The latest medical research on Rehabilitation Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about rehabilitation medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Impacts of tailored, rehabilitation nursing care on functional ability and quality of life in hospitalized elderly patients after rib fractures.

Clinical Rehabilitation

We aimed to analyze the effects of a tailored rehabilitation nursing care program on functional ability and quality of life in patients with conservative treatment for rib fractures.

Randomized controlled trial.

Inpatient rehabilitation hospital.

Rib fracture patients treated conservatively were randomized into two groups (experimental and control group).

Patients in control group received Treatment as Usual (TAU) and patients included in experimental group received TAU and an added tailored rehabilitation nursing care program (RNT).

At baseline, and end of hospitalization treatment, the functional ability was assessed with the Barthel Index, and the quality of life was evaluated with the EuroQol-5D. Additionally, the outcomes were assessed at six-month follow-up.

A total of 80 patients were included in the study, whose mean age was 77.19 SD 7.71 in the RNT group and 75.55 SD 9.46 in the TAU group. Our data showed a significant difference in the post-treatment gains in overall quality of life (74.25 SD 20.62 vs 60.28 SD 20.54), and functional ability (71.79 SD 23.85 vs 69.41 SD 24.30) between the RNT group and the TAU group (P < 0.05). Compared to the TAU group, the RNT group also showed a significant improvement in functional ability and quality of life at six-month follow-up.

A tailored rehabilitation nursing care program added to the conservative treatment during hospitalization can improve the functional ability and quality of life of patients after rib fractures at discharge and at six-month follow-up.

ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT04168996.

Effectiveness of topical silicone gel and pressure garment therapy for burn scar prevention and management in children 12-months postburn: A parallel group randomised controlled trial.

Clinical Rehabilitation

The longer-term effectiveness of silicone and pressure burn scar interventions was evaluated at 12-months postburn.

Parallel group, randomised trial.

Hospital outpatient clinics, research centre.

Children referred for burn scar management following grafted or spontaneously healed acute burn injuries or scar reconstruction surgery.

Participants were randomised to: (1) topical silicone gel only, (2) pressure garment only, or (3) combined topical silicone gel and pressure garment.

Primary outcomes were scar thickness (blinded ultrasound measurement) and itch intensity (caregiver proxy-report, numeric rating scale).

Of 153 participants randomised who received the interventions (silicone n = 51, pressure garment n = 49, combined n = 53), 86 were followed-up at 12-months postburn (n = 34, n = 28, n = 24). No differences were identified for the primary outcomes using intention-to-treat analysis. Scar thickness mean difference (95% confidence interval) = 0.00 cm (-0.04, 0.05); -0.03 cm (-0.07, 0.02); 0.03 cm (-0.02, 0.08) and scar itch = 0.09 (-0.88, 1.06); -0.21 (-1.21, 0.79); 0.30 (-0.73, 1.32) for silicone vs pressure; silicone vs combined and combined vs pressure respectively. No serious adverse effects occurred.

Similar to short-term results, the combined intervention offered no statistically or clinically significant benefit for improving the primary outcomes compared to each intervention alone. No differences in the primary outcomes were identified between the silicone and pressure alone groups.

Brazilian version of the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire does not have a well-defined internal structure in patients with chronic neck pain.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To investigate the structural validity of the Brazilian version of the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire in patients with chronic neck pain.

Cross-sectional study.

Community participants collected via online platform.

Participants with neck pain (minimal pain intensity of 3 points at rest on 11-point Numerical Rating Scale), both genders and aged ⩾18 years old.

The Numerical Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, Pain-Related Catastrophizing Thoughts Scale, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire were completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to identify dimensionality and to compare different structures of the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire.

We included 103 participants. The sample consisted mostly of adults (mean age = 33.64 years, standard deviation = 10.48 years), females (n = 82, 79.6%), lean, single and with higher education. The exploratory factor analysis with implementation of the parallel analysis identified the one-dimensional structure of the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire, with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of 0.80 and Bartlett's test significant (P < 0.05). We observed that all structures tested in this study presented a high amount of residues in confirmatory factor analysis, which were identified by the value of root mean square error of approximation > 0.08 and chi-square/degree of freedom > 3.00.

The internal structure of the Brazilian version of the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire is not clear and well-defined. It was not possible to identify the construct measured by the instrument in individuals with chronic neck pain.

Are Mobile Persons With Parkinson Disease Necessarily More Active?

Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy

Walking activity in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) is important for preventing functional decline. The contribution of walking activity to home and community mobility in PD is poorly understood.

Cross-sectional baseline data (N = 69) were analyzed from a randomized controlled PD trial. The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) quantified the extent, frequency, and independence across 5 expanding levels of home and community mobility, producing individual subscores and a total score. Two additional summed scores were used to represent mobility within (Levels 1-3) and beyond (Levels 4-5) neighborhood limits. An accelerometer measured walking activity for 7 days. Regression and correlation analyses evaluated relationships between daily steps and mobility scores. Mann-Whitney U tests secondarily compared differences in mobility scores between the active and sedentary groups.

Walking activity contributed significantly to the summed Level 1-3 score (β = 0.001, P = 0.004) but not to the summed Level 4-5 (β = 0.001, P = 0.33) or total (β = 0.002, P = 0.07) scores. Walking activity was significantly related to Level 1 (ρ = 0.336, P = 0.005), Level 2 (ρ = 0.307, P = 0.010), and Level 3 (ρ = 0.314, P = 0.009) subscores. Only the summed Level 1-3 score (P = 0.030) was significantly different between the active and sedentary groups.

Persons with PD who demonstrated greater mobility beyond the neighborhood were not necessarily more active; walking activity contributed more so to home and neighborhood mobility. Compared with LSA total score, the Level 1-3 summed score may be a more useful participation-level measure for assessing the impact of changes in walking activity.

For more insight from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1 (available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A349).

Ultrasound-guided local corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clinical Rehabilitation

This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) versus landmark-guided (LM-guided) local corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

Database including Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The outcomes mainly included Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ): Symptom Severity Scale (BCTQs), Functional Status Scale (BCTQf); and electrophysiological indexes: distal motor latency (DML), sensory distal latency (SDL), compound muscle action potential (CAMP), sensory nerve action potential amplitude (SNAP), and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). Adverse events were also recorded.

Overall, nine RCTs were finally screened out with 469 patients (596 injected hands). Pooled analysis showed that US-guided injection was more effective in BCTQs (SMD, -0.69; 95% CI, -1.08 to -0.31; P = 0.0005), BCTQf (SMD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.07; P = 0.005), CAMP (MD, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.35-0.94; P < 0.0001) improvement, and a lower rate of adverse events (RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.22-0.52; P < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the US-guided injection had significantly better CMAP than the LM-guided for the in-plane approach (MD, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.36-1.01; P < 0.0001) but not for the out-plane approach (MD, 0.39; 95% CI, -0.39 to 1.17; P = 0.33).

US-guided injection was superior to LM-guided injection in symptom severity, functional status, electrodiagnostic, and adverse events improvement for CTS. To some extent, the in-plane approach yields better results compared with the out-plane process under US guidance.

Hospital readmission in stroke survivors one year versus three years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation: Prevalence and associations in an asian cohort.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To examine the prevalence and risk factors for readmission after inpatient rehabilitation in stroke survivors, in a developed multi-ethnic Southeast Asian country.

A retrospective cohort study of 1,235 stroke survivors who completed inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary rehabilitation centre.

A total of 296 (24.0%) patients with stroke were readmitted within the first year, and 87 (7.0%) patients were readmitted 1-3 years after stroke. Significant risk factors for readmission of patients in the first year post-stroke were older age (p = 0.027), lower admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor (p = 0.001) and cognition scores (p = 0.025), a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥ 1 (p < 0.001) and the presence of at least 1 medical complication during initial hospitalization (p < 0.001), while FIM gain was found to be protective (p < 0.001). Looking at readmission after 1 year post-stroke, a CCI ≥1 (p < 0.001) and the presence of medical complications during initial hospitalization (p < 0.001) were risk factors for readmission, while FIM gain (p = 0.001) was protective. Common causes for readmission include recurrent stroke and falls.

There is a high readmission rate in stroke survivors, even after the first year post-stroke. Interventions, such as fall risk assessments, vaccinations, meticulous catheter care, intensified secondary risk factors interventions and continued post-discharge rehabilitation, may hold promise for reducing readmission rates.

Does gender affect the outcomes of patients in program of managed care for acute myocardial infarction.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

There is increasing evidence that cardiac rehabilitation and regular follow-ups are associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. A programme of Managed Care for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction was developed in Poland (MC-AMI; in Polish, KOS-zawał), based on current scientific evidence. However, there is a lack of data on possible improvement in long-term prognosis among women after acute myocardial infarction.

To compare the male and female population who participated in MC-AMI, regarding major cardiovascular events, defined as a composite of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for heart failure, in a 1-year follow-up.

A prospective research study from a single cardiology care centre. The study compared 2 groups: women and men who agreed to participate in the MC-AMI programme.

A total of 529 patients were included in the study (167 women and 362 men). In the 12-month follow-up, the difference in major cardiovascular events events was not statistically significant for women and men, respectively (11.38% women vs 11.33% men; p = 0.98). Cox multivariate regression analysis of the surveyed population showed that coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus type II, and previous percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly correlated with the primary endpoint.

Women participating in the MC-AMI programme did not have a worse prognosis regarding major cardiovascular events, compared with men in a 12-month follow-up. Given the benefits of the MC-AMI programme, the proportion of women participating in the programme should be increased.

Using Biofeedback to Reduce Step Length Asymmetry Impairs Dynamic Balance in People Poststroke.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

People poststroke often walk with a spatiotemporally asymmetric gait, due in part to sensorimotor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Although reducing asymmetry is a common objective of rehabilitation, the effects of improving symmetry on balance are yet to be determined.

We established the concurrent validity of whole-body angular momentum as a measure of balance, and we determined if reducing step length asymmetry would improve balance by decreasing whole-body angular momentum.

We performed clinical balance assessments and measured whole-body angular momentum during walking using a full-body marker set in a sample of 36 people with chronic stroke. We then used a biofeedback-based approach to modify step length asymmetry in a subset of 15 of these individuals who had marked asymmetry and we measured the resulting changes in whole-body angular momentum.

When participants walked without biofeedback, whole-body angular momentum in the sagittal and frontal plane was negatively correlated with scores on the Berg Balance Scale and Functional Gait Assessment supporting the validity of whole-body angular momentum as an objective measure of dynamic balance. We also observed that when participants walked more symmetrically, their whole-body angular momentum in the sagittal plane increased rather than decreased.

Voluntary reductions of step length asymmetry in people poststroke resulted in reduced measures of dynamic balance. This is consistent with the idea that after stroke, individuals might have an implicit preference not to deviate from their natural asymmetry while walking because it could compromise their balance. Clinical Trials Number: NCT03916562.

Effects of balance training on functionality, ankle instability, and dynamic balance outcomes in people with chronic ankle instability: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To identify the effects of balance and strength training on function, ankle instability and dynamic balance in people with chronic ankle instability.

The search was conducted on randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of balance training or strength training in people with chronic ankle instability compared to a control group. Therefore, a systematic electronic search was performed until April 2021 in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Moreover, an additional search was further performed checking the reference lists of the selected articles. The main outcomes were ankle instability, functionality, and dynamic balance. Finally, a qualitative and quantitative synthesis was performed.

Fifteen randomized controlled trials with 457 volunteers were included. Compared to regular exercise, balance training demonstrated to be more effective in terms of improving functionality (0.81 (0.48, 1.14)), ankle instability (0.77 (0.27, 1.26)), and dynamic balance (0.83 (0.57, 1.10)) outcomes. However, when compared to strength training, the effectiveness of balance training was only greater in terms of the functionality outcome (0.49 (0.06, 0.92)), since no differences were found for instability (0.43 (0.00, 0.85)) and dynamic balance (0.21 (-0.15, 0.58)).

Based on fair-to-high quality evidence, balance training significantly improves functionality, instability, and dynamic balance outcomes in people with chronic ankle instability Moreover, results of the comparison between balance training versus strength training suggest that the former achieves greater benefits for functionality, but not for instability and dynamic balance.

CRD42021224179.

Using a cane for one month does not improve walking or social participation in chronic stroke: An attention-controlled randomized trial.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To examine the effects of the provision of a cane, delivered to ambulatory people with chronic stroke, for improving walking and social participation.

Two-arm, randomized trial.

Community-based.

Ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke.

The experimental intervention was the provision of a single-point cane during one month. The control group received a placebo intervention.

Walking speed, step length, cadence, walking capacity, and walking confidence were measured without the cane to examine its rehabilitative effect. Walking speed was also measured with the cane for inclusiveness, and social participation was measured for examining carry over effects. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and after one and two months.

Fifty individuals were included. In the experimental group, mean age was 69 years (SD 14), and walking speed was 0.58 m/s (SD 0.17). In the control group, mean age was 68 years (SD 13), and walking speed was 0.63 m/s (SD 0.15). When walking without the cane, after one and after two months, there were no between-group differences in any measures. When walking with the cane, after one month, the experimental group walked 0.14 m/s (95% CI 0.05-0.23) faster than the control group and after two months, they were still walking 0.18 m/s (95% CI 0.06-0.30) faster.

Use of a cane improved walking speed, only when participants walked with the cane. Use of cane for one month did not improve walking outcomes, when walking without the cane. People with stroke would need to continue to use the cane to maintain any benefits in walking speed.

Effect of yoga on health-related quality of life in central nervous system disorders: A systematic review.

Clinical Rehabilitation

Investigate the effect of yoga on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with central nervous system disorders.

A systematic search was conducted on the PubMed-NCBI, EBSCO Host, Cochrane Library, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases until 05 April 2021. Only randomized control trials published in English or French were included and had to compare yoga to another intervention group or a control group. They also had to clearly measure HRQoL. Methodological quality was assessed with the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials and the quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria.

Sixteen studies were found, including six for multiple sclerosis, five for Parkinson's disease, two for stroke, one for dementia, one for epilepsy and one for brain tumour. Only 12 studies performed between-group statistics and 8 found a significant difference between groups after treatment. When yoga was compared to no intervention, the results were generally in favour of the yoga group, but when yoga was compared to another intervention programme, there was generally no significant difference between groups. There were many different HRQoL questionnaires, even within the same disease, which reduces the comparability of studies.

With low to moderate quality of the evidence, yoga seems effective to improve HRQoL in people with Parkinson's disease. For multiple sclerosis, stroke, dementia, epilepsy and brain tumour, the quality of the evidence is still insufficient to conclude of the effectiveness of yoga.

Efficacy of whole-body vibration on balance control, postural stability, and mobility after thermal burn injuries: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To investigate the additive effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training to the traditional physical therapy program (TPTP) on balance control, postural stability, and mobility after thermal burn injuries.

A single-blinded, randomized controlled study.

Outpatient physical therapy setting.

Forty participants, 20-45 years old, with deep second-degree thermal burn involving the lower limbs and trunk, with 35%-40% total body service area, were randomly allocated either into the study group or the control group.

The study group received WBV plus TPTP while the control group received the TPTP only. Interventions were applied three sessions a week for eight weeks.

Anteroposterior stability index (APSI), mediolateral stability index (MLSI), overall stability index (OSI), timed-up and go (TUG), and Berg balance scale (BBS) were measured at baseline and after eight weeks of interventions.

There were statistically significant differences in APSI, MLSI, OSI, BBS, and TUG in favor of the WBV group after eight weeks of intervention (P < 0.001). After eight weeks of intervention, the mean (SD) for APSI, MLSI, OSI, BBS, and TUG scores were 1.87 ± 0.51, 41.36 ± 0.18, 1.95 ± 0.56, 47.2 ± 6.12, and 8.15 ± 1.05 seconds in the WBV group, and 2.41 ± 0.71, 2.21 ± 0.54, 2.68 ± 0.73, 40.65 ± 4.7, and 10.95 ± 2.44 seconds in the control group, respectively.

The whole-body vibration training combined with the TPTP was more beneficial in improving APS, MLS, OSI, TUG, and BBS than TPTP alone. It might be considered a useful adjunctive therapy in treating patients with healed wounds with a deep second-degree burn of the trunk and lower limbs.