The latest medical research on Ovarian Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about ovarian cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2020.

Ovarian Cancer

In 2020 series, we summarized the major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology with providing representative figures of the most influe...

Characteristics of progestin-insensitive early stage endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia patients receiving second-line fertility-sparing treatment.

Ovarian Cancer

This study investigated the characteristics of progestin-insensitive endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) patients receiving fertility-sparing treatments and assessed the therapeutic effects of second-line fertility-preserving treatments.

Three hundred and thirty-eight patients with EEC (n=75) or AEH (n=263) receiving fertility-preserving treatment were retrospectively analyzed. 'Progestin-insensitive' was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: 1) presented with progressed disease at any time during conservative treatment, 2) remained with stable disease after 7 months of treatment, and/or 3) did not achieve complete response (CR) after 10 months of treatment. Clinical characteristics and treatment results of progestin-insensitive patients receiving second-line treatment and those of progestin-sensitive patients were compared.

Eight-two patients (59 AEH and 23 EEC) were defined as progestin-insensitive and 256 as progestin-sensitive. In multivariate analysis, body mass index ≥28.0 kg/m² (odds ratio [OR]=1.898) and lesion size >2 cm (OR=2.077) were independent predictors of progestin-insensitive status. Compared to AEH patients, progestin-insensitive EEC patients had poorer second-line treatment responses (28-week cumulative CR rate after changing second-line treatment, 56.3% vs. 85.4%, p=0.011). No statistical difference was found in CR rate among different second-line treatments.

Obesity and larger lesion size were independent risk factors associated with progestin-insensitive status. In progestin-insensitive patients receiving second-line treatment, EEC patients had lower CR rate comparing with AEH patients. Further study with larger sample size is needed to evaluate efficacy of different second-line treatments for progestin insensitive patients.

Sentinel lymph Node mapping versus systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy on the prognosis for patients with intermediate-high-risk Endometrial Cancer confined to the uterus before surgery: trial protocol for a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (SNEC trial).

Ovarian Cancer Identifier: NCT04276532.

A multi-center, open label, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial has been designed to identify if SLN mapping alone is not inferior to pelvic lymphadenectomy on prognosis of patients with intermediate-high-risk EC clinically confined to uterus. Eligible patients will be 1:1 randomly assigned to accept SLN mapping or pelvic lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint is the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). The second points are the 5-year PFS, 5-year overall survival, surgery-related adverse events and life quality. A total of 780 patients will be enrolled from 6 hospitals in China within 3-year period and followed up for 5 years.

Vaginal cancer as a late complication of radiotherapy for endometrial cancer and ileo-perineal fistula after total pelvic exenteration.

Ovarian Cancer

Pelvic exenteration is a highly morbid operation and remains one of the most catastrophic surgical procedures in gynecological oncology. We would l...

A phase II, open-labeled, single-arm study of dose-dense paclitaxel plus carboplatin in advanced or recurrent uterine endometrial cancer treatment: a KCOG-G1303, DOENCA trial.

Ovarian Cancer

To determine the safety and efficacy of dose-dense (dd) paclitaxel (PTX) and carboplatin (CBDCA) in treating advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.

Women aged 20-75 years with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III disease with some residual tumor, FIGO stage IV disease, recurrence after front-line curative treatment, or recurrence after second-line chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. PTX (80 mg/m²) was administered intravenously (IV) to every participant on days 1, 8, and 15, and CBDCA (area under the curve of 5) was administered IV on day 1 once every 3 weeks until the disease progressed, unacceptable adverse events occurred, or consent was withdrawn. The primary endpoint was the response rate (RR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival, and adverse effects.

Forty-eight participants were enrolled, and 46 were eligible to receive treatment. The patients' median age was 61 years (range, 43-76 years). Twenty-two participants had experienced recurrence, and the remaining patients had primary advanced endometrial cancer. There were 10 cases of serous carcinoma, 3 cases of endometrioid carcinoma G3, 2 cases of carcinosarcoma, and 2 cases of clear-cell carcinoma according to histology. Twenty-nine participants (63.0%) received ≥6 cycles of chemotherapy. The RR (complete, 13 cases; partial, 20 cases) was 71.3% (95% confidence interval: 59.0%-84.5%).

The dd PTX with CBDCA is feasible and available as a treatment option for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.

UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: UMIN000017138.

Impact of metformin on survival outcome in ovarian cancer: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Ovarian Cancer

Investigation of new drugs (INDs) is a tremendously inefficient process in terms of time and cost. Drug repositioning is another method used to investigate potential new agents in well-known drugs. This study assessed the survival impact of metformin medication on ovarian cancer.

A national sample cohort of the Korean National Health Insurance Service Data was analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyzing hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for underlying diseases and medications as confounding factors for overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS).

A total of 866 eligible patients were included from among 1,025,340 cohort participants. Among them, 101 (11.7%) were metformin users. No difference in OS was observed between non-users and users. No difference in OS was observed according to age and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Long-term metformin use (≥720 days) was associated with better OS (adjusted HR=0.244; 95% CI=0.090-0.664; p=0.006). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that long-term metformin use was an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS (HR=0.193; 95% CI=0.070-0.528; p=0.001) but not for CSS (HR=0.599; 95% CI=0.178-2.017; p=0.408).

Long-term metformin use reduced all-cause mortality, but not CSS in ovarian cancer. Whether metformin itself reduces deaths because of ovarian cancer requires further investigation.

The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in cervical cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

To predict the prognosis of cervical cancer, we constructed a novel model with 5 specific cell types and identified a potential biomarker.

We employed CIBERSORT and xCell method to evaluate the abundances of 23 cells types in tumor microenvironment. Five specific cell types were filtrated to determine different immunotypes by applying least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression method. The expression of immune checkpoints (ICPs) and effectors were validated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation analysis was performed to examine the relevance between PIK3CA mutational status and ICPs.

Unsupervised clustering of patients on the basis of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and fibroblasts identified patients with shorter overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR]=3.0729; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5103-6.2522; p=0.0118). An immunoscore (IS) signature consisting of 5 immune cell types infiltrating in tumor core (CD8T, activated NK cells, neutrophils, activated mast cells, macrophages) was constructed using LASSO Cox regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves confirmed that the area under the curve of IS was significantly higher to that of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging alone (0.637 vs. 0.55). Survival analysis revealed patients in high IS group exhibited a poorer OS (HR=3.0113; 95% CI=1.8746-4.8373; p<0.0001). The multivariate analysis indicated the IS was an independent prognostic factor. In addition, the lower IS related to higher expression of ICPs and neoantigen load.

The identification of IS in cervical cancer tissues could facilitate patient risk stratification and selection of immunotherapeutic responses, but more prospective studies are needed to assess its reliability.

Primary platinum resistance and its prognostic impact in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer: an analysis of three prospective trials from the NOGGO study group.

Ovarian Cancer

Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) have a high need for reliable prognostic markers. Since significance of primary platinum resistance (PPR) versus secondary platinum resistance (SPR) was identified for patients receiving anti-angiogenic therapy, it has not been confirmed for chemotherapy only.

PROC patients from 3 prospective trials of the NOGGO study group (TOWER, NOGGO-Treosulfan, and TRIAS) were included in this meta-analysis. Exploratory Cox and logistic regression analyses were performed to correlate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the timing when platinum resistance developed.

Of 477 patients, 264 (55.3%) were classified as PPR, compared to 213 (44.7%) with SPR. For patients receiving chemotherapy only, SPR was associated with a significantly longer median PFS of 3.9 compared to 3.1 months for PPR (hazard ratio [HR]=0.78; p=0.015). SPR versus PPR was confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for better PFS in multivariate analysis (HR=0.74; p=0.029). Benefit from adding sorafenib to chemotherapy was mainly seen in PPR (HR=0.40; p<0.001) compared to SPR patients (HR=0.83; p=0.465).

Prognostic significance of SPR versus PPR could be elucidated for patients receiving chemotherapy only. In contrast to bevacizumab, the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib exhibits profound therapeutic efficacy in PPR patients indicating potential to overcome this negative prognostic impact.

The impact of lymph node dissection on survival in patients with clinical early-stage ovarian cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

To estimate the impact of lymph node dissection on survival in patients with apparent early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

We conducted a retrospective review of patients with clinical stage I-II EOC. All patients underwent primary surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2003 and December 2015. Demographic features and clinicopathological information as well as perioperative adverse events were investigated, and survival analyses were performed.

A total of 400 ovarian cancer patients were enrolled, and patients were divided into 2 groups: 81 patients did not undergo lymph node resection (group A), and 319 patients underwent lymph node dissection (group B). In group B, the median number of removed nodes per patient was 25 (21 pelvic and 4 para-aortic nodes). In groups A and B, respectively, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 83.3% and 82.1% (p=0.305), and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 93.1% and 90.9% (p=0.645). The recurrence rate in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes was not associated with lymph node dissection (p=0.121). The median operating time was markedly longer in group B than in group A (220 minutes vs. 155 minutes, p<0.001), and group B had a significantly higher incidence of lymph cysts at discharge (32.9% vs. 0.0%, p<0.001).

In patients with early-stage ovarian cancer, lymph node dissection was not associated with a gain in OS or PFS and was associated with an increased incidence of perioperative adverse events.

Rectosigmoid resection during Visceral-Peritoneal Debulking (VPD) in patients with stage IIIC-IV ovarian cancer: morbidity of gynecologic oncology vs. colorectal team.

Ovarian Cancer

This study investigates the specific morbidity of rectosigmoid resection (RSR) during Visceral-Peritoneal Debulking (VPD) in a consecutive series of patients with stage IIIC-IV ovarian cancer and compares the results of the colo-rectal vs. the gynaecologic oncology team.

All patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIC-IV ovarian cancer who had VPD and RSR were included in the study. Between 2009 and 2013 all operations were performed by the gynecologic oncology team alone (group 1). Since 2013 the RSR was performed by the colorectal team together with the gynecologic oncologist (group 2). All pre-operative information and surgical details were compared to exclude significant bias. Intra- and post-operative morbidity events were recorded and compared between groups.

One hundred and sixty-two patients had a RSR during VPD, 93 in group 1 and 69 in group 2. Groups were comparable for all pre-operative features other than: albumin (1<2) hemoglobin (2<1) and up-front surgery (1>2). Overall morbidity was 33% vs. 40% (p=0.53), bowel specific morbidity 11.8% vs. 11.5% (p=0.81), anastomotic leak 4.1% vs. 6.1% (p=0.43) and re-operation rate 9.6% vs. 6.1% (p=0.71) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. None of them were significantly different. The rate of bowel diversion was 36.5% in group 1 vs. 46.3% in group 2 (p=0.26).

Our study failed to demonstrate any significant difference in the morbidity rate of RSR based on the team performing the surgery. These data warrant further investigation as they are interesting with regards to education, finance, and medico-legal aspects.

Patterns of definitive radiotherapy practice for cervical cancer in South Korea: a survey endorsed by the Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG 20-06).

Ovarian Cancer

The Korean Radiation Oncology Group conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey to evaluate the patterns of clinical practice for patients with cervical cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy (RT) in South Korea.

Practicing radiation oncologists from 93 centers in South Korea were administered a questionnaire survey via e-mail. The survey focused on demographic characteristics, diagnostic evaluation, indications for definitive RT, RT techniques, RT field and dose prescription, lymph node (LN) boost RT, brachytherapy, and chemotherapy.

The response rate was 62.4% (58/93 institutions). Of the 2,134 patients treated at the radiation oncology department in 2019, 48.8% underwent definitive RT. The selection of patients for definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy and RT field, and RT dose prescription varied greatly. The upper border of the pelvis was commonly used as the bony landmark for external beam RT (81%-88% of respondents). Most (96.6%) centers performed LN boost RT with median total doses of 59 Gy and 59.2 Gy for pelvic and retroperitoneal LN, respectively. With 50% of the centers offering brachytherapy, image-guided brachytherapy and volume-based prescription were applied in 48.3% and 37.9%, respectively. Upfront concurrent chemoradiation therapy with varying prescription doses was considered by 60.4% respondents in cases of supraclavicular LN metastasis.

Most differences were noted in the indications for treatment, RT field, and prescription dose. This finding can serve as a reference for establishing practical RT guidelines for the management of locally advanced cervical cancer.

The trend and outcome of postsurgical therapy for high-risk early-stage cervical cancer with lymph node metastasis in Japan: a report from the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology (JSGO) guidelines evaluation committee.

Ovarian Cancer

The Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology published the first guidelines for the treatment of cervical cancer in 2007. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the introduction of the first guideline on clinical trends and outcomes of patients with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent surgery.

This analysis included 9,756 patients who were diagnosed based on the pathological Tumor-Node-Metastasis (pTNM) classification (i.e., pT1b1, pT1b2, pT2b and pN0, pN1, pNX) and received surgery as a primary treatment between 2004 and 2009. Data of these patients were retrospectively reviewed, and clinicopathological trends were assessed. The influence of the introduction of the guideline on survival was determined by using a competing risk model.

For surgery cases, the estimated subdistribution hazard ratio (HR) by the competing risk model for the influence of the guideline adjusted for age, year of registration, pT classification, pN classification, histological type, and treatment methods was 1.024 (p=0.864). Following the introduction of the first guideline in 2007, for patients with lymph node metastasis, the use of chemotherapy (CT) as a postsurgical therapy increased, whereas that of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT)/radiotherapy (RT) decreased (p<0.010). For pN1 cases, the estimated subdistribution HR by the competing risk model for the influence of the guideline was 1.094 (p=0.634). There was no significance in the postsurgical therapy between CT and CCRT/RT (p=0.078).

Survival of surgical cases was not improved by the introduction of the guidelines. It is necessary to consider more effective postsurgical therapy for high-risk early-stage cervical cancer.