The latest medical research on Motor Neuron Disease

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about motor neuron disease gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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NUP62 localizes to ALS/FTLD pathological assemblies and contributes to TDP-43 insolubility.

Motor Neuron Disease

A G4C2 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of ALS and FTLD (C9-ALS/FTLD) with cytoplasmic TDP-43 i...

Use and subjective experience of the impact of motor-assisted movement exercisers in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a multicenter observational study.

Motor Neuron Disease

Motor-assisted movement exercisers (MME) are devices that assist with physical therapy in domestic settings for people living with ALS. This observ...

Novel App knock-in mouse model shows key features of amyloid pathology and reveals profound metabolic dysregulation of microglia.

Molecular Neurodegeneration

Genetic mutations underlying familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) were identified decades ago, but the field is still in search of transformative therapies for patients. While mouse models based on overexpression of mutated transgenes have yielded key insights in mechanisms of disease, those models are subject to artifacts, including random genetic integration of the transgene, ectopic expression and non-physiological protein levels. The genetic engineering of novel mouse models using knock-in approaches addresses some of those limitations. With mounting evidence of the role played by microglia in AD, high-dimensional approaches to phenotype microglia in those models are critical to refine our understanding of the immune response in the brain.

We engineered a novel App knock-in mouse model (AppSAA) using homologous recombination to introduce three disease-causing coding mutations (Swedish, Arctic and Austrian) to the mouse App gene. Amyloid-β pathology, neurodegeneration, glial responses, brain metabolism and behavioral phenotypes were characterized in heterozygous and homozygous AppSAA mice at different ages in brain and/ or biofluids. Wild type littermate mice were used as experimental controls. We used in situ imaging technologies to define the whole-brain distribution of amyloid plaques and compare it to other AD mouse models and human brain pathology. To further explore the microglial response to AD relevant pathology, we isolated microglia with fibrillar Aβ content from the brain and performed transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses and in vivo brain imaging to measure energy metabolism and microglial response. Finally, we also characterized the mice in various behavioral assays.

Leveraging multi-omics approaches, we discovered profound alteration of diverse lipids and metabolites as well as an exacerbated disease-associated transcriptomic response in microglia with high intracellular Aβ content. The AppSAA knock-in mouse model recapitulates key pathological features of AD such as a progressive accumulation of parenchymal amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits, altered astroglial and microglial responses and elevation of CSF markers of neurodegeneration. Those observations were associated with increased TSPO and FDG-PET brain signals and a hyperactivity phenotype as the animals aged.

Our findings demonstrate that fibrillar Aβ in microglia is associated with lipid dyshomeostasis consistent with lysosomal dysfunction and foam cell phenotypes as well as profound immuno-metabolic perturbations, opening new avenues to further investigate metabolic pathways at play in microglia responding to AD-relevant pathogenesis. The in-depth characterization of pathological hallmarks of AD in this novel and open-access mouse model should serve as a resource for the scientific community to investigate disease-relevant biology.

Determining Copper and Zinc Content in Superoxide Dismutase Using Electron Capture Dissociation Under Native Spray Conditions.

Motor Neuron Disease

Localizing metal binding to specific sites in proteins remains a challenging analytical problem in vitro and in vivo. Although metal binding can be...

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid: a potential therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases.

Motor Neuron Disease

Most neurodegenerative disorders are diseases of protein homeostasis, with misfolded aggregates accumulating. The neurodegenerative process is medi...

Axial length shortening after orthokeratology and its relationship with myopic control.

Motor Neuron Disease

To determine the pattern of axial variation in subjects with initial shortened axial length during the entire period of orthokeratology and to discuss the possibility of shortened AL after one month of orthokeratology becoming a predictor of myopia control.

This study retrospectively included 106 children with myopia aged 8 to 14 wearing OK lenses. Fifty-four eyes with shortened axial length (AL) at the first-month visit were enrolled in the axial length shortening (ALS) group, and fifty-two eyes without shortened AL were enrolled in the no axial length shortening (NALS) group. Axial length and refractive error at baseline and within the entire period of orthokeratology (20 months), including fitting, washout period and re-wear, were measured. Eighty-five children who started wearing single vision spectacle were also included as a control group.

In the ALS group, AL became longer after shortening and slowly exceeded baseline; afterward, AL experienced a rebound during the washout period and shortened again if OK lenses were re-worn. After washout period, significant difference in AL (ALS:0.28 ± 0.19 mm, NALS: 0.52 ± 0.17 mm) and spherical equivalent (ALS:-0.43 ± 0.44D, NALS:-0.91 ± 0.40D) between the two groups were found(P<0.05). The changes in AL and SE were both significantly correlated with the changes in AL at the first-month visit (P<0.05).

After AL is shortened in the initial stage of orthokeratology, it will experience a rapid rebound during the washout period, and the shortening can reappear when re-wearing OK lenses. Hence, the evaluation of orthokeratology will be more objective and accurate after the wash-out period. In addition, the existence and degree of axial shortening can be used as a predictor of long-term myopia development.

Diagnosis and Clinical Features in Autoimmune-Mediated Movement Disorders.

Journal of Movement Disorders

Movement disorders are common manifestations in autoimmune-mediated encephalitis. This group of diseases is suspected to be triggered by infection ...

Development of Clinical Milestones in Parkinson's Disease After Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation.

Journal of Movement Disorders

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients does not halt disease progression, as these patients will progress and develop disabling non-levodopa responsive symptoms. These features may act as milestones that represent the overall functionality of patients after DBS. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of clinical milestones in advanced PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS.

The study evaluated PD patients who underwent STN-DBS at baseline up to their last follow-up using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. The symptoms of hallucinations, dysarthria, dysphagia, frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive impairment and the loss of autonomy were chosen as the clinical milestones.

A total of 106 patients with a mean age of 47.21 ± 10.52 years at disease onset, a mean age of 58.72 ± 8.74 years at surgery and a mean disease duration of 11.51 ± 4.4 years before surgery were included. Initial improvement of motor symptoms was seen after the surgery with the appearance of clinical milestones over time. Using the moderately disabling criteria, 81 patients (76.41%) developed at least one clinical milestone, while 48 patients (45.28%) developed a milestone when using the severely disabling criteria.

STN-DBS has a limited effect on axial and nonmotor symptoms of the PD patients, in contrast to the effect on motor symptoms. These symptoms may serve as clinical milestones that can convey the status of PD patients and its impact on the patients and their caregivers. Therefore, advanced PD patients, even those treated with bilateral STN-DBS, will still require assistance and cannot live independently in the long run.

Accuracy of Machine Learning Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for the Diagnosis of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal of Movement Disorders

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is recommended for assessing general cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several cutoffs of MoCA scores for diagnosing PD with cognitive impairment (PD-CI) have been proposed, with varying sensitivity and specificity. This study investigated the utility of machine learning algorithms using MoCA cognitive domain scores for improving diagnostic performance for PD-CI.

In total, 2,069 MoCA results were obtained from 397 patients with PD enrolled in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database with a diagnosis of cognitive status based on comprehensive neuropsychological assessments. Using the same number of MoCA results randomly sampled from patients with PD with normal cognition or PD-CI, discriminant validity was compared between machine learning (logistic regression, support vector machine, or random forest) with domain scores and a cutoff method.

Based on cognitive status classification using a dataset that permitted sampling of MoCA results from the same individual (n = 221 per group), no difference was observed in accuracy between the cutoff value method (0.74 ± 0.03) and machine learning (0.78 ± 0.03). Using a more stringent dataset that excluded MoCA results (n = 101 per group) from the same patients, the accuracy of the cutoff method (0.66 ± 0.05), but not that of machine learning (0.74 ± 0.07), was significantly reduced. Inclusion of cognitive complaints as an additional variable improved the accuracy of classification using the machine learning method (0.87-0.89).

Machine learning analysis using MoCA domain scores is a valid method for screening cognitive impairment in PD.

Direct health costs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a multidisciplinary ALS unit in Catalonia (Spain).

Amyotrophic Lat Scler Frontotemporal Degen

Our research project computed the direct health costs of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a Spanish multidisciplinary unit and ...

TREM2 in the pathogenesis of AD: a lipid metabolism regulator and potential metabolic therapeutic target.

Molecular Neurodegeneration

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a single-pass transmembrane immune receptor that is mainly expressed on microglia in th...

Machine learning predicts translation initiation sites in neurologic diseases with nucleotide repeat expansions.

Motor Neuron Disease

A number of neurologic diseases associated with expanded nucleotide repeats, including an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, have an ...