The latest medical research on Ovarian Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ovarian cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Para-aortic lymph node dissection with or without nerve-sparing in gynecological malignancies.

Ovarian Cancer

Para-aortic lymph node dissection (PALND) is a widely used treatment that causes many complications. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nerve-sparing para-aortic lymph node dissection (NSPALND) by comparing it with conventional PALND in gynecological malignancies and to prove whether locating the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) can help reveal the para-aortic nerves.

This is a retrospective study of the patients who underwent para-aortic lymphadenectomy from January 2020 to December 2022 at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. All of them were divided into NSPALND and PALND groups according to whether or not nerve-sparing was performed. The surgical, functional and oncological outcomes were evaluated.

There were 43 patients enrolled, of which, 20 patients underwent NSPALND and 23 patients underwent PALND. The para-aortic nerves were successfully revealed by locating the SHP in all 20 cases of NSPALND. The post-operative anal exhaust time in the NSPALND group was significantly shorter than that in the PALND group (2.5 vs. 4 days, p=0.006), and the incidence of acute intestinal obstruction in the NSPALND group was significantly lower than that in the PALND group (10% vs. 39%, p=0.029). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of catheterization duration, urinary retention, dysuria, as well as the number of lymph nodes removed and the para-aortic recurrence rate.

NSPALND can significantly reduce the rate of acute intestinal obstruction and improve post-operative intestinal function. Locating the SHP and using it as an anatomical landmark to reveal the para-aortic nerves is feasible. Its exact clinical value needs to be further studied.

Detailed report on the clinicopathological factors of patients with endometrial cancer in Japan: a JSOG gynecologic tumor registry-based study.

Ovarian Cancer

In this study, we collected data over 8 years (2012-2019) from the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) tumor registry to determine the status of endometrial cancer in Japan, and analyzed detailed clinicopathological factors.

The JSOG maintains a tumor registry that gathers information on endometrial cancer treated at the JSOG-registered institutions. Data from the patients whose endometrial cancer treatment was initiated from 2012 to 2019 were analyzed retrospectively.

A total of 82,969 patients with endometrial cancer underwent treatment from 2012 to 2019. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with hormonal therapy is more common among endometrial cancer patients under 40 years compared with those over 40 years. The number of patients with endometrial cancer, treated with laparoscopic or robot-assisted surgery was observed to have increased yearly. Small cell carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas were more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage. Lymphadenectomy was most commonly performed for stage IIIC2 disease, whereas positive peritoneal washing cytology was most common for stage IVB and serous carcinoma.

Multi-year summary reports provided detailed clinicopathological information regarding endometrial cancer that could not be obtained in a single year. These reports were useful in understanding treatment strategies and trends over time based on age, histology, and stage.

ATF1 regulates MAL2 expression through inhibition of miR-630 to mediate the EMT process that promotes cervical cancer cell development and metastasis.

Ovarian Cancer

The existence of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) could be employed as a clinical marker in the context of cervical cancer development, although its specific mechanism has not been fully clarified.

To evaluate the presence of ATF1, miR-630, and myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) in cervical malignancies, we conducted quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot assays; further studied the expansion, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cervical carcinoma cells using colony formation assay, transwell, loss cytometry, Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were used to verify that ATF1 could directly transcriptionally repress miR-630; dual luciferase reporter assay and RIP assay were employed to confirm that miR-630 targeted to repress MAL2.

In cervical cancer cases, elevated ATF1 expression and reduced miR-630 expression were detected, displaying a negative relationship between them. Inhibition of ATF1 hindered the growth, migration, infiltration, and EMT in cervical carcinoma cells, while upregulation of miR-630 mitigated the aggressive characteristics of these cells. ATF1 was found to transcriptionally repress miR-630 by TransmiR and ALGGEN prediction and ChIP validation. MicroRNA modulates gene expression and affects cancer progression, and we discovered that miR-630 regulates cancer progression by targeting and inhibiting MAL2.

ATF1, which modulates the miR-630/MAL2 pathway, affects the EMT process and cervical carcinoma cell growth and spread. Therefore, ATF1 may serve as a promising marker and treatment target for cervical malignancies intervention.

HER2-negative or low expression as an unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with stage I/II uterine carcinosarcoma.

Ovarian Cancer

Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is uncommon high-grade endometrial cancer with limited treatment options. We evaluated the prognostic significance of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression and HER2 gene amplification within large cohorts of UCS, and clarify clinicopathologic characteristics of HER2-low UCS.

We examined HER2 protein expression in 148 patients of UCS using in vivo diagnostic HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) kits and HER2 gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 72 patients.

HER2 IHC score was evaluated according to the latest American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists criteria for gastric cancer, which was negative in 41 patients, low expression of 1+ was observed in 57 patients, and HER2 high expression was observed in 50 patients (2+ in 38 and 3+ in 12 patients). There was no significant statistical difference in clinicopathological characteristics based on HER2 protein expression status. HER2 negative and low expression compared to high expression revealed poor overall survival in stage I/ II. The concordance between IHC and FISH results were relatively low compared to other cancer types (HER2 IHC score 1+, 2+, and 3+ were 5%, 15%, and 50%), and combining these results was not efficient as a prognostic factor in UCS. In contrast, the HER2 IHC score alone was a prognostic factor in stage I/II UCS. HER2 low group did not show specific clinicopathologic features.

Since the HER2 IHC score low in advanced UCS is a predictive factor, stratification of UCS using HER2 IHC score for HER2 IHC score low group and developing adjuvant therapy may be proposed in the near future.

Patient-reported symptom burden and circulating cytokines undergoing chemotherapy: a pilot study in patients with ovarian cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

To analyze the fluctuations of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and their relationships with cytokines in the peripheral blood of patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer (OC).

PROs burden was prospectively measured by the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Ovarian Cancer (MDASI-OC) at baseline before chemotherapy, on a daily basis during and post-chemotherapy days (PCD) 7, 14, and 20. Cytokines were collected at baseline, days prior to hospital discharge and PCD 20. Pearson correlation was used to explore the associations between PROs and cytokines levels in peripheral blood.

The top 8 rated symptoms were compared between the neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) group (n=20) and the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (PAC) group (n=7). Before chemotherapy, the mean scores of fatigue and lack of appetite in the NACT group were higher than those in the PAC group. After chemotherapy, pain, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, lack of appetite, and constipation increased to peak during PCD 2-6; while, fatigue and numbness or tingling remained at high levels over PCD 2-13. By PCD 20, disturbed sleep and fatigue showed a significant increase in mean scores, particularly in the NACT group; while, other symptom scores decreased and returned to baseline levels. Additionally, the longitudinal fluctuations in pain, fatigue, and lack of appetite were positively associated with circulating levels of interleukin-6 and interferon gamma (p<0.05).

MDASI-OC was feasible and adaptable for demonstrating the fluctuations of symptom burden throughout chemotherapy course. Moreover, symptoms changing along with cytokines levels could provide clues for exploring mechanism underlying biochemical etiology.

Efficacy and safety of 3-dimensional printing noncoplanar template (3D-PNCT)-assisted high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for reirradiation of recurrent cervical cancer: a prospective cohort.

Ovarian Cancer

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3-dimensional printing noncoplanar template (3D-PNCT)-assisted computed tomography (CT)-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for reirradiation of pelvic recurrent cervical carcinoma after external beam radiotherapy.

From January 2019 to August 2023, 45 eligible patients were enrolled in this prospective cohort. All patients underwent 3D-PNCT-assisted CT-guided HDR-ISBT with a prescribed dose of 4-7 Gy/fraction to the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) over 3-8 fractions, either for curative or palliative purposes. The primary endpoints were local progression-free survival (LPFS) and tumor response rate (TRR). The secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS), toxicities, and symptom resolution.

Forty-five patients received 261 fractions of 3D-PNCT-assisted HDR-ISBT. Twenty-nine patients had isolated pelvic recurrence, and 16 patients had simultaneous extra-pelvic or distant recurrences. The TRR was 66.7%. The 2- and 5-year LPFS rates were 30.0% and 25.7%, respectively. The median OS was 23.2 months, and 2- and 5-year OS rates were 49.5% and 34.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated that squamous cell carcinoma, radical surgery, recurrence-free interval≥12 months, tumor diameter, pelvic recurrence type, and HR-CTV D90≥45 Gy were independent factors influencing LPFS (all p<0.05). D100≥21 Gy, V100≥83%, and V150≥45% were associated with better LPFS (all p<0.05). Tumor diameter and metastasis were independent predictive factors for OS (all p<0.05). The pain relief rate was 66.7% (10/15). Grade 3-4 toxicities occurred in 20.0% of patients.

3D-PNCT-assisted HDR-ISBT for reirradiation of recurrent cervical cancer proved to be an effective and safe alternative to radical surgery.

Cancer-field surgery for endometrial cancer by robotic peritoneal mesometrial resection and targeted compartmental lymphadenectomy (PMMR+TCL).

Ovarian Cancer

Cancer-field surgery by peritoneal mesometrial resection and targeted compartmental lymphadenectomy (PMMR+TCL) for the treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) aims at optimal locoregional tumor control without the need for adjuvant radiotherapy. In a previous publication we could demonstrate the feasibility of the method and presented encouraging first oncologic data.

Following up our 2021 publication, we present data on the treatment of EC by PMMR+TCL in much larger cohort and with longer follow-up.

One hundred and thirty-five patients with EC International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) I-IV (75.6% FIGO I) underwent cancer field surgery via PMMR+TCL for EC in the years 2016-2023. Mean follow-up in our cohort was 27.5 months (0, 83; 19.7). The procedure was feasible and safe with favorable intra-and postoperative complication rates. Even though 50.4% of patients had an indication for postoperative radiotherapy following national and international guidelines, the rate of postoperative irradiation administered was 10.4%. The overall recurrence rate was 8.1% and we observed 2 (1.5%) isolated locoregional recurrences.

Our results confirm the feasibility and safety of PMMR+TCL in EC patients. Oncologic data are very encouraging and hint at a superior locoregional control without adjuvant irradiation. Larger studies with longer follow-up will be needed to confirm these results.

Investigation of selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer PDX models.

Ovarian Cancer

In ovarian cancer (OvCa), tumor cell high glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been associated with poor patient prognosis. In vitro, GR activation inhibits chemotherapy-induced OvCa cell death in association with transcriptional upregulation of genes encoding anti-apoptotic proteins. A recent randomized phase II study demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) for heavily pre-treated OvCa patients randomized to receive therapy with a selective GR modulator (SGRM) plus chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone. We hypothesized that SGRM therapy would improve carboplatin response in OvCa patient-derived xenograft (PDX).

Six high-grade serous (HGS) OvCa PDX models expressing GR mRNA (NR3C1) and protein were treated with chemotherapy +/- SGRM. Tumor size was measured longitudinally by peritoneal transcutaneous ultrasonography.

One of the 6 GR-positive PDX models showed a significant improvement in PFS with the addition of a SGRM. Interestingly, the single model with an improved PFS was least carboplatin sensitive. Possible explanations for the modest SGRM activity include the high carboplatin sensitivity of 5 of the PDX tumors and the potential that SGRMs activate the tumor invasive immune cells in patients (absent from immunocompromised mice). The level of tumor GR protein expression alone appears insufficient for predicting SGRM response.

The significant improvement in PFS shown in 1 of the 6 models after treatment with a SGRM plus chemotherapy underscores the need to determine predictive biomarkers for SGRM therapy in HGS OvCa and to better identify patient subgroups that are most likely to benefit from adding GR modulation to chemotherapy.

Selective utilization of circulating tumor DNA testing enables disease monitoring in endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.

Ovarian Cancer

Biomarkers reflecting real-time response to therapy and recurrence are lacking. We assessed the clinical value of detecting cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) mutations in endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) patients.

EC/OC patients undergoing primary surgery were consented for tissue banking and 2-year serial blood draws. Tumor tissue DNA and plasma ctDNA underwent next generation sequencing using a targeted gene panel to identify somatic mutations.

Of 44 patients (24 EC, 17 OC, 2 synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas [SEOC] and 1 endocervical adenocarcinoma [EA]) at least one somatic mutation was identified in tumor tissue in 40 (91%, 20/24 EC, all OC/SEOC/EA), and in preoperative plasma ctDNA in 12 (27%) patients (6/24 [25%] EC and 6/17 [35%] OC). Detection of preoperative ctDNA mutations was associated with advanced stage, higher preoperative CA125, and disease recurrence. In 5/12 (42%) patients with preoperative ctDNA mutations, examination/imaging suggested clinical stage I however final pathology revealed stage II/III. In 11 patients where serial timepoints were assessed during treatment for ctDNA and CA125, ctDNA clearance preceded normalization of CA125. Thirteen patients developed recurrent disease (4 EC, 8 OC, 1 EA); 8 in whom ctDNA mutations were detected postoperatively, and 4 followed through time of recurrence with ctDNA mutations identified 2-5 months prior to clinical/radiologic/biomarker progression in 3.

ctDNA can reflect larger tumor volume/metastases, treatment response and recurrence in EC and OC. Careful patient selection is critical to direct resources to patients most likely to benefit, considering disease burden and risk group.

Nomogram for predicting pathology upstaging in patients with EIN: is sentinel lymph node assessment useful in these patients?

Ovarian Cancer

The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for postoperative pathological escalation of endometrial cancer in patients with a pathologic diagnosis of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) before surgery. Some of the clues from the preoperative assessment were used to build a nomogram to predict the likely pathological escalation after surgery, and to explore the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in these patients with possible pathological escalation.

This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent surgical treatment for EIN diagnosed before surgery between 2018 and 2023 in The Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. parameters including clinical, radiological and histopathological factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression to determine the correlation with pathology upstaging. A nomogram based on the multivariate results was developed to predict the probability of pathology upstaging. A total of 729 patients were included, divided into training set and validation set. 484 patients were used to build the model. This nomogram was subsequently validated using 245 patients.

Upstaging to endometrial carcinoma occurred in 115 (23.8 percent) of 484 women treated between 2018 and 2023 in training set. A lager endometrial thickness (at least 15 mm), menopause, hypertension, HE4, and endometrial blood were significantly associated with upstaging. A nomogram developed using these factors demonstrated good predictive performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.6808; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.6246-0.7369). The nomogram showed similar predictive performance in the validation data set, based on another 245 women (AUC=0.7821; 95% CI=0.7076-0.8567).

This study developed a novel nomogram based on the 5 most important factors, which can accurately predict invasive cancer. It is common for women with preoperative diagnosis of EIN to experience pathological progression to endometrial cancer. For some patients with postoperative pathological escalation, we found lymph node metastasis. This nomogram may be useful to help doctor decide whether to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for surgical staging in these EIN patients. According to the nomogram, simultaneous sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with high probability of postoperative pathological upgrading can provide better guidance for postoperative adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer and avoid the occurrence of secondary surgery.

First-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in Chinese patients with stage III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer or primary peritoneal cancer: a phase III randomized controlled trial.

Ovarian Cancer

First-line bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) is approved for stage III/IV ovarian cancer treatment following initial surgical resection, based on global phase III GOG-0218 and ICON7 trials. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab + CP as first-line ovarian cancer therapy in Chinese patients.

Patients with newly diagnosed, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III/IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer post-primary surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 6 cycles of CP with bevacizumab/placebo, followed by bevacizumab/placebo maintenance until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Stratification factors were FIGO stage and debulking status (stage III optimally debulked vs stage III suboptimally debulked vs stage IV) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1 or 2).

Of randomized patients, 51 received bevacizumab + CP and 49 received placebo + CP. Median PFS was 22.6 months with bevacizumab + CP (95% confidence interval [CI]=18.6, not estimable) and 12.3 months (95% CI=9.5, 15.0) with placebo + CP (stratified hazard ratio=0.30; 95% CI=0.17, 0.53). Treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 46 of 49 (94%) patients receiving bevacizumab + CP, and 34 of 50 (68%) receiving placebo + CP.

Bevacizumab + CP showed clinically meaningful improvement in PFS vs placebo + CP, consistent with GOG-0218 results. Safety data were aligned with the known bevacizumab safety profile. These results support first-line bevacizumab + CP therapy in Chinese patients with ovarian cancer.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03635489.

Airborne and surface contamination after rotational intraperitoneal pressurized aerosol chemotherapy using cisplatin.

Ovarian Cancer

We evaluated the occupational exposure levels of healthcare workers while conducting rotational pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (RIPAC) using cisplatin in a large animal model.

We performed RIPAC using cisplatin in 6 female pigs and collected surface and air samples during the procedure. Surface samples were obtained from RIPAC devices and personal protective equipment (PPE) by wiping, and air samples were collected around the operating table. All samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect platinum.

Among all surface samples (n=44), platinum was detected in 41 samples (93.2%) but not in all air samples (n=16). Among samples collected from RIPAC devices (n=23), minimum and maximum cisplatin levels of 0.08 and 235.09 ng/cm² were detected, mainly because of direct aerosol exposure in the abdominal cavity. Among samples collected from healthcare workers' PPE (n=21), 18 samples (85.7%) showed contamination levels below the detection limit, with a maximum of 0.23 ng/cm². There was no significant contamination among samples collected from masks, shoes, or gloves.

During the RIPAC procedures, there is a potential risk of dermal exposure, as platinum, a surrogate material for cisplatin, was detected at low concentration levels in some surface samples. However, the respiratory exposure risk was not identified, as platinum was not detected in the airborne samples in this study.