPF-4 area (body functions) pertaining to the Client Factors domain. We found similar effects for group and individual intervention sessions, and significant improvements required multiple sessions.

Our findings provide evidence for the efficacy of creative arts interventions to enhance occupation-based outcomes for children with ASD. What This Article Adds: Our findings support occupational therapy practitioners' use of creative arts interventions to improve OTPF-4-based client factors and process and social interaction skills for children with ASD.

Diagnostic value of preoperative measures in selecting post-lingually deafened candidates for cochlear implantation - a different approach.

International Journal of Epidemiology

We examined which preoperative diagnostic measure is most suited to serve as a selection criterion to determine adult cochlear implantation (CI) candidacy.

Preoperative diagnostic measures included pure tone audiometry (PTA; 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), speech perception tests (SPT) unaided with headphones and with best-aided hearing aids (in quiet and in noise). Gain in speech perception was used as outcome measure. Performance of preoperative measures was analysed using the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

This retrospective longitudinal cohort study included 552 post-lingually deafened adults with CI in a tertiary referral centre in the Netherlands.

Best-aided SPT in quiet was the most accurate in defining which CI candidates improved their speech perception in quiet postoperatively. For an improvement in speech perception in noise, the best-aided SPT in noise was the most accurate in defining which adult would benefit from CI. PTA measures performed lower compared to the SPT measures.

SPT is better than PTA for selecting CI candidates who will benefit in terms of speech perception. Best-aided SPT in noise was the most accurate for indicating an improvement of speech perception in noise but was only evaluated in high performers with residual hearing. These insights will assist in formulating more effective selection criteria for CI.

Barriers to hearing aid adoption among older adults in mainland China.

International Journal of Epidemiology

This study aimed to explore barriers to hearing aid adoption amongst older adults in mainland China.

Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis.

The study included 12 older adults who had seen ENTs and had not adopted hearing aids.

Three overarching themes and ten subthemes were generated to explain why older adults in mainland China do not adopt hearing aids: (1) Desire a cure for hearing loss, (2) Lack of a perceived need for hearing aids, and (3) Negative impressions of, and misconceptions about, hearing aids.

Although barriers are similar to those reported in Western societies, the under-developed hearing healthcare infrastructure, Chinese health beliefs, Chinese culture, and low health literacy play important roles in preventing older adults to adopt hearing aids in mainland China. To identify barriers to hearing aid adoption and address them, hearing health practitioners should learn what older adults know about their hearing loss, how they perceive the effects of hearing loss, and how they feel about hearing aids.

Reliability and Validity of the Korean Child Sensory Profile-2.

Am J Occ Therapy

To investigate the test-retest and interrater reliability and the convergent and discriminant validity of the K-CSP-2.

The K-CSP-2 was tested for reliability and validity using the Korean version of the Sensory Profile (K-SP) and the Korean Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (K-BASC-2).

The K-CSP-2 demonstrated good test-retest and interrater reliability. The K-CSP-2 was correlated with the K-SP and the K-BASC-2. Children with ASD had higher K-CSP-2 scores than TD children. The discriminant analysis classified children with ASD and TD children with an overall accuracy of 89%.

The K-CSP-2 can be used to assess the sensory processing of Korean children consistently across time and raters. The instrument maintains the quadrant factors of the K-SP and relates to adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. The K-CSP-2 can distinguish children with ASD from TD children. What This Article Adds: Korean occupational therapy practitioners can use the K-CSP-2 to identify sensory processing patterns and to support the evaluation of children with ASD.

Exploring Knowledge Translation Concepts in U.S. Occupational Therapy Research: A Content Analysis.

Am J Occ Therapy

To answer the question "To what extent does published U.S.-based occupational therapy research that is explicitly underpinned by a KT theory, model, or framework reflect processes and concepts outlined in the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework?"

KTA was used as a conceptual foundation.

Multiple sources of data mapped onto concepts in the knowledge creation cycle and each of the first five concepts of the knowledge action cycle. We found that three concepts from the knowledge action cycle-monitor knowledge use, evaluate outcomes, and sustain knowledge use-were not well represented in the sample.

Future research on the monitoring, evaluation, and sustained use of occupational therapy interventions is needed. The adoption of new interventions is important, and the knowledge of how they are sustained in practice will facilitate the clinical integration of future interventions. What This Article Adds: Occupational therapy research that uses KT lacks an emphasis on monitoring and sustaining evidence-informed interventions. Future research on the integration of such interventions into clinical practice is needed so that best practices in occupational therapy can be promoted.

Valuing home modifications: The street-level policy work of occupational therapists in Australian home modification practice.

Australian Occupational Therapy Journal

Occupational therapists recommending home modifications in Australia are often required by funding bodies to consider 'value' and 'value for money' (VFM); however, clear guidance on how to define and apply these concepts is not always provided. This paper reports on a qualitative study examining how the concepts of value and VFM are currently understood and operationalised by occupational therapists in Australian home modification practice, with the aim of positively contributing to both policy and practice in this area.

The study utilised constructivist grounded theory to collect and analyse qualitative data from 20 occupational therapists who were currently working across Australia and had professional experience in home modifications.

The grounded theory that was derived from the analysis highlights the unique position that occupational therapists occupy in home modification work as they strive to align the values of different stakeholders to create solutions that all consider to be valuable. In the absence of consistent frameworks or methods for determining value and VFM, evidence also emerged of occupational therapists using a range of individual approaches such as using formal and informal care as metrics, cheapest option approaches, and comparative costing.

In addition to a clear need for consistent and transparent approaches to understanding and operationalising VFM in home modifications, there is also a need for further investigation into the value systems that underpin this work. A conceptualisation of occupational therapists as street-level policy agents has proven useful here as it highlights the position occupational therapists occupy, enacting, making, and, at times, challenging policy in day-to-day practice as they work to align the values of the various stakeholders.