The latest medical research on Interventional Cardiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about interventional cardiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Predictors of Therapy Response in Chronic Aphasia: Building a Foundation for Personalized Aphasia Therapy.

Journal of Stroke

Chronic aphasia, a devastating impairment of language, affects up to a third of stroke survivors. Speech and language therapy has consistently been...

Endovascular Treatment for Posterior Circulation Stroke: Ways to Maximize Therapeutic Efficacy.

Journal of Stroke

The efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with posterior circulation stroke has not been proven. Two recent randomized controlled tr...

Association of Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins with Stroke Subtypes in an International Case Control Study (INTERSTROKE).

Journal of Stroke

The association of dyslipidemia with stroke has been inconsistent, which may be due to differing associations within etiological stroke subtypes. We sought to determine the association of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins within stroke subtypes.

Standardized incident case-control STROKE study in 32 countries. Cases were patients with acute hospitalized first stroke, and matched by age, sex and site to controls. Concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and apoB were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. We estimated multivariable odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%). Outcome measures were all stroke, ischemic stroke (and subtypes), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Our analysis included 11,898 matched case-control pairs; 77.3% with ischemic stroke and 22.7% with ICH. Increasing apoB (OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.14 per standard deviation [SD]) and LDL-C (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10 per SD) were associated with an increase in risk of ischemic stroke, but a reduced risk of ICH. Increased apoB was significantly associated with large vessel stroke (PAR 13.4%; 95% CI, 5.6 to 28.4) and stroke of undetermined cause. Higher HDL-C (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.78 per SD) and apoA1 (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.66 per SD) were associated with ischemic stroke (and subtypes). While increasing HDL-C was associated with an increased risk of ICH (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.27 per SD), apoA1 was associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85 per SD). ApoB/A1 (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.44 per SD) had a stronger magnitude of association than the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.31 per SD) with ischemic stroke (P<0.0001).

The pattern and magnitude of association of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with stroke varies by etiological stroke subtype. While the directions of association for LDL, HDL, and apoB were opposing for ischemic stroke and ICH, apoA1 was associated with a reduction in both ischemic stroke and ICH. The ratio of apoB/A1 was the best lipid predictor of ischemic stroke risk.

Causal Relations between Exposome and Stroke: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Journal of Stroke

To explore the causal relationships of elements of the exposome with ischemic stroke and its subtypes at the omics level and to provide evidence for stroke prevention.

We conducted a Mendelian randomization study between exposure and any ischemic stroke (AIS) and its subtypes (large-artery atherosclerotic disease [LAD], cardioembolic stroke [CE], and small vessel disease [SVD]). The exposure dataset was the UK Biobank involving 361,194 subjects, and the outcome dataset was the MEGASTROKE consortium including 52,000 participants.

We found that higher blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP: odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.04; diastolic BP: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05; pulse pressure: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.06), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.25), and diabetes (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.18) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. Importantly, higher education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.79) decreased the risk of ischemic stroke. Higher systolic BP (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10), pulse pressure (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.14), diabetes (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.45), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.00) could cause LAD. Atrial fibrillation could cause CE (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.71 to 2.11). For SVD, higher systolic BP (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.07), diastolic BP (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.12), and diabetes (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.36) were causal factors.

The study revealed elements of the exposome causally linked to ischemic stroke and its subtypes, including conventional causal risk factors and novel protective factors such as higher education.

Etiology-Related Outcome of Endovascular Therapy in Posterior Circulation Stroke Compared to Anterior Circulation Stroke.

Journal of Stroke

We investigated the impact of stroke etiology on the endovascular treatment (EVT) procedure and clinical outcome of posterior circulation stroke (PCS) patients with EVT compared to anterior circulation stroke (ACS) patients.

We retrospectively analyzed ischemic stroke patients who underwent EVT between January 2012 and December 2020. Enrolled ACS and PCS patients were compared according to etiologies (intracranial arterial steno-occlusion [ICAS-O], artery-to-artery embolic occlusion [AT-O], and cardioembolic occlusion [CA-O]). EVT procedure and favorable clinical outcomes at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) were compared between the ACS and PCS groups for each etiology.

We included 419 patients (ACS, 346; PCS, 73) including 88 ICAS-O (ACS, 67; PCS, 21), 66 AT-O (ACS, 50; PCS, 16), and 265 CA-O (ACS, 229; PCS, 36) patients in the study. The onset-to-recanalization time was longer in the PCS group than in the ACS group (median 628.0 minutes vs. 421.0 minutes, P=0.01). In CA-O patients, the door-to-puncture time was longer, whereas the puncture-to-recanalization time was shorter in the PCS group than in the ACS group. The proportions of successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcomes were similar between the ACS and PCS groups for all three etiologies. Low baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and absence of intracerebral hemorrhage at follow-up imaging were associated with favorable clinical outcomes in both groups, whereas successful recanalization (odds ratio, 11.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.60 to 52.94; P=0.001) was only associated in the ACS group.

The proportions of successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcomes were similar among all three etiologies between PCS and ACS patients who underwent EVT. Initial baseline NIHSS score and absence of hemorrhagic transformation were related to favorable outcomes in the PCS and ACS groups, whereas successful recanalization was related to favorable outcomes only in the ACS group.

Etiology, 3-Month Functional Outcome and Recurrent Events in Non-Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Journal of Stroke

Knowledge about different etiologies of non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and their outcomes is scarce.

We assessed prevalence of pre-specified ICH etiologies and their association with outcomes in consecutive ICH patients enrolled in the prospective Swiss Stroke Registry (2014 to 2019).

We included 2,650 patients (mean±standard deviation age 72±14 years, 46.5% female, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 8 [interquartile range, 3 to 15]). Etiology was as follows: hypertension, 1,238 (46.7%); unknown, 566 (21.4%); antithrombotic therapy, 227 (8.6%); cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), 217 (8.2%); macrovascular cause, 128 (4.8%); other determined etiology, 274 patients (10.3%). At 3 months, 880 patients (33.2%) were functionally independent and 664 had died (25.1%). ICH due to hypertension had a higher odds of functional independence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.77; P=0.05) and lower mortality (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.86; P=0.003). ICH due to antithrombotic therapy had higher mortality (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.61; P=0.045). Within 3 months, 4.2% of patients had cerebrovascular events. The rate of ischemic stroke was higher than that of recurrent ICH in all etiologies but CAA and unknown etiology. CAA had high odds of recurrent ICH (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.48 to 7.69; P=0.004) while the odds was lower in ICH due to hypertension (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.93; P=0.031).

Although hypertension is the leading etiology of ICH, other etiologies are frequent. One-third of ICH patients are functionally independent at 3 months. Except for patients with presumed CAA, the risk of ischemic stroke within 3 months of ICH was higher than the risk of recurrent hemorrhage.

A Practical Grading Scale for Predicting Outcomes of Radiosurgery for Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: JLGK 1802 Study.

Journal of Stroke

To assess the long-term outcomes of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone or embolization and SRS (Emb-SRS) and to develop a grading system for predicting DAVF obliteration.

This multi-institutional retrospective study included 200 patients with DAVF treated with SRS or Emb-SRS. We investigated the long-term obliteration rate and obliteration-associated factors. We developed a new grading system to estimate the obliteration rate. Additionally, we compared the outcomes of SRS and Emb-SRS by using propensity score matching.

The 3- and 4-year obliteration rates were 66.3% and 78.8%, respectively. The post-SRS hemorrhage rate was 2%. In the matched cohort, the SRS and Emb-SRS groups did not differ in the rates of obliteration (P=0.54) or post-SRS hemorrhage (P=0.50). In multivariable analysis, DAVF location and cortical venous reflux (CVR) were independently associated with obliteration. The new grading system assigned 2, 1, and 0 points to DAVFs in the anterior skull base or middle fossa, DAVFs with CVR or DAVFs in the superior sagittal sinus or tentorium, and DAVFs without these factors, respectively. Using the total points, patients were stratified into the highest (0 points), intermediate (1 point), or lowest (≥2 points) obliteration rate groups that exhibited 4-year obliteration rates of 94.4%, 71.3%, and 60.4%, respectively (P<0.01).

SRS-based therapy achieved DAVF obliteration in more than three-quarters of the patients at 4 years of age. Our grading system can stratify the obliteration rate and may guide physicians in treatment selection.

Endovascular Treatment of Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes Due to Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

Journal of Stroke

Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has become the gold-standard for patients with acute large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS). MT is highly effective in ...

Hypertriglyceridemia: A Neglected Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke?

Journal of Stroke

Hypertriglyceridemia is caused by defects in triglyceride metabolism and generally manifests as abnormally high plasma triglyceride levels. Althoug...

Mechanical Thrombectomy Access for All? Challenges in Increasing Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the United States.

Journal of Stroke

Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is the most effective treatment for selected patients with an acute ischemic stroke due to emergent large vessel occlu...

The Challenge of Designing Stroke Trials That Change Practice: MCID vs. Sample Size and Pragmatism.

Journal of Stroke

Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are the basis for evidence-based acute stroke care. For an RCT to change practice, its results have to be statis...

DIRECT-SAFE: A Randomized Controlled Trial of DIRECT Endovascular Clot Retrieval versus Standard Bridging Therapy.

Journal of Stroke

The benefit regarding co-treatment with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis before mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients with intracranial internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery or basilar artery occlusion treated with direct endovascular thrombectomy within 4.5 hours will be non-inferior compared with that of standard bridging IV thrombolysis followed by endovascular thrombectomy.

To randomize 780 patients 1:1 to direct thrombectomy or bridging IV thrombolysis with thrombectomy. An international-multicenter prospective randomized open label blinded endpoint trial (PROBE) (ClincalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03494920).

Primary endpoint is functional independence defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 or return to baseline at 90 days. Secondary end points include ordinal mRS analysis, good angiographic reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score [mTICI] 2b-3), safety endpoints include symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and death.

s DIRECT-SAFE will provide unique information regarding the impact of direct thrombectomy in patients with large vessel occlusion, including patients with basilar artery occlusion, with comparison across different ethnic groups.