The latest medical research on Interventional Cardiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about interventional cardiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Leukoaraiosis: Epidemiology, Imaging, Risk Factors, and Management of Age-Related Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities.

Journal of Stroke

Leukoaraiosis (LA) manifests as cerebral white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans and corresponds to white mat...

Cancer-Associated Stroke: Thrombosis Mechanism, Diagnosis, Outcome, and Therapeutic Strategies.

Journal of Stroke

Cancer can induce hypercoagulability, which may lead to stroke. This occurs when tumor cells activate platelets as part of their growth and metasta...

Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Pathology and Strictly Lobar Microbleeds in East-Asian Versus Western Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of Stroke

Possible differences in the prevalence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in East-Asian compared to Western populations have received little attention, and results so far have been ambiguous. Our aim is to compare the prevalence of CAA neuropathology and magnetic resonance imaging markers of CAA in East-Asian and Western cohorts reflecting the general population, cognitively normal elderly, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with (lobar) intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase for original research papers on the prevalence of CAA and imaging markers of CAA published up until February 17th 2022. Records were screened by two independent reviewers. Pooled estimates were determined using random-effects models. We compared studies from Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea (East-Asian cohorts) to studies from Europe or North America (Western cohorts) by meta-regression models.

We identified 12,257 unique records, and we included 143 studies on Western study populations and 53 studies on East-Asian study populations. Prevalence of CAA neuropathology did not differ between East-Asian and Western cohorts in any of the investigated patient domains. The prevalence of strictly lobar microbleeds was lower in East-Asian cohorts of population-based individuals (5.6% vs. 11.4%, P=0.020), cognitively normal elderly (2.6% vs. 11.4%, P=0.001), and patients with ICH (10.2% vs. 24.6%, P<0.0001). However, age was in general lower in the East-Asian cohorts.

The prevalence of CAA neuropathology in the general population, cognitively normal elderly, patients with AD, and patients with (lobar) ICH is similar in East-Asian and Western countries. In East-Asian cohorts reflecting the general population, cognitively normal elderly, and patients with ICH, strictly lobar microbleeds were less prevalent, likely due to their younger age. Consideration of potential presence of CAA is warranted in decisions regarding antithrombotic treatment and potential new anti-amyloid-β immunotherapy as treatment for AD in East-Asian and Western countries alike.

Distal Medium Vessel Occlusion Strokes: Understanding the Present and Paving the Way for a Better Future.

Journal of Stroke

Distal medium vessel occlusions (DMVOs) are thought to cause as many as 25% to 40% of all acute ischemic strokes and may result in substantial disa...

Neuroprotective Approaches for Brain Injury After Cardiac Arrest: Current Trends and Prospective Avenues.

Journal of Stroke

With the implementation of improved bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques and public-access defibrillation, survival after out-of-hosp...

The Influence of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on the Efficacy of Genotype-Guided Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Preventing Stroke Recurrence.

Journal of Stroke

Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), which represents the total cholesterol content of all pro-atherogenic lipoproteins, has recently been included as a new target for lipid-lowering therapy in high-risk atherosclerotic patients in multiple guidelines. Herein, we aimed to explore the relationship between non-HDL-C level and the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor-aspirin versus clopidogrel-aspirin in preventing stroke recurrence.

This study comprised a post hoc analysis of the CHANCE-2 (Ticagrelor or Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events II) trial, from which 5,901 patients with complete data on non-HDL-C were included and categorized by median non-HDL-C levels, using a cutoff of 3.5 mmol/L. The primary efficacy and safety outcomes were recurrent stroke and severe or moderate bleeding within 90 days.

Ticagrelor-aspirin significantly reduced the risk of recurrent stroke in patients with low non-HDL-C (71 [4.8%] vs. 119 [7.7%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.74), but not in those with high non-HDL-C (107 [7.3%] vs. 108 [7.6%]; adjusted HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.67-1.16), compared with clopidogrel-aspirin (P for interaction=0.010). When analyzed as a continuous variable, the benefit of ticagrelor-aspirin for recurrent stroke decreased as non-HDL-C levels increased. No significant differences in the treatment assignments across the non-HDL-C groups were observed in terms of the rate of severe or moderate bleeding (5 [0.3%] vs. 8 [0.5%] in the low non-HDL-C group; 4 [0.3%] vs. 2 [0.1%] in the high non-HDL-C group; P for interaction=0.425).

CHANCE-2 participants with low non-HDL-C levels received more clinical benefit from ticagrelor-aspirin versus clopidogrel-aspirin compared to those with high non-HDL-C, following minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Device Closure or Antithrombotic Therapy After Cryptogenic Stroke in Elderly Patients With a High-Risk Patent Foramen Ovale.

Journal of Stroke

In young patients (aged 18-60 years) with patent foramen ovale (PFO)-associated stroke, percutaneous closure has been found to be useful for preventing recurrent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, it remains unknown whether PFO closure is also beneficial in older patients.

Patients aged ≥60 years who had a cryptogenic stroke and PFO from ten hospitals in South Korea were included. The effect of PFO closure plus medical therapy over medical therapy alone was assessed by a propensity-score matching method in the overall cohort and in those with a high-risk PFO, characterized by the presence of an atrial septal aneurysm or a large shunt.

Out of the 437 patients (mean age, 68.1), 303 (69%) had a high-risk PFO and 161 (37%) patients underwent PFO closure. Over a median follow-up of 3.9 years, recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA developed in 64 (14.6%) patients. In the propensity score-matched cohort of the overall patients (130 pairs), PFO closure was associated with a significantly lower risk of a composite of ischemic stroke or TIA (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.84; P=0.012), but not for ischemic stroke. In a subgroup analysis of confined to the high-risk PFO patients (116 pairs), PFO closure was associated with significantly lower risks of both the composite of ischemic stroke or TIA (HR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.21-0.77; P=0.006) and ischemic stroke (HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.95; P=0.035).

Elderly patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO have a high recurrence rate of ischemic stroke or TIA, which may be significantly reduced by device closure.

How Do Quantitative Tissue Imaging Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke Relate to Clinical Outcomes?

Journal of Stroke

Infarct volume and other imaging markers are increasingly used as surrogate measures for clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke research, but how improvements in these imaging surrogates translate into better clinical outcomes is currently unclear. We investigated how changes in infarct volume at 24 hours alter the probability of achieving good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0-2).

Data are from endovascular thrombectomy patients from the randomized controlled ESCAPE-NA1 (Efficacy and Safety of Nerinetide for the Treatment of Acute Ischaemic Stroke) trial. Infarct volume at 24 hours was manually segmented on non-contrast computed tomography or diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Probabilities of achieving good outcome based on infarct volume were obtained from a multivariable logistic regression model. The probability of good outcome was plotted against infarct volume using linear spline regression.

A total of 1,099 patients were included in the analysis (median final infarct volume 24.9 mL [interquartile range: 6.6-92.2]). The relationship between total infarct volume and good outcome probability was nearly linear for infarct volumes between 0 mL and 250 mL. In this range, a 10% increase in the probability of achieving mRS 0-2 required a decrease in infarct volume of approximately 34.0 mL (95% confidence interval: -32.5 to -35.6). At infarct volumes above 250 mL, the probability of achieving mRS 0-2 probability was near zero. The relationships of tissue-specific infarct volumes and parenchymal hemorrhage volume generally showed similar patterns, although variability was high.

There seems to be a near-linear association between total infarct volume and probability of achieving good outcome for infarcts up to 250 mL, whereas patients with infarct volumes greater than 250 mL are highly unlikely to have a favorable outcome.

Infarcts Due to Large Vessel Occlusions Continue to Grow Despite Near-Complete Reperfusion After Endovascular Treatment.

Journal of Stroke

Infarcts in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients may continue to grow even after reperfusion, due to mechanisms such as microvascular obstruction and reperfusion injury. We investigated whether and how much infarcts grow in AIS patients after near-complete (expanded Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction [eTICI] 2c/3) reperfusion following endovascular treatment (EVT), and to assess the association of post-reperfusion infarct growth with clinical outcomes.

Data are from a single-center retrospective observational cohort study that included AIS patients undergoing EVT with near-complete reperfusion who received diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 hours post-EVT and 24 hours after EVT. Association of infarct growth between 2 and 24 hours post-EVT and 24-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) as well as 90-day modified Rankin Scale score was assessed using multivariable logistic regression.

Ninety-four of 155 (60.6%) patients achieved eTICI 2c/3 and were included in the analysis. Eighty of these 94 (85.1%) patients showed infarct growth between 2 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. Infarct growth ≥5 mL was seen in 39/94 (41.5%) patients, and infarct growth ≥10 mL was seen in 20/94 (21.3%) patients. Median infarct growth between 2 and 24 hours post-reperfusion was 4.5 mL (interquartile range: 0.4-9.2 mL). Post-reperfusion infarct growth was associated with the 24-hour NIHSS in multivariable analysis (odds ratio: 1.16 [95% confidence interval 1.09-1.24], P<0.01).

Infarcts continue to grow after EVT, even if near-complete reperfusion is achieved. Investigating the underlying mechanisms may inform future therapeutic approaches for mitigating the process and help improve patient outcome.

Endovascular Therapy in the Extended Time Window for Large Vessel Occlusion in Patients With Pre-Stroke Disability.

Journal of Stroke

We compared the outcomes of endovascular therapy (EVT) in an extended time window in patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) between patients with and without pre-stroke disability.

In this prespecified analysis of the multinational CT for Late Endovascular Reperfusion study (66 participating sites, 10 countries between 2014 and 2022), we analyzed data from patients with acute ischemic stroke with a pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-4 and LVO who underwent EVT 6-24 hours from the time last seen well. The primary outcome was the composite of functional independence (FI; mRS score 0-2) or return to the pre-stroke mRS score (return of Rankin, RoR) at 90 days. Outcomes were compared between patients with pre-stroke disability (pre-stroke mRS score 2-4) and those without (mRS score 0-1).

A total of 2,231 patients (median age, 72 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 16) were included in the present analysis. Of these, 564 (25%) had pre-stroke disability. The primary outcome (FI or RoR) was observed in 30.7% of patients with pre-stroke disability (FI, 16.5%; RoR, 30.7%) compared to 44.1% of patients without (FI, 44.1%; RoR, 13.0%) (P<0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting, pre-stroke disability was not associated with significantly lower odds of achieving FI or RoR (adjusted odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.25). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 6.3% of both groups (P=0.995).

A considerable proportion of patients with late-presenting LVO and pre-stroke disability regained pre-stroke mRS scores after EVT. EVT may be appropriate for patients with pre-stroke disability presenting in the extended time window.

Tenecteplase Versus Alteplase in Medium Vessel Occlusion Ischemic Stroke: A Secondary Analysis of the Alteplase Compared to Tenecteplase Randomized Trial.

Journal of Stroke

The safety and efficacy of tenecteplase in patients with ischemic stroke due to medium vessel occlusion (MeVO) are not well studied. We aimed to compare tenecteplase with alteplase in stroke due to MeVO.

Patients with baseline M2-middle cerebral artery (MCA), M3/M4-MCA, P2/P3/P4-posterior cerebral artery (PCA), A2/A3/A4-anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusions from the Alteplase Compared to Tenecteplase (AcT) trial were included. Primary outcome was the proportion of 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-1. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mRS 0-2, ordinal mRS, mortality, quality of life measures (EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level, EuroQol visual analog scale), and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). Initial and final successful reperfusion were reported in patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy (EVT).

Among 1,558 patients with available baseline computed tomography angiography; 455 (29.2%) had MeVO of which 27.5% (125/455) were proximal M2; 16.3% (74/455) were distal M2; 35.2% (160/455) were M3/M4; 7.5% (34/455) were A2/A3/A4; and 13.6% (62/455) were P2/P3/P4 occlusions. EVT was performed in 87/455 (19.1%) patients. mRS 0-1 at 90 days was achieved in 37.9% in the tenecteplase versus 34.7% in the alteplase group (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.25). Rates of 90-day mRS 0-2, sICH, and mortality were similar in both groups. No statistical difference was noted in initial successful reperfusion rates (13.0% vs. 7.5%) among the 87 patients who underwent endovascular thrombectomy. However, final successful reperfusion was higher in the tenecteplase group (71.7% vs. 60.0%, aRR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61).

Intravenous tenecteplase had comparable safety, functional outcomes and quality of life compared to intravenous alteplase among patients with MeVO. Among those treated with EVT, tenecteplase was associated with higher successful reperfusion rates than alteplase.

Endovascular Thrombectomy Versus Intravenous Thrombolysis of Posterior Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke.

Journal of Stroke

Posterior cerebral artery occlusion (PCAo) can cause long-term disability, yet randomized controlled trials to guide optimal reperfusion strategy are lacking. We compared the outcomes of PCAo patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) with or without intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) to patients treated with IVT alone.

From the multicenter retrospective Posterior cerebraL ArTery Occlusion (PLATO) registry, we included patients with isolated PCAo treated with reperfusion therapy within 24 hours of onset between January 2015 and August 2022. The primary outcome was the distribution of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Other outcomes comprised 3-month excellent (mRS 0-1) and independent outcome (mRS 0-2), early neurological improvement (ENI), mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). The treatments were compared using inverse probability weighted regression adjustment.

Among 724 patients, 400 received EVT+/-IVT and 324 IVT alone (median age 74 years, 57.7% men). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission was 7, and the occluded segment was P1 (43.9%), P2 (48.3%), P3-P4 (6.1%), bilateral (1.0%), or fetal posterior cerebral artery (0.7%). Compared to IVT alone, EVT+/-IVT was not associated with improved functional outcome (adjusted common odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-1.43). EVT increased the odds for ENI (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.12), sICH (aOR 2.87, 95% CI 1.23-6.72), and mortality (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.95).

Despite higher odds for early improvement, EVT+/-IVT did not affect functional outcome compared to IVT alone after PCAo. This may be driven by the increased risk of sICH and mortality after EVT.