The latest medical research on Cerebral Palsy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cerebral palsy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Long-term outcome of extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis in children with cerebral palsy using modified Grice technique.

(Cerebral palsy[MeSH Major

The purpose of the study is to describe and analyse long-term results of the modified Grice procedure with specially prepared pre-shaped autograft ...

The social predictors of paternal antenatal mental health and their associations with maternal mental health in the Queensland Family Cohort prospective study.

Cerebral Palsy

Antenatal depression (AND) affects 1 in 10 fathers, potentially negatively impacting maternal mental health and well-being during and after the tra...

Hepatosplenic T Cell Lymphoma: Diagnostic Conundrum.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a very rare and aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma that comprises less than 1% of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas...

Global prevalence of cerebral palsy: A systematic analysis.

Cerebral Palsy

To determine trends and current estimates in regional and global prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP).

A systematic analysis of data from participating CP registers/surveillance systems and population-based prevalence studies (from birth year 1995) was performed. Quality and risk of bias were assessed for both data sources. Analyses were conducted for pre-/perinatal, postnatal, neonatal, and overall CP. For each region, trends were statistically classified as increasing, decreasing, heterogeneous, or no change, and most recent prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine current birth prevalence estimates (from birth year 2010).

Forty-one regions from 27 countries across five continents were represented. Pre-/perinatal birth prevalence declined significantly across Europe and Australia (11 out of 14 regions), with no change in postneonatal CP. From the limited but increasing data available from regions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), birth prevalence for pre-/perinatal CP was as high as 3.4 per 1000 (95% CI 3.0-3.9) live births. Following meta-analyses, birth prevalence for pre-/perinatal CP in regions from high-income countries (HICs) was 1.5 per 1000 (95% CI 1.4-1.6) live births, and 1.6 per 1000 (95% CI 1.5-1.7) live births when postneonatal CP was included.

The birth prevalence estimate of CP in HICs declined to 1.6 per 1000 live births. Data available from LMICs indicated markedly higher birth prevalence.

Different corticosteroids and regimens for accelerating fetal lung maturation for babies at risk of preterm birth.

Cerebral Palsy

Despite the widespread use of antenatal corticosteroids to prevent respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants, there is currently no consensus as to the type of corticosteroid to use, dose, frequency, timing of use or the route of administration.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, on maternal morbidity and mortality, and on the child and adult in later life, of administering different types of corticosteroids (dexamethasone or betamethasone), or different corticosteroid dose regimens, including timing, frequency and mode of administration.

At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.

We included 11 trials (2494 women and 2762 infants) in this update, all of which recruited women who were at increased risk of preterm birth or had a medical indication for preterm birth. All trials were conducted in high-income countries. Dexamethasone versus betamethasone Nine trials (2096 women and 2319 infants) compared dexamethasone versus betamethasone. All trials administered both drugs intramuscularly, and the total dose in the course was consistent (22.8 mg or 24 mg), but the regimen varied. We assessed one new study to have no serious risk of bias concerns for most outcomes, but other studies were at moderate (six trials) or high (two trials) risk of bias due to selection, detection and attrition bias. Our GRADE assessments ranged between high- and low-certainty, with downgrades due to risk of bias and imprecision.  Maternal outcomes The only maternal primary outcome reported was chorioamnionitis (death and puerperal sepsis were not reported). Although the rate of chorioamnionitis was lower with dexamethasone, we did not find conclusive evidence of a difference between the two drugs (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 1.06; 1 trial, 1346 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The proportion of women experiencing maternal adverse effects of therapy was lower with dexamethasone; however, there was not conclusive evidence of a difference between interventions (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.13; 2 trials, 1705 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Infant outcomes We are unsure whether the choice of drug makes a difference to the risk of any known death after randomisation, because the 95% CI was compatible with both appreciable benefit and harm with dexamethasone (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.63; 5 trials, 2105 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). The choice of drug may make little or no difference to the risk of RDS (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.22; 5 trials, 2105 infants; high-certainty evidence). While there may be little or no difference in the risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), there was substantial unexplained statistical heterogeneity in this result (average (a) RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.81; 4 trials, 1902 infants; I² = 62%; low-certainty evidence). We found no evidence of a difference between the two drugs for chronic lung disease (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.34; 1 trial, 1509 infants; moderate-certainty evidence), and we are unsure of the effects on necrotising enterocolitis, because there were few events in the studies reporting this outcome (RR 5.08, 95% CI 0.25 to 105.15; 2 studies, 441 infants; low-certainty evidence). Longer-term child outcomes Only one trial consistently followed up children longer term, reporting  at two years' adjusted age. There is probably little or no difference between dexamethasone and betamethasone in the risk of neurodevelopmental disability at follow-up (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.22; 2 trials, 1151 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether the choice of drug makes a difference to the risk of visual impairment (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.15; 1 trial, 1227 children; low-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference between the drugs for hearing impairment (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.16; 1 trial, 1227 children; moderate-certainty evidence), motor developmental delay (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.20; 1 trial, 1166 children; moderate-certainty evidence) or intellectual impairment (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20; 1 trial, 1161 children; moderate-certainty evidence). However, the effect estimate for cerebral palsy is compatible with both an important increase in risk with dexamethasone, and no difference between interventions (RR 2.50, 95% CI 0.97 to 6.39; 1 trial, 1223 children; low-certainty evidence). No trials followed the children beyond early childhood. Comparisons of different preparations and regimens of corticosteroids We found three studies that included a comparison of a different regimen or preparation of either dexamethasone or betamethasone (oral dexamethasone 32 mg versus intramuscular dexamethasone 24 mg; betamethasone acetate plus phosphate versus betamethasone phosphate; 12-hourly betamethasone versus 24-hourly betamethasone). The certainty of the evidence for the main outcomes from all three studies was very low, due to  small sample size and  risk of bias. Therefore, we were limited in our ability to draw conclusions from any of these studies.

Overall, it remains unclear whether there are important differences between dexamethasone and betamethasone, or between one regimen and another.  Most trials compared dexamethasone versus betamethasone. While for most infant and early childhood outcomes there may be no difference between these drugs, for several important outcomes for the mother, infant and child the evidence was inconclusive and did not rule out significant benefits or harms. The evidence on different antenatal corticosteroid regimens was sparse, and does not support the use of one particular corticosteroid regimen over another.

Chronic Pain in Young People With Cerebral Palsy: Activity Limitations and Coping Strategies.

Cerebral Palsy

To describe the effect of chronic pain on the activities of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy, to describe coping strategies, and to examine associations between effect of pain on activities, coping strategies, and level of pain.

Using an online survey, 27, 8- to 18-year-olds with cerebral palsy and chronic pain or their parents reported pain intensity, distribution, activity limitations (using the Child Activity Limitations Interview-21), and coping strategies (using the Pediatric Pain Coping Inventory).

Pain intensity ranged from 3 to 10, and 89% reported pain in multiple areas, principally the lower limbs. Individuals reporting higher pain intensity had more activity limitations and were more likely to use catastrophizing coping strategies.

Coping strategies may be an important mediator between pain and its effect on activities in children with cerebral palsy. Individualized pain management should be based on routine pain assessment.

Intervention Mapping of a Gamified Therapy Prescription App for Children With Disabilities: User-Centered Design Approach.

Cerebral Palsy

Mobile health (mHealth) apps for children are increasing in availability and scope. Therapy (physiotherapy, speech pathology, and occupational therapy) prescription apps to improve home or school program adherence work best when developed to be highly engaging for children and when they incorporate behavior change techniques (BCTs) within their design.

The aim of this study was to describe the development of a user-centered therapy prescription app for children (aged 6-12 years) with neurodevelopmental disabilities (eg, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability) incorporating intervention mapping (IM) and gamified design.

We used an iterative, user-centered app development model incorporating the first 3 steps of IM. We conducted a needs analysis with user feedback from our previous mHealth app study, a literature review, and a market audit. Change objectives were then specified in alignment with the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness identified in self-determination theory. From these objectives, we then selected BCTs, stipulating parameters for effectiveness and how each BCT would be operationalized. A gamification design was planned and implemented focusing on maximizing engagement in children. In total, 2 rounds of consultations with parents, teachers, and therapists and 1 round of prototype app testing with children were conducted to inform app development, with a final iteration developed for further testing.

The IM process resulted in the specification of app elements, self-determination theory-informed BCTs, that were embedded into the app design. The gamification design yielded the selection of a digital pet avatar with a fantasy anime visual theme and multiple layers of incentives earned by completing prescribed therapy activities. Consultation groups with professionals working with children with disabilities (4 therapists and 3 teachers) and parents of children with disabilities (n=3) provided insights into the motivation of children and the pragmatics of implementing app-delivered therapy programs that informed the app development. User testing with children with disabilities (n=4) highlighted their enthusiasm for the app and the need for support in the initial phase of learning the app. App quality testing (Mobile Application Rating Scale-user version) with the children yielded means (out of 5) of 4.5 (SD 0.8) for engagement, 3.3 (SD 1.6) for function, 3.3 (SD 1.7) for aesthetics, and 4.3 (SD 1.1) for subjective quality.

mHealth apps designed for children can be greatly enhanced with a systematic yet flexible development process considering the specific contextual needs of the children with user-centered design, addressing the need for behavior change using the IM process, and maximizing engagement with gamification and strong visual design.

Program evaluation of an adapted PEERS® social skills program in young adults with autism spectrum disorder and/or mild intellectual impairment and social skills difficulties.

Cerebral Palsy

Social challenges are common for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or mild intellectual impairment, yet few evidence-based interventions exist to address these challenges. PEERS®, the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills, has been shown to be effective in improving the social skills of young adults with ASD; however, it requires a significant time commitment for parents of young adults. As such, this mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the experiences of young adults, parents and PEERS® social coaches participating in an adapted PEERS® program, and to evaluate its acceptability and efficacy.

Young adults with ASD and/or mild intellectual impairment participated in a 16-week PEERS® program. Parents and PEERS® social coaches attended fewer, condensed sessions, where they learnt program content to support the young adults' social skill development at home and in the community. Focus groups were conducted post intervention. Quantitative pre-post assessment using the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, the Test of Young Adult Social Skills Knowledge, and Quality of Socialization Questionnaire-Young Adults was completed by young adults. The Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition was completed by young adults and their parents.

Qualitative results revealed that, taken together, young adults, parents and PEERS® social coaches all felt that the adapted PEERS® program was 'challenging, but worth it'. The program was acceptable with a 93% attendance rate across all sessions. Whilst young adults' perceptions of their own social functioning did not change post-intervention, their knowledge of social skills content improved significantly (p < 0.05). Parent perceptions of young adults' social responsiveness also improved (p < 0.05).

Social skill knowledge, social responsiveness, and social engagement improved significantly following the completion of the adapted PEERS® program. It was deemed acceptable and worthwhile by young adults, their parents and PEERS® social coaches.

'Finding what works for me' - a qualitative study of factors influencing community gym participation for young adults with cerebral palsy.

Cerebral Palsy

To understand the factors influencing participation in community-based gym exercise for young adults with cerebral palsy (CP).

A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. Interviews were completed with 39 young adults with CP (15-30 years, GMFCS I-IV) following a peer-supported, gym-based exercise program called FitSkills.

"Finding what works for me" was the overarching theme. Through their gym experiences, young adults with CP identified four interrelated main themes that influenced whether gym participation "worked" for them, or not: (i) psychological factors, (ii) a "social" participation context, (iii) organisational and logistical support, and (iv) cost. The social context of FitSkills was perceived to positively influence psychological health outcomes and attenuate perceived barriers to participation. Organisational support facilitated their initial attendance, while logistical effort and cost affected ongoing or future gym participation.

Social involvement plays a critical role in positive participation experiences in community exercise settings for young adults with CP. Clinicians supporting exercise participation for this group should prioritise intervention strategies that promote social engagement and mental wellbeing. Collaboration between clinicians, community leisure organisations, and funding bodies may be essential to overcome logistical and financial barriers during the transition to adulthood. Implications for rehabilitationThe main factor influencing the attendance, involvement, and ongoing exercise preferences of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) was the social context of the participation experience.Altering the social environment through peer-mentoring can facilitate participation in the gym.Young adults with CP consider mental wellbeing to be an important motivator and outcome of gym-based exercise participation.Mental wellbeing should be prioritised for health promotion for this group.Collaboration between recreation organisations, health services, clinicians, and consumers to address logistical and financial factors can facilitate positive physical activity participation experiences in community settings.

Associations between COVID-19 lockdown and post-lockdown on the mental health of pregnant women, postpartum women and their partners from the Queensland family cohort prospective study.

Cerebral Palsy

There are very few developed countries where physical isolation and low community transmission has been reported for COVID-19 but this has been the experience of Australia. The impact of physical isolation combined with low disease transmission on the mental health of pregnant women is currently unknown and there have been no studies examining the psychological experience for partners of pregnant women during lockdown. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020 and post lockdown from August 2020 on the mental health of pregnant women or postpartum women and their partners.

Pregnant women and their partners were prospectively recruited to the study before 24 weeks gestation and completed various questionnaires related to mental health and general wellbeing at 24 weeks gestation and then again at 6 weeks postpartum. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used as outcome measures for the assessment of mental health in women and DASS-21 was administered to their partners. This analysis encompasses 3 time points where families were recruited; before the pandemic (Aug 2018-Feb 2020), during lockdown (Mar-Aug 2020) and after the first lockdown was over (Sept-Dec 2020).

There was no significant effect of COVID-19 lockdown and post lockdown on depression or postnatal depression in women when compared to a pre-COVID-19 subgroup. The odds of pregnant women or postpartum women experiencing severe anxiety was more than halved in women during lockdown relative to women in the pre-COVID-19 period (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.27-0.81; P = 0.006). Following lockdown severe anxiety was comparable to the pre-COVID-19 women. Lockdown did not have any substantial effects on stress scores for pregnant and postpartum women. However, a substantial decrease of over 70% in the odds of severe stress was observed post-lockdown relative to pre-COVID-19 levels. Partner's depression, anxiety and stress did not change significantly with lockdown or post lockdown.

A reproductive age population appear to be able to manage the impact of lockdown and the pandemic with some benefits related to reduced anxiety.

Delivering paediatric precision medicine: Genomic and environmental considerations along the causal pathway of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders.

Cerebral Palsy

Precision medicine refers to treatments that are targeted to an individual's unique characteristics. Precision medicine for neurodevelopmental diso...

Biofeedback assisted relaxation training and distraction therapy for pain in children undergoing botulinum neurotoxin A injections: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

Cerebral Palsy

To compare biofeedback assisted relaxation training (BART) with distraction therapy for pain during botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) treatment.

This was a crossover randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants were 7 years and older with neurological conditions. Participants were randomized to receive BART or distraction during their first BoNT-A treatment, followed by the alternative intervention in their subsequent BoNT-A treatment. BART was delivered via BrightHearts, an interactive heart-rate-responsive application. Outcomes were pain (Faces Pain Scale - Revised), fear (Children's Fear Scale), and anxiety (numerical rating scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Demographics, paired t-tests, and linear mixed models were used to compare outcomes.

Thirty-eight participants (mean [SD] age 13 years 5 months [3 years 4 months], 20 males, 34 with cerebral palsy) completed both interventions. There were non-significant differences in overall pain (mean difference - 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.91 to 0.80, p = 0.902) and worst pain (mean difference 0.37, 95% CI -0.39 to 1.13, p = 0.334) when using BART and distraction therapy. There were non-significant differences in fear and anxiety between interventions. Younger age, heightened pre-procedural state anxiety, and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels III and IV were associated with poorer outcomes (p < 0.05). Participants who received BART before distraction therapy reported lower pain and anxiety scores during both BoNT-A treatments (p < 0.05).

Children reported similar pain when using BART and distraction therapy. Those who used BART before distraction therapy reported lower pain and anxiety during both treatments.