The latest medical research on Rehabilitation Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about rehabilitation medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Societal burden of stroke rehabilitation: costs and health outcomes after admission to stroke rehabilitation.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To estimate societal costs and changes in health-related quality of life in stroke patients, up to one year after start of medical specialist rehabilitation.

Participants completed questionnaires on health-related quality of life (EuroQol EQ-5D-3L), absenteeism, out-of-pocket costs and healthcare use at start and end of rehabilitation and 6 and 12 months after start. Clinical characteristics and rehabilitation costs were extracted from the medical and financial records, respectively.

From 2014 to 2016 a total of 313 stroke patients completed the study. Mean age was 59 (standard deviation (SD) 12) years, 185 (59%) were male, and 244 (78%) inpatients. Average costs for inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation were $70,601 and $27,473, respectively. For inpatients, utility increased significantly between baseline and 6 months (EQ-5D-3L 0.66-0.73, p = 0.01; visual analogue scale 0.77-0.82, p < 0.001) and between baseline and 12 months (visual analogue scale 0.77-0.81, p < 0.001).

One-year societal costs from after the start of rehabilitation in stroke patients were considerable. Future research should also include costs prior to rehabilitation. For inpatients, health-related quality of life, expressed in terms of utility, improved significantly over time.

Post-intensive care syndrome following cardiothoracic critical care: Feasibility of a complex intervention.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To describe the long-term outcomes of cardiac intensive care unit patients and their primary caregivers, and to explore the feasibility of implementing a complex intervention, designed to support problems associated with post-intensive care syndrome and post-intensive care syndrome-family, in the year following discharge from the cardiac intensive care unit.

Patients and their caregivers were invited to participate 12 weeks after hospital discharge. Twenty-seven patients and 23 caregivers attended the programme.

Over 90% of patients had problems in at least one quality of life domain at baseline, 41% of patients had symptoms of anxiety and 22% had symptoms of depression. During the baseline visit, caregiver strain was present in 20% of caregivers, 57% had symptoms of anxiety, and 35% had symptoms of depression. Distinct improvements in outcomes were seen in both patients and caregivers at 1-year follow-up. The programme was implemented, and iterative learning obtained about the content and the operationalization of the service, in order to understand feasibility.

This small-scale quality improvement project has demonstrated that this complex multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme is feasible and appears to have positive implications for patients following discharge from the cardiac intensive care unit, and their caregivers.

A qualitative study exploring the implementation determinants of rehabilitation and global wellness programs for orchestral musicians.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To explore the facilitators and barriers to implementation of a pilot workplace rehabilitation and global wellness program for orchestral musicians.

Qualitative study comprising focus groups and interviews.Setting: Workplace of conservatory and orchestral musicians and administrators.

Musicians, administrators and a conductor from two professional orchestras; tertiary-level orchestral students and an administrator from a conservatory of music.

We held four focus groups and two interviews to document the perspectives of the participants concerning the implementation determinants of a pilot workplace rehabilitation and wellness program (exercises and health-related education). Meetings consisted of questions based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Thematic content analysis was conducted using this same framework, with subcoding according to the Theoretical Domains Framework.

Fourteen musicians and five administrators participated. Results suggest that the implementation determinants for the pilot and future programs rely mainly on the Inner Setting, that is, what musicians refer to as 'the music world', specifically cultural elements such as pain beliefs (e.g. no pain no gain) and lack of resources and time (barriers). Characteristics of Individuals such as social influences amongst colleagues and beliefs about the consequences of self-care or lack thereof, and Intervention Characteristics such as complexity can be facilitators or barriers. All emerging themes have an undercurrent that lies in the Inner Setting.

Musicians' culture, currently a barrier, is a crucial determinant of rehabilitation and wellness program implementation in the orchestral musicians' workplace. A focus on musicians' workplace environment is necessary to optimise implementation and intervention impacts.

The Relationship Between Walking Speed and the Energetic Cost of Walking in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls: A Systematic Review.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) experience walking impairments, characterized by decreased walking speeds. In healthy subjects, the self-selected walking speed is the energetically most optimal. In pwMS, the energetically most optimal walking speed remains underexposed. Therefore, this review aimed to determine the relationship between walking speed and energetic cost of walking (Cw) in pwMS, compared with healthy subjects, thereby assessing the walking speed with the lowest energetic cost. As it is unclear whether the Cw in pwMS differs between overground and treadmill walking, as reported in healthy subjects, a second review aim was to compare both conditions.

PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched. Studies assessing pwMS, reporting walking speed (converted to meters per second), and reporting oxygen consumption were included. Study quality was assessed with a modified National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute checklist. The relationship between Cw and walking speed was calculated with a second-order polynomial function and compared between groups and conditions.

Twenty-nine studies were included (n = 1535 pwMS) of which 8 included healthy subjects (n = 179 healthy subjects). PwMS showed a similar energetically most optimal walking speed of 1.44 m/s with a Cw of 0.16, compared with 0.14 mL O2/kg/m in healthy subjects. The most optimal walking speed in treadmill was 1.48 m/s, compared with 1.28 m/s in overground walking with a similar Cw.

Overall, the Cw is elevated in pwMS but with a similar energetically most optimal walking speed, compared with healthy subjects. Treadmill walking showed a similar most optimal Cw but a higher speed, compared with overground walking.

Benefit of Modified Rehabilitation Programs after Total Knee Arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To investigate the effectiveness of modified rehabilitation programmes in comparison with standard rehabilitation programmes after total knee arthroplasty through randomized controlled trials.

Two authors independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The outcomes were knee extension, knee flexion, pain visual analogue scale, overall Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), 6-minute walking test, and Timed Up and Go test.

There was no clear pattern regarding which combination of starting time-point and duration of the rehabilitation programme after total knee arthroplasty significantly improves the clinical outcome when comparing modified rehabilitation programmes with standard programmes. Moreover, no particular modification to the modified programmes could be solely attributed to the improved clinical outcome in the 2 studies that showed significant improvement.

Modified rehabilitation programmes do not result in systematic improvement in clinical outcome over one-size-fits-all-approaches after total knee arthroplasty.

Factors associated with met and unmet rehabilitation needs after stroke: A multicentre cohort study in Denmark and Norway.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To examine patient-reported needs for care and rehabilitation in a cohort following different subacute pathways of rehabilitation, and to explore factors underpinning met and unmet needs.

A total of 318 Norwegian and 155 Danish patients with first-ever stroke were included. Participants answered questions from the Norwegian Stroke Registry about perceived met, unmet or lack of need for help and training during the first 3 months post stroke. The term "training" in this context was used for all rehabilitative therapy offered by physiotherapists, occupational or speech therapists. The term "help" was used for care provided by health professionals.

Need for training: 15% reported unmet need, 52% reported met need, and 33% reported no need. Need for help: 10% reported unmet need, 58% reported met, and 31% reported no need. Participants from both Norway and Denmark had similar patterns of unmet/met need for help or training. Unmet need for training was associated with lower functioning, (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, p < 0.05) and more anxiety (OR = 0.36, p < 0.05). Patients reporting unmet needs for help more often lived alone (OR = 0.40, p < 0.05) and were more often depressed (OR = 0.31, p < 0.05).

Similar levels of met and unmet needs for training and help at 3 months after stroke were reported despite differences in the organization of the rehabilitation services. Functioning and psychological factors were associated with unmet rehabilitation needs.

The comparative effects of brief or multidisciplinary intervention on return to work at 1 year in employees on sick leave due to low back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To compare return to work (RTW) rates among patients with low back pain (LBP) and different job relations randomized to brief or multidisciplinary intervention.

A randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.

Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Denmark.

Four hundred seventy-six participants were divided into two groups concerning job relations: strong (influence on job and no fear of losing it) or weak (no influence on job and/or fear of losing it), and afterwards randomized to brief or multidisciplinary intervention.

Brief intervention included examination and advice by a rheumatologist and a physiotherapist. Multidisciplinary intervention included brief intervention plus coaching by a case manager making a plan for RTW with the patient.

Primary outcome was 1-year RTW rate. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity (LBP rating scale), disability (Roland Morris disability scale), and psychological measures (Common Mental Disorder Questionnaire, Major Depression Inventory, and EQ-5D-3L).

Mean (SD) age was 43.1 (9.8) years. Among 272 participants with strong job relations, RTW was achieved for 104/137 (76%) receiving brief intervention compared to 89/135 (66%) receiving multidisciplinary intervention, hazard ratio 0.73 (CI: 0.55-0.96). Corresponding results for 204 participants with weak job relations were 69/102 (68%) in both interventions, hazard ratio 1.07 (CI: 0.77-1.49). For patients with strong job relations, depressive symptoms and quality of life were more improved after brief intervention.

Brief intervention resulted in higher RTW rates than multidisciplinary intervention for employees with strong job relations. There were no differences in RTW rates between interventions for employees with weak job relations.

Physical activity on prescription in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To evaluate whether physical activity on prescription, comprising five sessions, was more effective in increasing physical activity than a one-hour advice session after six months.

Randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial.

Primary care.

Patients with clinically verified osteoarthritis of the hip or knee who undertook less than 150 minute/week of moderate physical activity, and were aged 40-74 years.

The advice group (n = 69) received a one-hour session with individually tailored advice about physical activity. The physical activity on prescription group (n = 72) received individually tailored physical activity recommendations with written prescription, and four follow-ups during six months.

Patients were assessed at baseline and six months: physical activity (accelerometer, questionnaires); fitness (six-minute walk test, 30-second chair-stand test, maximal step-up test, one-leg rise test); pain after walking (VAS); symptoms (HOOS/KOOS); and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D).

One hundred four patients had knee osteoarthritis, 102 were women, and mean age was 60.3 ± 8.3 years. Pain after walking decreased significantly more in the prescription group, from VAS 31 ± 22 to 18 ± 23. There was no other between groups difference. Both groups increased self-reported activity minutes significantly, from 105 (95% CI 75-120) to 165 (95% CI 135-218) minute/week in the prescription group versus 75 (95% CI 75-105) to 150 (95% CI 120-225) in the advice group. Also symptoms and quality of life improved significantly in both groups.

Individually tailored physical activity with written prescription and four follow-ups does not materially improve physical activity level more than advice about osteoarthritis and physical activity.

ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02387034).

Effect of vestibular rehabilitation on change in health-related quality of life in patients with dizziness and balance problems after traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

Secondary analysis, testing the effect on change in health-related quality of life of group-based vestibular rehabilitation in patients with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury, dizziness and -balance problems.

Quality of Life after Brain Injury was the main outcome. Independent variables were demographic and injury variables, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, changes on the Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ3 physical and RPQ13 psychological/cognitive), and Vertigo Symptom Scale-Short Form.

Mean age of participants was 39.4 years (SD 13.0); 70.3% women. Predictors of change in the Quality of Life after Brain Injury were receiving the vestibular rehabilitation (p = 0.049), baseline psychological distress (p = 0.020), and change in RPQ3 physical (p = 0.047) and RPQ13 psychological/cognitive (p = 0.047). Adjusted R2 was 0.399, F=6.13, p < 0.001.

There was an effect in favour of the intervention group in improvement in health-related quality of life. Changes on the Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire were also associated with change on the Quality of Life after Brain Injury.

Fit for work and life: an innovative concept to improve health and work ability of employees, integrating prevention, therapy and rehabilitation.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To set up a comprehensive health programme for employees, with needs-based allocation to preventive and rehabilitative measures; and to evaluate the effects of the programme on work ability and sick leave.

Employees of a university hospital were invited to participate in needs-based interventions of preventive or rehabilitative character. Allocation followed screening questionnaires, anamnesis and clinical examination.The main outcome parameters were work ability and sick leave duration.

The current phase of the project included 1,547 participants, who applied voluntarily to enter the programme. The mean age of participants was 44.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 10.3 years), and 72.0% were female. Needs-based allocation to a prevention or a rehabilitation group was effective, and enabled formation of 2 groups with different demands. Overall, more than half of the employees participating in the programme reported sick leave within the last 3 months. Participants in the preventive measures group reported significantly lower duration of sick leave than those in the rehabilitation group. Employees in the rehabilitation group had significantly lower work ability (Work Ability Index (WAI) 30.4 vs 36.6), but higher effects at 6-month follow-up (WAI 33.4 (standardized effect size (SES) 0.51) vs 37.9 (SES 0.17)). In the prevention group sick leave reduced from 1.9 to 1.3 weeks during the previous 3-month period, whereas in the rehabilitation group it reduced from 2.7 to 1.5 weeks.

Implementation of the comprehensive health programme was successful, using the multimodal infrastructure of a university hospital. Allocation to suitable interventions in occupational health programmes following screening, anamnesis and clinical examination is an appropriate way to meet participants' needs. The programme resulted in improved work ability and less sick leave.

Drop-out from chronic pain treatment programmes: Is randomization justified in biopsychosocial approaches?

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To identify profiles of patients who are at risk of dropping out from biopsychosocial approaches to chronic pain management.

Socio-demographics and behavioural data were included in the analyses. Univariates analyses, comparing early drop-outs (never attended treatment), late drop-outs (6/9 sessions' treatment) and continuers were conducted in order to select variables to include in a multivariate logistic regression.

Univariate analyses yielded 8 variables, out of 18 potential predictors for drop-out, which were eligible for inclusion in the multivariate logistic regression. The model showed that having an intermediate or high educational level protects against dropping out early or late in the pain management process. Having to wait for more than 4 months before starting the treatment increases the risk of never starting it. Being randomized increases the risk of never starting the treatment.

In a context in which randomization is considered a "gold standard" in evidence-based practice, these results indicate that this very principle could be deleterious to pain management in patients with chronic pain.

Very Early Exercise Rehabilitation After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Promotes Inflammation in the Brain.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Very early exercise has been reported to exacerbate motor dysfunction; however, its mechanism is largely unknown.

This study examined the effect of very early exercise on motor recovery and associated brain damage following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats.

Collagenase solution was injected into the left striatum to induce ICH. Rats were randomly assigned to receive placebo surgery without exercise (SHAM) or ICH without (ICH) or with very early exercise within 24 hours of surgery (ICH+VET). We observed sensorimotor behaviors before surgery, and after surgery preexercise and postexercise. Postexercise brain tissue was collected 27 hours after surgery to investigate the hematoma area, brain edema, and Il1b, Tgfb1, and Igf1 mRNA levels in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. NeuN, PSD95, and GFAP protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting.

We observed significantly increased skillful sensorimotor impairment in the horizontal ladder test and significantly higher Il1b mRNA levels in the striatum of the ICH+VET group compared with the ICH group. NeuN protein expression was significantly reduced in both brain regions of the ICH+VET group compared with the SHAM group.

Our results suggest that very early exercise may be associated with an exacerbation of motor dysfunction because of increased neuronal death and region-specific changes in inflammatory factors. These results indicate that implementing exercise within 24 hours after ICH should be performed with caution.