The latest medical research on Interventional Cardiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about interventional cardiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: An Undeniable Small Vessel Disease.

Journal of Stroke

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has been proven to be the most common pathological change in cerebral small vessel disease except arteriosclerosi...

Update of Anticoagulation Use in Cardioembolic Stroke With a Special Reference to Endovascular Treatment.

Journal of Stroke

Cardioembolic stroke is a major cause of morbidity, with a high risk of recurrence, and anticoagulation represents the mainstay of secondary stroke...

Emerging Concept of Intracranial Arterial Diseases: The Role of High Resolution Vessel Wall MRI.

Journal of Stroke

Intracranial arterial disease (ICAD) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by distinct pathologies, including atherosclerosis. Advances in mag...

Standard Versus Intensive Blood Pressure Control in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Successfully Treated With Endovascular Thrombectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Journal of Stroke

The optimal blood pressure (BP) control after successful endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusion (LVO) remains debatable. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard BP control (with systolic BP ≤180 mm Hg) versus intensive BP control (systolic BP <140 mm Hg) during the 24 hours after successful EVT in AIS with LVO.

PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase were searched to identify relevant trials. The crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and estimates using random-effects models were pooled. This meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (PROSPERO ID: CRD42023450673).

Four RCTs involving 1,559 participants were included. Regarding efficacy outcomes, intensive BP control was associated with a lower likelihood of functional independence (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51-0.91 for modified Rankin Scale [mRS] ≤2) and walking without assistance (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53-0.81 for mRS ≤3). For safety outcomes, consistent with the efficacy findings, intensive BP control was significantly associated with severe disability or death (mRS 5 or 6) (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07-1.69). However, there were no significant differences including all-cause mortality, any intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), symptomatic ICH, parenchymal hematoma type 2, and stroke recurrence.

While all four RCTs were conducted to demonstrate the superiority of intensive BP control over standard BP control, standard BP control may be beneficial for the outcome after EVT for AIS with LVO without increasing adverse safety outcomes. Caution should be needed with the application of intensive BP control during the 24 hours following successful recanalization after EVT.

Long-Term Resveratrol Intake for Cognitive and Cerebral Blood Flow Impairment in Carotid Artery Stenosis/Occlusion.

Journal of Stroke

Carotid artery stenosis or occlusion (CASO) is a causative disease of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion, even without the development of symptomatic ischemic stroke. Preclinically, resveratrol has been demonstrated to play an important role in improving cognitive function in rodent CASO models. This study investigated the association between long-term resveratrol intake and improvements in cognitive and cerebral hemodynamic impairments in patients with CASO.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of ≥50% or occlusion who underwent 15O-gas positron emission tomography (15O-gas PET) and neuropsychological tests such as Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale 13 (ADAS-Cog) twice between July 2020 and March 2022 allowing >125-day interval. Patients were administered 30 mg/day resveratrol after the first 15O-gas PET and neuropsychological tests were compared with those who were not.

A total of 79 patients were enrolled in this study; 36 received resveratrol and 43 did not. Over a mean follow-up of 221.2 and 244.8 days, long-term resveratrol treatment significantly improved visuospatial/executive function (P=0.020) in MoCA, and memory domain (P=0.007) and total score (P=0.019) in ADAS-Cog. Cerebral blood flow demonstrated improvement in the right frontal lobe (P=0.027), left lenticular nucleus (P=0.009), right thalamus (P=0.035), and left thalamus (P=0.010) on 15O-gas PET. No adverse events were reported.

Long-term daily intake of oral resveratrol may prevent or treat VCI by improving the cerebral blood flow in asymptomatic patients with CASO.

Thrombectomy in Stroke Patients With Low Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score: Is Modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 2c/3 Superior to mTICI 2b?

Journal of Stroke

Outcomes following mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are strongly correlated with successful recanalization, traditionally defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) ≥2b. This retrospective cohort study aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with low Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS; 2-5) who achieved mTICI 2b versus those who achieved mTICI 2c/3 after MT.

This study utilized data from the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR), which combined databases from 32 thrombectomy-capable stroke centers between 2013 and 2023. The study included only patients with low ASPECTS who achieved mTICI 2b, 2c, or 3 after MT for internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery (M1) stroke.

Of the 10,229 patients who underwent MT, 234 met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 98 (41.9%) achieved mTICI 2b, and 136 (58.1%) achieved mTICI 2c/3. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The 90-day favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score: 0-3) was significantly better in the mTICI 2c/3 group than in the mTICI 2b group (adjusted odds ratio 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.81; P=0.02). Binomial logistic regression revealed that achieving mTICI 2c/3 was significantly associated with higher odds of a favorable 90-day outcome (odds ratio 2.14; 95% CI 1.07-4.41; P=0.04).

In patients with low ASPECTS, achieving an mTICI 2c/3 score after MT is associated with a more favorable 90-day outcome. These findings suggest that mTICI 2c/3 is a better target for MT than mTICI 2b in patients with low ASPECTS.

Association Between Anemia and Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated With Endovascular Treatment.

Journal of Stroke

Endovascular treatment (EVT) is the preferred treatment option in eligible acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with a large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation. Several comorbidities have been identified that can affect clinical outcomes. Various studies have investigated the association between anemia and clinical outcome and found conflicting results. The aim is to investigate the association between pre-EVT anemia and clinical outcomes at different time points post-EVT, primarily focusing on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 24-48 hours.

We prospectively included 560 AIS patients who received EVT in the Maastricht University Medical Center+. Hemoglobin levels (Hb; g/dL) were determined on admission. Hb levels were also categorized into two groups: anemia (male: Hb ≤12.9 g/dL; female: Hb ≤11.9 g/dL) and no anemia. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing data. Multivariable regression was used to investigate the association between anemia or Hb levels and clinical outcomes.

Anemia was present in 26% of the patients. Multivariable regression did not show a significant association between anemia or Hb levels and NIHSS at 24-48 hours (adjusted β [aβ]anemia: 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.47 to 3.36; aβHb: -0.37, 95% CI: -0.88 to 0.13). However, multivariable regression showed significant associations with modified Rankin Scale (adjusted common odds ratio [acOR]anemia: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.48; acORHb: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.93) and poor functional outcome at 90 days (adjusted OR [aOR]anemia: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21 to 3.63; aORHb: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.92).

Anemia was not independently associated with early neurological deficit (NIHSS) post-AIS, suggesting it is more suitable as a general frailty marker.

Mechanical Thrombectomy for In-Hospital Onset Stroke: A Comparative Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of Stroke

In-hospital onset stroke (IHOS) accounts for a significant proportion of large vessel occlusion acute ischemic strokes, leading to worse outcomes due to delays in evaluation and treatment. Limited data is available on the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy in IHOS patients. This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy for patients with IHOS and compare the outcomes with those of community-onset strokes (COS).

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following established guidelines, by searching PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases up to April 11, 2023. Eligible studies reporting outcomes of interest were included, and relevant data was extracted and analyzed using Stata software version 17.0.

In a meta-analysis of nine studies, comprising 540 cases of IHOS and 5,744 cases of COS, IHOS cases had a significantly lower rate of good functional outcomes on follow-up (35.46% vs. 40.74%, P<0.01) and a higher follow-up mortality rate (26.29% vs. 18.08%, P<0.01) compared to COS patients. Both groups had comparable successful recanalization rates (IHOS: 79.32% vs. COS: 81.44%, P=0.11), incidence rates of periprocedural complications (IHOS: 15.10%, COS: 12.96%, P=0.78), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (IHOS: 6.24%, COS: 6.88%, P=0.67). It is worth noting that much of the observed effect size for mortality and good functional outcomes on follow-up was derived from only one and two studies, respectively.

While the current literature suggests that mechanical thrombectomy is a safe and effective treatment for IHOS, further research is necessary to comprehensively evaluate its impact, particularly during follow-up.

Effect of Intravenous Thrombolysis Prior to Mechanical Thrombectomy According to the Location of M1 Occlusion.

Journal of Stroke

The additive effects of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) before mechanical thrombectomy (MT) remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IVT prior to MT depending on the location of M1 occlusion.

We reviewed the cases of patients who underwent MT for emergent large-vessel occlusion of the M1 segment. Baseline characteristics as well as clinical and periprocedural variables were compared according to the location of M1 occlusion (i.e., proximal and distal M1 occlusion). The main outcome was the achievement of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) at 3 months after stroke. The main outcomes were compared between the proximal and distal groups based on the use of IVT before MT.

Among 271 patients (proximal occlusion, 44.6%; distal occlusion, 55.4%), 33.9% (41/121) with proximal occlusion and 24.7% (37/150) with distal occlusion underwent IVT prior to MT. Largeartery atherosclerosis was more common in patients with proximal M1 occlusion; cardioembolism was more common in those with distal M1 occlusion. In patients with proximal M1 occlusion, there was no association between IVT before MT and functional independence. In contrast, there was a significant association between the use of IVT prior to MT (odds ratio=5.30, 95% confidence interval=1.56-18.05, P=0.007) and functional independence in patients with distal M1 occlusion.

IVT before MT was associated with improved functional outcomes in patients with M1 occlusion, especially in those with distal M1 occlusion but not in those with proximal M1 occlusion.

Predictors of Therapy Response in Chronic Aphasia: Building a Foundation for Personalized Aphasia Therapy.

Journal of Stroke

Chronic aphasia, a devastating impairment of language, affects up to a third of stroke survivors. Speech and language therapy has consistently been...

Endovascular Treatment for Posterior Circulation Stroke: Ways to Maximize Therapeutic Efficacy.

Journal of Stroke

The efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with posterior circulation stroke has not been proven. Two recent randomized controlled tr...

Association of Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins with Stroke Subtypes in an International Case Control Study (INTERSTROKE).

Journal of Stroke

The association of dyslipidemia with stroke has been inconsistent, which may be due to differing associations within etiological stroke subtypes. We sought to determine the association of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins within stroke subtypes.

Standardized incident case-control STROKE study in 32 countries. Cases were patients with acute hospitalized first stroke, and matched by age, sex and site to controls. Concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and apoB were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. We estimated multivariable odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%). Outcome measures were all stroke, ischemic stroke (and subtypes), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Our analysis included 11,898 matched case-control pairs; 77.3% with ischemic stroke and 22.7% with ICH. Increasing apoB (OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.14 per standard deviation [SD]) and LDL-C (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10 per SD) were associated with an increase in risk of ischemic stroke, but a reduced risk of ICH. Increased apoB was significantly associated with large vessel stroke (PAR 13.4%; 95% CI, 5.6 to 28.4) and stroke of undetermined cause. Higher HDL-C (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.78 per SD) and apoA1 (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.66 per SD) were associated with ischemic stroke (and subtypes). While increasing HDL-C was associated with an increased risk of ICH (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.27 per SD), apoA1 was associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85 per SD). ApoB/A1 (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.44 per SD) had a stronger magnitude of association than the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.31 per SD) with ischemic stroke (P<0.0001).

The pattern and magnitude of association of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with stroke varies by etiological stroke subtype. While the directions of association for LDL, HDL, and apoB were opposing for ischemic stroke and ICH, apoA1 was associated with a reduction in both ischemic stroke and ICH. The ratio of apoB/A1 was the best lipid predictor of ischemic stroke risk.