The latest medical research on Interventional Cardiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about interventional cardiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Long-Term Follow-up of Enhanced Holter-Electrocardiography Monitoring in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Journal of Stroke

Prolonged electrocardiography (ECG)-monitoring in stroke patients improves the detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF). However, most randomized studies only had short follow-up. We aimed to provide 3-year follow-up data for AF detection and stroke recurrence risk.

We randomized 402 patients aged ≥60 years with acute ischemic strokes without AF to either enhanced and prolonged monitoring (EPM; 3×10-day Holter-ECG-monitoring) or standard-of-care (≥24 hours ECG-monitoring). The endpoint of the current analysis was AF within 36 months analyzed by intention to treat. Long-term follow-up was performed for 36 months.

Two hundred and seventy-four patients (80%) participated in the extended follow-up (median duration of follow-up was 36 months [interquartile range, 12 to 36]). During the first 6 months, more AF was documented in the EPM arm compared to the control arm (13.5% vs. 5.1%; 95% confidence interval, 2.9% to 14.4%; P=0.004). During months 6 to 36, AF was less detected in the EPM intervention arm than in the control arm (2.0% vs. 7.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.7% to 9.9%; P=0.028). Overall, the detection rate of AF within 36 months was numerically higher within the EPM group (15.0% vs. 11.1%, P=0.30). Numerically less patients in the EPM arm had recurrent ischemic strokes (5.5% vs. 9.1%, P=0.18), transient ischemic attacks (3.0% vs. 4.5%, P=0.44) or died (4.5% vs. 6.6%, P=0.37).

Enhanced and prolonged ECG monitoring increased AF detection during the first six months, but there was significantly more clinical AF during months 6 to 36 observed in the usual-care arm. This suggests that EPM leads to an earlier detection of clinically relevant AF.

Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment: Pathophysiological Insights into Brain Disconnectome from Advanced Neuroimaging Analysis Techniques.

Journal of Stroke

The neurological symptoms of stroke have traditionally provided the foundation for functional mapping of the brain. However, there are many unresol...

Mechanisms of Preconditioning Exercise-Induced Neurovascular Protection in Stroke.

Journal of Stroke

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved thr...

Clot Composition Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Gain Insight into Ischemic Stroke Etiology: A Systematic Review.

Journal of Stroke

Mechanical thrombectomy renders the occluding clot available for analysis. Insights into thrombus composition could help establish the stroke cause...

Hemodynamics of Leptomeningeal Collaterals after Large Vessel Occlusion and Blood Pressure Management with Endovascular Treatment.

Journal of Stroke

Endovascular therapy (EVT) is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Unlike intravenous thrombolysis, EVT ...

Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients with a Large Ischemic Volume at Presentation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of Stroke

The benefits of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and a large ischemic core (LIC) at presentation are unce...

Soluble CD40 Levels in Plasma Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease and in Carotid Plaques with a Vulnerable Phenotype.

Journal of Stroke

CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) are costimulatory molecules of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and well known for their involvement in inflammatory diseases: atherosclerotic mouse models with disrupted CD40 signalling develop lesions of reduced size with a more stable plaque profile. This study investigated the potential of plasma and intraplaque levels of CD40 and CD40L as markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans and their association with plaque stability.

Soluble CD40 and CD40L (sCD40L) were measured in plasma in 1,437 subjects from The SUrrogate markers for Micro- and Macro-vascular hard endpoints for Innovative diabetes Tools (SUMMIT) cohort. Intra-plaque levels of sCD40 and sCD40L were measured in atherosclerotic plaque homogenates from 199 subjects of the Carotid Plaque Imaging Project (CPIP) cohort.

Both plasma sCD40 and sCD40L levels were elevated in individuals with prevalent stroke, while sCD40 levels also were higher in individuals with a prior acute myocardial infarction. Plasma levels of sCD40 correlated with carotid intima-media thickness and total carotid plaque area and were associated with risk of cardiovascular events over a 3-year follow-up period. Intra-plaque levels of sCD40 and sCD40L were associated with plaque components characteristic for plaque vulnerability and extracellular matrix remodelling.

Higher plasma sCD40 and sCD40L levels are associated with prevalent CVD. Plasma sCD40 levels also correlate with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and predict future cardiovascular events, while intra-plaque levels correlate with a vulnerable plaque phenotype. Our findings thus demonstrate that elevated levels of sCD40 and sCD40L are markers of CVD.

Impact of Multiphase Computed Tomography Angiography for Endovascular Treatment Decision-Making on Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Journal of Stroke

Various imaging paradigms are used for endovascular treatment (EVT) decision-making and outcome estimation in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We aim to compare how these imaging paradigms perform for EVT patient selection and outcome estimation.

Prospective multi-center cohort study of patients with AIS symptoms with multi-phase computed tomography angiography (mCTA) and computed tomography perfusion (CTP) baseline imaging. mCTA-based EVT-eligibility was defined as presence of large vessel occlusion (LVO) and moderate-to-good collaterals on mCTA. CTP-based eligibility was defined as presence of LVO, ischemic core (defined on relative cerebral blood flow, absolute cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume maps) <70 mL, mismatch-ratio >1.8, absolute mismatch >15 mL. EVT-eligibility and adjusted rates of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) based on these imaging paradigms were compared.

Of 289/464 patients with LVO, 263 (91%) were EVT-eligible by mCTA-criteria versus 63 (22%), 19 (7%) and 103 (36%) by rCBF, aCBF, and CBV-CTP-criteria. CTP and mCTA-criteria were discordant in 40% to 53%. Estimated outcomes were best in patients who met both mCTA and CTP eligibility-criteria and were treated with EVT (62% to 87% good outcome). Patients eligible for EVT by mCTA-criteria and not by CTP-criteria receiving EVT achieved good outcome rates of 53% to 57%. Few patients met CTP-criteria and not mCTA-criteria for EVT.

Simpler imaging selection criteria that rely on little else than detection of the occluded blood vessel may be more sensitive and less specific, thus resulting in more patients being offered EVT and arguably benefiting from it.

Stroke Etiology and Outcomes after Endovascular Thrombectomy: Results from the SITS Registry and a Meta-Analysis.

Journal of Stroke

The influence of stroke etiology on outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is not well understood. We aimed to investigate whether stroke etiology subgrouped as large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and cardiac embolism (CE) influences outcomes in large artery occlusion (LAO) treated by EVT.

We included EVT treated LAO stroke patients registered in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke (SITS) thrombectomy register between January 1, 2014 and September 3, 2019. Primary outcome was successful reperfusion (modified Treatment in Cerebral Infarction 2b-3). Secondary outcomes were symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH), 3-month functional independence (modified Ranking Scale 0-2) and death. Multivariable logistic regression models were used for comparisons. In addition, a meta-analysis of aggregate data from the current literature was conducted (PROSPERO, ID 167447).

Of 7,543 patients, 1,903 (25.2%) had LAA, 3,214 (42.6%) CE, and 2,426 (32.2%) unknown, other, or multiple etiologies. LAA patients were younger (66 vs. 74, P<0.001) and had lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at baseline (15 vs. 16, P<0.001) than CE patients. Multivariable analyses showed that LAA patients had lower odds of successful reperfusion (odds ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.86) and functional independence (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.85), higher risk of death (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.71), but no difference in SICH (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.66) compared to CE patients. The systematic review found 25 studies matching the criteria. The meta-analysis did not find any difference between etiologies.

From the SITS thrombectomy register, we observed a lower chance of reperfusion and worse outcomes after thrombectomy in patients with LAA compared to CE etiology, despite more favorable baseline characteristics. In contrast, the meta-analysis did not find any difference between etiologies with aggregate data.

Effectiveness of Thrombectomy in Stroke According to Baseline Prognostic Factors: Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting Analysis of a Population-Based Registry.

Journal of Stroke

 In real-world practice, the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is uncertain in stroke patients with very favorable or poor prognostic profiles at baseline. We studied the effectiveness of MT versus medical treatment stratifying by different baseline prognostic factors.

 Retrospective analysis of 2,588 patients with an ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion nested in the population-based registry of stroke code activations in Catalonia from January 2017 to June 2019. The effect of MT on good functional outcome (modified Rankin Score ≤2) and survival at 3 months was studied using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis in three pre-defined baseline prognostic groups: poor (if pre-stroke disability, age >85 years, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] >25, time from onset >6 hours, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score <6, proximal vertebrobasilar occlusion, supratherapeutic international normalized ratio >3), good (if NIHSS <6 or distal occlusion, in the absence of poor prognostic factors), or reference (not meeting other groups' criteria).

 Patients receiving MT (n=1,996, 77%) were younger, had less pre-stroke disability, and received systemic thrombolysis less frequently. These differences were balanced after the IPTW stratified by prognosis. MT was associated with good functional outcome in the reference (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 4.4), and especially in the poor baseline prognostic stratum (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.6 to 5.9), but not in the good prognostic stratum. MT was associated with survival only in the poor prognostic stratum (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.0 to 3.3).

 Despite their worse overall outcomes, the impact of thrombectomy over medical management was more substantial in patients with poorer baseline prognostic factors than patients with good prognostic factors.

Thrombolysis Improves Reperfusion and the Clinical Outcome in Tandem Occlusion Stroke Related to Cervical Dissection: TITAN and ETIS Pooled Analysis.

Journal of Stroke

Despite the widespread adoption of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for the treatment of large vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) in the anterior circulation, the optimal strategy for the treatment tandem occlusion related to cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is still debated. This individual patient pooled analysis investigated the safety and efficacy of prior intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in anterior circulation tandem occlusion related to cervical ICA dissection treated with MT.

We performed a retrospective analysis of two merged prospective multicenter international real-world observational registries: Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) and Thrombectomy In TANdem occlusions (TITAN) registries. Data from MT performed in the treatment of tandem LVOS related to cervical ICA dissection between January 2012 and December 2019 at 24 comprehensive stroke centers were analyzed. The primary endpoint was a favorable outcome defined as 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2.

The study included 144 patients with tandem occlusion LVOS due to cervical ICA dissection, of whom 94 (65.3%) received IVT before MT. Prior IVT was significantly associated with a better clinical outcome considering the mRS shift analysis (common odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 4.93; P=0.004 for a 1-point improvement) and excellent outcome (90-day mRS 0-1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.23; 95% CI, 1.60 to 11.18). IVT was also associated with a higher rate of intracranial successful reperfusion (83.0% vs. 64.0%; aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.21 to 6.03) and a lower rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (4.3% vs. 14.8%; aOR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.80).

Prior IVT before MT for the treatment of tandem occlusion related to cervical ICA dissection was safe and associated with an improved 90-day functional outcome.

Neuroprotective Effects of GV1001 in Animal Stroke Model and Neural Cells Subject to Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury.

Journal of Stroke

Previous studies have revealed the diverse neuroprotective effects of GV1001. In this study, we investigated the effects of GV1001 on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in neural stem cells (NSCs) and cortical neurons.

Focal cerebral IRI was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed 2 hours after occlusion, and a total of 37 rats were treated by reperfusion with GV1001 or saline 2 hours after occlusion. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and neurobehavioral function analyses were performed. Additionally, OGD/R-injured NSCs and cortical neurons were treated with different GV1001 concentrations. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress were determined by diverse molecular analyses.

In the stroke model, GV1001 protected neural cells against IRI. The most effective dose of GV1001 was 60 μM/kg. The infarct volume on FLAIR 48 hours after MCAO compared to lesion volume on DWI showed a significantly smaller ratio in the GV1001-treated group. GV1001-treated rats exhibited better behavioral functions than the saline-treated rats. Treatment with GV1001 increased the viability, proliferation, and migration of the OGD/R-injured NSCs. Free radicals were significantly restored by treatment with GV1001. These neuroprotective effects of GV1001 have also been demonstrated in OGD/R-injured cortical neurons.

The results suggest that GV1001 has neuroprotective effects against IRI in NSCs, cortical neurons, and the rat brain. These effects are mediated through the induction of cellular proliferation, mitochondrial stabilization, and anti-apoptotic, anti-aging, and antioxidant effects.