The latest medical research on Paediatric Dentistry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about paediatric dentistry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and molar incisor hypomineralisation and hypomineralised second primary molars in the offspring at 7-9 years of age: a longitudinal study.

Eur Paed Dent

The study aimed to investigate associations between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) and hypomineralised second primary molars (HSPM) among children.

The study had a longitudinal design using prospectively collected data from 176 mother and child pairs. Mothers were initially recruited in a randomised controlled trial to assess a pregnancy exercise programme. Along with the 7-year follow-up, we invited the children to a dental examination. The exposure variable was maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in gestational weeks 18-22 and 32-36, categorised as insufficient (< 50 nmol/l) and sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/l). Negative binomial hurdle models were used to analyse potential associations between the exposure variables and MIH or HSPM. The models were adjusted for potential confounders.

Among the children (7-9 years old), 32% and 22% had at least one tooth with MIH or HSPM, respectively. A significant association was found between insufficient maternal vitamin D measured in gestational weeks 18-22 and the number of affected teeth among those with MIH at 7-9 years (adjusted RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.13-2.93).

Considering any limitations of the present study, it has been shown that insufficient maternal serum vitamin D at mid-pregnancy was associated with a higher number of affected teeth among the offspring with MIH at 7-9 years of age. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate whether this finding is replicable and to clarify the role of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and MIH, as well as HSPM, in children.

Patient-self-reported history of restraint among 17-year-olds: a retrospective study of records by non-specialist dentists in the public dental service in Hordaland, Norway.

Eur Paed Dent

The primary purposes were to examine dental records of Norwegian adolescents' with and without self-reported history of restraint for information about oral health (DMFT), total scheduled time in the Public Dental Service (PDS) (dental appointments, cancelled and missed appointments), and reluctant behaviour and/or dental fear and anxiety (DFA). Another purpose was to explore their dental records for information recorded by the dentist concerning the use of restraint.

Data on patient-self-reported history of restraint and DFA were collected in a population-based cross-sectional survey of 17-year-olds in the PDS in Hordaland, Norway, 2019. Patients were divided into two groups: self-reported restraint group (N1 = 26) and self-reported non-restraint group (N2 = 200). Data on oral health and dental treatment, total scheduled time of the PDS, reluctant behaviour or DFA, and information on the use of restraint were extracted from the dental records written by non-specialist dentists using a pre-set protocol covering the period from 2002 to 2019.

A total of 206 dental records were analysed. Adolescents with self-reported history of restraint (n1 = 18) had higher DMFT and greater descriptions of reluctant behaviour and/or DFA, and total scheduled time compared with the self-reported non-restraint group (n2 = 188). The use of restraint was recorded in the dental records of one patient from the self-reported restraint group and in two patients from the self-reported non-restraint group.

The adolescents with self-reported history of restraint had higher DMFT, higher scheduled time attending the PDS, and had more descriptions of reluctant behaviour and/or signs of DFA compared with the self-reported non-restraint group. The patient records contained limited information concerning restraint, and there were significant discrepancies between patient-self-reported history of restraint and the recording of restraint by the dentist in the patients' records.

Is secondhand smoke exposure associated with poor periodontal status in children and adolescents? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Paed Dent

We aimed to systematically evaluate whether SHS exposure is associated with poor periodontal status in individuals up to 15 years.

Seven databases were searched by two independent reviewers according to pre-specified eligibility criteria up to November 2021. The methodological quality of included studies was appraised using The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and GRADE was used for assessing the certainty of evidence. Random-effects pairwise meta-analyses compared the periodontal status of those exposed and unexposed to SHS through standardized mean differences (SMDs) and associated confidence intervals (95% CI).

Eight cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion and two present high methodological quality. All studies contributed to the meta-analysis for gingival index scores (GI) and four for probing pocket depth (PPD). Those exposed exhibited significantly higher levels of GI compared to unexposed (SMD = 1.03, 95% CI 0.17-1.89), but no difference was observed for PPD (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI - 0.14-0.82), with overall very low certainty on evidence.

Therefore, very low certainty evidence supports that children and adolescents exposed to SHS possibly present poorer periodontal status due to higher levels of GI.

Fissure sealants or fluoride varnish? Factors associated with choice of management method for occlusal caries in Public Dental Service in Norway.

Eur Paed Dent

The aim of this practice-based study was to identify factors associated with choice of caries management method in first permanent molars in high-risk children treated in Public Dental Service in Norway.

The present study was based on practice-based observational data from 366 high-risk children (6-9 years). Caries management of occlusal surface of first permanent molars was used as outcome variable and categorized into "no treatment", "fluoride varnish" or "fissure sealant". Patient-related variables (age, gender, oral hygiene, caries experience at age 5, sugar snacking and dental anxiety), tooth-related variables (upper or lower jaw and diagnosis of occlusal surface) and county were used as independent variables. Data were analysed by descriptive analyses followed by generalized structural equation models (GSEM) and presented as relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

In 319 of the 366 children, both first permanent molars in the same jaw were available for analyses, 276 (87%) had the same diagnosis for both teeth and received the same treatment. Multivariable analysis at patient level showed that age (RRR = 2.42, CI 1.38, 4.23) and caries experience (RRR = 1.39, CI 1.09, 1.77) were associated with higher probability of fissure sealant, while the county variable was significantly associated with lower probability for fluoride varnish use (RRR = 0.03 (0.004, 0.31).

The majority of high-risk children in PDS received fluoride varnish or fissure sealants on newly erupted occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars. In addition to age and caries experience of the child, county appeared to substantially influence occlusal caries management method.

Odontogenic Differentiation Induced by TGF-β1 Binding Peptide-Modified Bioglass.

Dental Research

Emerging evidence suggests that growth factors are crucial in regenerative endodontic therapy. To achieve the desired effects, the systematic admin...

Association between Bifidobacterium and Scardovia Wiggsiae and caries-related factors in severe early childhood caries and caries-free Thai children: a quantitative real-time PCR analysis and a questionnaire cross-sectional study.

Eur Paed Dent

To quantitatively identify Bifidobacterium, S. wiggsiae and S. mutans in plaque samples obtained from children with severe-ECC and caries-free groups and to analyze their association with caries-related factors retrieved from the questionnaire in each group.

Pooled overnight supra gingival plaque was collected from each child using a sterile toothpick, released in 1 ml of TE buffer, transported on ice to the Laboratory and stored at  - 20 °C. DNA was extracted from the plaque based on enzymatic lysis and quantitative real-time PCR using fluorescent dye (SYBR green) in addition to Agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. All laboratory and retrieved from the questionnaire data per child were recorded and statistically analysed.

S. wiggsiae (p < 0.005) and S. mutans (p < 0.001) were higher in the S-ECC group. Bifidobacterium, S. mutans, and S. wiggsiae were associated with the dmft score and gingival index (p < 0.001). The dmft scores of children who detected only S. mutans were significantly lower than the dmft scores of children who detected two bacteria; S. mutans + S. wiggsiae (p = 0.028), S. mutans + Bifidobacterium (p = 0.026), and three bacteria; S. mutans + Bifidobacterium + S. wiggsiae (p = 0.007). Children who found all three bacteria (Bi + Sm + Sw) had the highest dmft scores, followed by children who had two bacteria (Bi + Sw, or Bi + Sm, or Sw + Sm). The guardians' education levels, occupations, household income, prolonged bottle feeding, taking of water after bottle or breast feeding, eating sugar-coated crackers or bread with sweetened cream, and premature birth were the factors that related to S-ECC.

Levels of S. wiggsiae and S. mutans, guardian's education, family economics, prolonged bottle feeding, eating high sugar-containing snacks and premature birth were associated with S-ECC.

A double-blind randomized controlled trial to compare the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine alone and in combination with ketamine in uncooperative and anxious paediatric dental patients requiring pulpectomy.

Eur Paed Dent

To compare the sedation regimen Dexmedetomidine alone and its combination with low dose Ketamine through intravenous route in terms of safety, efficacy and recovery profile in uncooperative paediatric dental patients requiring pulpectomy.

Thirty anxious and uncooperative 2-6-year-old children requiring pulpectomy in at least one primary molar were enrolled. Propofol was used as an induction agent. Drugs were administered through the intravenous route as per group assignment, i.e., Dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) with ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) administered over 10 min followed by a maintenance dose of Dexmedetomidine (0.2-0.8 µg/kg/h) in group A and Dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) administered over 10 min followed by a maintenance dose in group B. The sedation was titrated to achieve Houpt's overall behavior score of 4/5. The primary outcome measure was the successful completion of treatment. Secondary outcome measures were vital signs, quality of sedation, time need for the procedure, recovery time, intra-operative and post-operative adverse sequelae.

Results showed that both of the regimens were similar in efficacy, safety and recovery profile. Also, the required dose of dexmedetomidine and the need for rescue boluses was similar in both of the study groups.

Dexmedetomidine either alone or in combination with ketamine proved to be a safe and efficacious agent for paediatric dental sedation. No beneficial evidence of adding ketamine was observed.

Oral cavity morphology among children at risk of sleep disordered breathing.

Eur Paed Dent

The aim of this study was to evaluate oral cavity morphology in children at risk of sleep disordered breathing (SDB).

The study included children 3-17 years of age. The risk of SDB was evaluated using the paediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ); afterwards, children at risk of SDB were enrolled in the study group. A control group was randomly established from patients with negative PSQ results. The oral cavity morphology evaluation included assessment of the oropharynx using Mallampati classification (MC), palatine tonsil size using the Pirquet scale, occlusion and the presence of a high-arched palate and lingual frenulum.

A total of 131 children were evaluated, 65 in the study and 66 in the control group. The mean ages were 9.5 ± 3.0 and 9.4 ± 3.1 years, respectively. The presence of higher scores on the MC, higher scores in the Pirquet scale, a crossbite, a high-arched palate and a short frenulum were significantly more frequent in the study group than the control group.

The evaluation of oral morphology is an important part of paediatric examination. Enlarged palatine tonsils; higher scores on the MC; and the presence of a crossbite, short lingual frenulum and high-arched palate may suggest abnormal breathing during sleep in children.

Evaluation of electric pulp test thresholds and correct probe tip placement site in developing incisors: a clinical study in 1200 teeth.

Eur Paed Dent

Although electric pulp tests (EPT) may play a valuable diagnostic role in traumatized immature permanent teeth, the EPT threshold values which can be used as reference are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the average range of EPT threshold values in healthy permanent incisors according to their stage of root development.

A total of 1200 permanent incisors were examined in 273 children (142 girls, 131 boys) aged 6-12 years. Panoramic radiographs were used to group teeth according to the stage of root development. A digitest II pulp vitality tester (Parkell, Inc, Edgewood, NY) was used along with toothpaste as the conducting medium to determine sensibility on three different sites (incisal, middle and cervical third).

In all teeth, mean EPT values showed a tendency to decrease along with advanced root development. Irrespective of the stage of root development, the lowest EPT values were obtained when measurements were made on the incisal third of the crown (p < 0.001). Mandibular incisors had lower mean response thresholds than their maxillary counterparts.

The present findings provide reference EPT threshold values according to stage of tooth development to monitor the post traumatic pulp status of permanent incisors.

Quality of education and adolescents' oral health-related behaviours: a multilevel analysis.

Eur Paed Dent

The school environment may positively influence student health behaviours and learning. This study aimed to investigate the association between cities' quality of education and adolescent students' oral health-related behaviours.

Cross-sectional study using data of the 2015 Brazilian National Adolescent School-Based Health Survey and other public databases. The sample was composed of adolescents (N = 23,674) from public schools of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Outcomes were four oral health-related behaviours: toothbrushing, sweets and soft-drink consumption, and dental visits. The explanatory variable was the cities' quality of education, measured by the Brazilian Basic Education Development Index. Covariates were individual (sociodemographic) and contextual (socioeconomic, oral health coverage and oral health-promoting schools). Multilevel logistic regression was performed considering two levels: individual (adolescents) and contextual (city).

The prevalence of the outcomes were: low daily toothbrushing frequency 6.7% (95% CI 6.0-7.4); high weekly sweets consumption 41.5% (95% CI 40.3-42.7); high weekly soft-drink consumption 28.5% (95% CI 27.2-29.9); and low frequency of annual dental visits 31.2% (95% CI 30.1-32.3). In the adjusted models, cities whose schools had higher scores of education quality were more likely to have students with low toothbrushing frequency and high frequency of sweets consumption.

The cities' quality of education was associated with unhealthy oral health-related behaviours, particularly the frequency of toothbrushing and sweets consumption. Therefore, appropriate health promotion strategies as well as high-quality education are needed in schools.

Does the addition of chlorhexidine to glass ionomer cements influence its antimicrobial effect and survival rate? A systematic review.

Eur Paed Dent

To evaluate the influence of the addition of chlorhexidine on the antimicrobial effect and on the survival of restorations performed with glass ionomer cement.

Nine databases were used to search for randomized clinical trials that compared the survival rate and the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorations with and without the incorporation of chlorhexidine (CHX), without restrictions on year or language. Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias 2 was used to assess the risk of bias. The GRADE approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence.

From 593 studies found, seven met the inclusion criteria. The concentration of CHX varied between 0.5 and 2%. In general, the addition of CHX to GIC promoted reductions in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus burdens when compared to those without CHX. No study showed a difference in the survival of restorations between GIC with CHX and conventional GIC. Individual risk of bias varied from low to high and the certainty of evidence was classified as very low.

Based on a very low level of certainty, the evidence suggests that the incorporation of CHX in GIC might improve the antimicrobial effects for a short time, in addition to having little influence on the survival of the restoration.

Effect of active and passive distraction techniques while administering local anaesthesia on the dental anxiety, behaviour and pain levels of children: a randomised controlled trial.

Eur Paed Dent

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of a stress ball, an active distraction technique with audio-visual eyeglasses, a passive distraction technique during local anaesthesia administration, on dental anxiety (primary outcome), behaviour and pain levels of children (secondary outcomes).

In this randomised controlled parallel arm trial involving 123 children aged 8-12 years, who required dental treatment under inferior alveolar nerve block, children were randomly allocated into the following three groups: Group 1: Stress ball, Group 2: Audio-visual eyeglasses, Group 3: Control group (basic behaviour guidance without distraction). Dental anxiety was measured using modified child dental anxiety scale and pulse rate, behaviour was rated using Venham's scale and pain was measured by both self-reporting and observational scales.

No significant difference between the groups was observed for dental anxiety, but a significant decrease was seen in dental anxiety scores within all groups. No significant differences were seen between the groups for behaviour ratings and pain scores.

Use of active stress ball distraction or passive audio-visual eyeglasses during local anaesthesia administration decreased dental anxiety but did not result in a significant improvement in the dental anxiety, behaviour and pain levels when compared to basic behaviour guidance without distraction.

The clinical trial was registered at Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI Reg no: CTRI/2019/04/018768, Dated 24 April 2019).