The latest medical research on Rehabilitation Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about rehabilitation medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Rigorous Qualitative Research Involving Data Collected Remotely From People With Communication Disorders: Experience From a Telerehabilitation Trial.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Diverse challenges arise with research involving people with communication disorders while using remote methods for data collection. Ethical and me...

The TWIST Tool Predicts When Patients Will Recover Independent Walking After Stroke: An Observational Study.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

The likelihood of regaining independent walking after stroke influences rehabilitation and hospital discharge planning.

This study aimed to develop and internally validate a tool to predict whether and when a patient will walk independently in the first 6 months post-stroke.

Adults with stroke were recruited if they had new lower limb weakness and were unable to walk independently. Clinical assessments were completed one week post-stroke. The primary outcome was time post-stroke by which independent walking (Functional Ambulation Category score ≥ 4) was achieved. Cox hazard regression identified predictors for achieving independent walking by 4, 6, 9, 16, or 26 weeks post-stroke. The cut-off and weighting for each predictor was determined using β-coefficients. Predictors were assigned a score and summed for a final TWIST score. The probability of achieving independent walking at each time point for each TWIST score was calculated.

We included 93 participants (36 women, median age 71 years). Age < 80 years, knee extension strength Medical Research Council grade ≥ 3/5, and Berg Balance Test < 6, 6 to 15, or ≥ 16/56, predicted independent walking and were combined to form the TWIST prediction tool. The TWIST prediction tool was at least 83% accurate for all time points.

The TWIST tool combines routine bedside tests at one week post-stroke to accurately predict the probability of an individual patient achieving independent walking by 4, 6, 9, 16, or 26 weeks post-stroke. If externally validated, the TWIST prediction tool may benefit patients and clinicians by informing rehabilitation decisions and discharge planning.

Efficacy of Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis on Functional Mobility and Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Review of Case Reports.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To synthesize available evidence from case reports regarding the efficacy of knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) on functional mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with stroke.

The following databases were searched, based on the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PEDro, Web of Science, and Igaku Chuo Zassi (in Japanese). Methodological quality was assessed using the CARE checklist.

A total of 14 articles, including 15 cases, were selected. Clinically meaningful improvement in functional mobility was reported in 10 of 15 cases, measured using the Functional Ambulatory Category, Trunk Control Test, walking speed, and Berg Balance Scale. Clinically meaningful improvement in ADL was reported in 9 of 15 cases, measured using the Barthel Index and Functional Independent Measure. However, the methodological quality of the reviewed articles was low, with missing information on limitations of management, adverse events, and patient-reported outcomes.

This systematic review of case reports found limited evidence of the efficacy of KAFO in terms of improvement in functional mobility and ADL. Of value, this study revealed the optimal outcomes for measuring the efficacy of KAFO.

Changes In Perceived Impact Of Stroke On Everyday Life Over Five Years In A Rehabilitation Sample That Received An Activity Of Daily Living Intervention: A Follow-Up Study.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To compare changes in the perceived impact of stroke on everyday life over time in a rehabilitation sample that received a client-centred activities of daily living (CADL) intervention or usual ADL (UADL) intervention.

A total of 145 persons with stroke were assigned into CADL or UADL. Groups were assessed using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years post-intervention. Changes in SIS domain scores over time were compared within and between groups.

Changes in the impact of stroke over time were not related to which intervention the groups received. There were no significant differences in the SIS domains or stroke recovery between groups at the 3-month, 12-month and 5-year follow-ups. Despite an increased impact of stroke over time in some domains in both groups, they perceived a decreased impact of stroke in the Participation domain at 12 months. Perceived participation was sustained at the same level at 12 months as at 5 years in both groups.

These findings stress the importance of access to follow-up rehabilitation interventions 1-year post-stroke to enable participation in daily activities. Such follow-up and enablement would support the use of self-management strategies in the performance of persons' valued activities, which might be difficult to perform, due to, for example, impact on hand function or mobility. The results of this study emphasize the importance of prioritizing participation in activities that are meaningful from a personal perspective.

Quality of Life Following Major Limb Amputation in a Rural Community in Cameroon.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

Amputation is considered the last resort when a limb is no longer salvageable, a limb is dead or dying, is viable but non-functional, or is endangering the patient's life. Limb amputation is associated with profound economic, social, and psychological effects on patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate quality of life following major limb amputation in a rural setting in west Cameroon.

This was a cross-sectional descriptive, analytical study. Participants were interviewed and data collected using a pre-defined accredited questionnaire of the WHOQOL-BREF to assess quality of life.

There were 63 participants, and a majority (60.32% ) reported trauma as the cause of amputation. Participants with a prosthesis had better quality of life.

Quality of life of people following major limb amputation in this study was generally fair according to the World Health Organization (WHO) quality of life tool.

Reliability and validity of a Chinese Version of the Lysholm Score and Tegner Activity Scale for Knee Arthroplasty.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To verify the reliability and validity of Chinese versions of the Lysholm score and the Tegner activity scale for knee arthroplasty.

Sixty-four patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and 28 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Participants were divided into 4 groups: a pre-operation group; a 3 months post-operation group; a 1-year post-operation group; and a control group of healthy volunteers. Participants completed the Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale twice over a period of 3-7 days.

The intraclass correlation coefficients of the Lysholm score and Tegner scale were both relatively high, at 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. Moreover, the Cronbach's alpha of the Lysholm score was 0.71. The items "locking" and "instability" differed slightly between groups (Kruskal-Wallis: for locking, χ2 (p) = 13.48, p = 0.0037; for instability, χ2 (p) = 4.32, p = 0.2292).

The simplified-Chinese versions of the Lysholm score and the Tegner scale are applicable for use with patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and have relatively high validity and reliability. The items "locking" and "instability" should be combined with clinical data to make the Lysholm score more suitable for assessment of total knee arthroplasty.

Prolonged disorders of consciousness: A response to a "critical evaluation of the new UK guidelines."

Clinical Rehabilitation

In 2020, The London Royal College of Physicians published "Prolonged disorders of consciousness following sudden-onset brain injury: national clinical guidelines". In 2021, in the journal Brain, Scolding et al. published "a critical evaluation of the new UK guidelines". This evaluation focussed on one of the 73 recommendations in the National Clinical Guidelines. They also alleged that the guidelines were unethical.

They criticised our recommendation not to use activation protocols using fMRI, electroencephalography, or Positron Emission Tomography. They claim these tests can (a) detect 'covert consciousness', (b) add predictive value and (c) should be part of routine clinical care. They also suggest that our guideline was driven by cost considerations, leading to clinicians deciding to withdraw treatment at 72 h.

The ethical objections are based on unwarranted assumptions. Our guideline does not make any recommendations about management until at least four weeks have passed. We explicitly recommend that expert assessors undertake ongoing surveillance and monitoring; we do not suggest that patients be abandoned. Our recommendation will increase the cost We had ethicists in the working party.

We conclude the "critical evaluation" fails to provide evidence for their criticism and that the ethical objections arise from incorrect assumptions and unsupported interpretations of evidence and our guideline. The 2020 UK national guidelines remain valid.

Exercising with Parkinson's: The good, the bad and the need for support to keep exercising. A qualitative study.

Clinical Rehabilitation

To explore the experiences of people with Parkinson's disease exercising and to determine if the location (home versus centre) or exercising in a group impacted on their experience.

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 participants; nine participants had completed 10-weeks of predominately home-based exercise and eight participants had predominately centre-based excercise. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

Four key themes emerged. Two themes: 'targeted exercise is important when you have Parkinson's disease' and 'support helps me to gain the most from the exercise', were related to exercising with Parkinson's disease and were not specific to location. Two themes encompassed the perceptions when exercising at a centre in a group compared to exercising at home: 'the good and the bad of exercising in a group' and 'exercising at home, can I do it?'

Experiences of people with Parkinson's disease when exercising were primarily influenced by the prescription of specific exercise and the support provided. There was no clear preference for the location of exercise but maintaining the motivation to exercise at home was challenging.

Impairments in Cognitive Control Using a Reverse Visually Guided Reaching Task Following Stroke.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Cognitive and motor function must work together quickly and seamlessly to allow us to interact with a complex world, but their integration is difficult to assess directly. Interactive technology provides opportunities to assess motor actions requiring cognitive control.

To adapt a reverse reaching task to an interactive robotic platform to quantify impairments in cognitive-motor integration following stroke.

Participants with subacute stroke (N=59) performed two tasks using the Kinarm: Reverse Visually Guided Reaching (RVGR) and Visually Guided Reaching (VGR). Tasks required subjects move a cursor "quickly and accurately" to virtual targets. In RVGR, cursor motion was reversed compared to finger motion (i.e., hand moves left, cursor moves right). Task parameters and Task Scores were calculated based on models developed from healthy controls, and accounted for the influence of age, sex, and handedness.

Many stroke participants (86%) were impaired in RVGR with their affected arm (Task Score > 95% of controls). The most common impairment was increased movement time. Seventy-three percent were also impaired with their less affected arm. The most common impairment was larger initial direction angles of reach. Impairments in RVGR improved over time, but 71% of participants tested longitudinally were still impaired with the affected arm ∼6 months post-stroke. Importantly, although 57% were impaired with the less affected arm at 6 months, these individuals were not impaired in VGR.

Individuals with stroke were impaired in a reverse reaching task but many did not show similar impairments in a standard reaching task, highlighting selective impairment in cognitive-motor integration.

Reorganization of Ventral Premotor Cortex After Ischemic Brain Injury: Effects of Forced Use.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Physical use of the affected upper extremity can have a beneficial effect on motor recovery in people after stroke. Few studies have examined neurological mechanisms underlying the effects of forced use in non-human primates. In particular, the ventral premotor cortex (PMV) has been previously implicated in recovery after injury.

To examine changes in motor maps in PMV after a period of forced use following ischemic infarct in primary motor cortex (M1).

Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) techniques were used to derive motor maps in PMV of four adult squirrel monkeys before and after an experimentally induced ischemic infarct in the M1 distal forelimb area (DFL) in the dominant hemisphere. Monkeys wore a sleeved jacket (generally 24 hrs/day) that forced limb use contralateral to the infarct in tasks requiring skilled digit use. No specific rehabilitative training was provided.

At 3 mos post-infarct, ICMS maps revealed a significant expansion of the DFL representation in PMV relative to pre-infarct baseline (mean = +77.3%; n = 3). Regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of PMV changes was largely driven by M1 lesion size, with a modest effect of forced use. One additional monkey examined after ∼18 months of forced use demonstrated a 201.7% increase, unprecedented in non-human primate studies.

Functional reorganization in PMV following an ischemic infarct in the M1 DFL is primarily driven by M1 lesion size. Additional expansion occurs in PMV with extremely long periods of forced use but such extended constraint is not considered clinically feasible.

Bilateral Cerebellar Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Combined With Swallowing Speech Therapy for Dysphagia After Stroke: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled, Clinical Trial.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Previous studies have found that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cerebellar hemisphere could improve swallowing function, but whether intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), which has similar excitatory effect and higher efficiency, can also improve swallowing function for dysphagia after stroke remains unclear.

This trial aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of bilateral cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation with iTBS for dysphagia after stroke.

Seventy patients with dysphagia after stroke were divided into 2 treatment groups: true bilateral cerebellar iTBS and sham bilateral cerebellar iTBS. The true iTBS group underwent ten 100% resting motor threshold (RMT) iTBS sessions for 2 weeks. In the sham iTBS group, the parameters were the same except that the figure-eight coil was perpendicular to the skull. Both groups received traditional swallowing rehabilitation treatment 5 times a week for 2 weeks. Swallowing function was assessed with the Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS), Penetration/Aspiration Scale (PAS), Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA), and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) at baseline, 2 weeks after the intervention, and at 4 weeks of follow-up.

There were significant time and group interaction effects in both multi-factorial adjusted and unadjusted FEDSS, PAS, SSA, and FOIS score (P < .001). In the pairwise comparison of the swallowing parameters among the 2 groups, the FEDSS, PAS, SSA, and FOIS scores at 2 weeks and 4 weeks showed a significantly higher improvement in the iTBS simulation group than sham group (P < .05). In both the true iTBS and sham iTBS stimulation groups, all FEDSS, PAS, SSA, and FOIS scores were significantly improved over time (P < .001).

The present study suggested that as a more efficient TMS stimulation mode, iTBS could efficiently improve swallowing function by stimulating the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere. In addition, 100% resting motor threshold bilateral cerebellar iTBS is a relatively safe treatment.

Effect analysis of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation of cerebellar on dysphagia after stroke. Identifier: ChiCTR2100042092.

Upper Extremity Contralaterally Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation Versus Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Post-Stroke Individuals: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair

Electrical stimulation has been employed as a safe and effective therapy for improving arm function after stroke. Contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation (CCFES) is a unique method that has progressed from application in small feasibility studies to implementation in several randomized controlled trials. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to summarize its efficacy.

To summarize the effect size of CCFES through measures of upper extremity motor recovery compared with that of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).

The PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and subjected to meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment.

6 RCTs were selected and 267 participants were included. The Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment (UEFMA) was included in all studies, the Box and Blocks test (BBT) and active range of motion (AROM) were included in 3 and 4 studies, respectively. The modified Barthel Index (mBI) and Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT) were included in 2 and 3 studies, respectively. The CCFES group demonstrated greater improvement than the NMES did in UEFMA (SMD = .42, 95% CI = .07-.76), BBT (SMD = .48, 95% CI = .10-.86), AROM (SMD = .54, 95% CI = .23-.86), and mBI (SMD = .54, 95% CI = .12-.97). However, the results for AMAT did not differ significantly (SMD = .34, 95% CI = -.03-.72).

Contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation produced greater improvements in upper extremity hemiplegia in people with stroke than NMES did. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021245831.