The latest medical research on Paediatric Dentistry

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about paediatric dentistry gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Effect of self-perceived oral habits on orofacial dysfunction and oral health-related quality of life among a group of Egyptian children: a cohort study.

Eur Paed Dent

This study aims to investigate the relationship between OHRQoL and orofacial dysfunction in children practicing oral habits.

Thirty Egyptian Children, aged from five to seven years, practicing oral habits (habit practicing/exposed group), were examined for orofacial dysfunction using Nordic Orofacial Test-Screen (NOT-S). Their parents were asked to fill 8-item Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ), translated to Arabic, as an assessment tool for their children's OHRQoL. The scores of the habit practicing group were compared to those obtained from another 30 children with matched criteria not practicing oral habits (habit free/ control group).

Children in the exposure group showed higher total NOT-S score (median 3, range 1-5) and higher P-CPQ (median 6, range 1-16) than the control group (median 0.5, range 0-2) and (median 4, range 1-8), with a statistical significance (p = 0.00, p = 0.014), respectively. A statistically significant moderate positive correlation was found between OHRQoL and orofacial dysfunction in the habit practicing group, (R = 0.384, p = 0.036). The exposure group was found to be 7.4 and 1.5 times the control group in developing orofacial dysfunction, and having inferior OHRQoL, respectively.

An existing association between the degree of orofacial dysfunction and OHRQoL in children practicing oral habit(s) is suggested.

NCT04575792, date of registration: 26/9/2020, first posted (approved): 5/10/2020.

Identification by whole-exome sequencing of new single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with molar-incisor hypomineralisation among the Lebanese population.

Eur Paed Dent

Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental qualitative enamel defect, causing a worldwide challenging dental problem. The etiology of this defect remains unclear. Here we identify by whole-exome sequencing (WES) new single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes expressed during enamel mineralization and in those modulating prenatal, natal and postnatal risk factors among the Lebanese MIH children: immune system and xenobiotic detoxification.

Dental examination for MIH was performed based on the MIH index for diagnostic criteria. Saliva samples were collected from 37 non-related, MIH-diagnosed subjects for DNA extraction. WES was performed on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to determine relationship between SNPs frequencies and MIH. OR and its 95% CI were used to report the strength of association. The significance threshold was set at 0.05.

Among the Lebanese population, 37 SNPs presented a significant association with MIH in the following genes: AMTN, MMP-20, STIM1, STIM2, ORAI1, SLC34A2, SLC34A3, VDR, PVALB, HSP90B1, TRPM7, SLC24A4, CA6, SLC4A2, TNFRSF11A, IL10RB, ARNT, ESR1 and CYP1B1.

This is the first WES study conducted in patients with MIH. Yet, interactions between polymorphisms in different gene categories are to be investigated for a better assessment of MIH susceptibility.

Oral health-related quality of life in portuguese pre-school children: a cross-sectional study.

Eur Paed Dent

To study Oral Health related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of pre-school children and its associated factors.

Cross-sectional study with sample data collected through an on-line questionnaire to a non-probabilistic sample. The questionnaire included the Portuguese version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and questions about sociodemographic characteristics, oral health behaviours, and reported oral health of the child. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Linear regression (α = 0.05).

The sample consisted of 1475 parents of pre-school children (3-5 years-old), residing in Portugal. The mean ECOHIS total score was 1.5 (sd = 3.4). In the bivariate analysis the child's age, starting toothbrushing after one year of age, frequent intake of sugary food and drinks, previous appointment with an oral health professional, all reported of oral health problems, and a negative perception of oral health were negatively associated with OHRQoL (p < 0,05). In the regression model the factors that most contributed to a worse quality of life were dental caries and abscess, contributing to an ECOHIS average increase of 2.56 and 3.34, respectively.

The studied population presented a good OHRQoL, with the item related to pain being the most relevant for the ECOHIS score. Worst OHRQoL was found in older children, whose parents negatively rated the children's oral health and with reported dental caries, trauma, and abscess.

Free sugars and early childhood caries development: a prospective cohort study.

Eur Paed Dent

To investigate the impact of giving children younger than 2 years foods and beverages with free sugars on the prevalence of early childhood caries at 5 years.

The study group consisted of 208 children (105 boys and 103 girls) with a complete set of data on nursing, diet and caries from birth to 5 years. We collected feeding habits and dietary data through structured questionnaires at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and the presence of decayed (d), missed (m) and filled (f) teeth was scored according to the WHO criteria at five years of age. We processed data with chi-square tests and expressed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals.

At the age of 5 years, 22% of the children had caries. Intake of fruit juice with meals (RR 2.3) and cookies or biscuits at 24 months of age (RR 2.4), as well as fast food consumption at least once every week (RR 2.9), more than doubled the risk for early childhood caries (p < 0.05).

Within the limitations of the present study, we found a relationship between consumption of free sugars early in life and dental caries prevalence at 5 years. It therefore seems important to embrace and emphasise the current sugar recommendations in primary and dental care to educate caregivers to avoid serving free sugars to their children before the age of 2 years.

Taste perception in children with different caries activity.

Eur Paed Dent

The aim of the study was to investigate whether caries-active and caries-free children differ in terms of their taste perception for sweet, sour, salty and bitter.

The study group consisted of 100 children aged 5-10 years: 50 caries-free children and 50 children with at least four untreated carious lesions. Taste perception was analysed using two test systems. First, filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at four defined intensities were used ("taste strips"). Then a tasting spray in suprathreshold concentration of the respective taste was applied. The children were asked to name the perceived taste. The parents answered a questionnaire about the children's dietary habits.

The children with high caries activity scored lower on average on the taste strips than the caries-free participants. For the taste sprays, the perception of the taste quality "bitter" was significantly worse in the children with caries than in caries-free children (Mann-Whitney U test p < 0.05).

The results of this study suggest that taste preferences in children are associated with increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Premature loss of primary molars: impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren.

Eur Paed Dent

Evaluate the impact of the premature loss of primary molars due to caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in schoolchildren.

A cross-sectional study was conducted with children eight to ten years of age at public schools in the city of Florianópolis selected through cluster sampling. The collection of the clinical data occurred in the school setting by four trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.7) DMFT/dmft index, PUFA/pufa index, accentuated overjet, and anterior open bite. Sex and age of the child and guardian's schooling (classified as ≤ 8 or > 8 years) were collected through a questionnaire answered by the guardians. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10. The data were submitted to bivariate, multivariate, and hierarchical Poisson analyses.

A total of 1456 children participated in the study. The prevalence of premature tooth loss due to caries was 5.8% (n = 85). The prevalence of negative impact on OHRQoL was 47.4% (n = 691). Negative impact on OHRQoL was significantly associated with the premature loss of primary molars (p < 0.001) as well as the sex (girls), guardian's schooling (> 8 years) and the presence of untreated caries (p < 0.001).

The premature loss of primary molars due to caries was associated a negative impact on the OHRQoL of children eight to ten years of age. Negative impact is also associated with untreated caries, sex, and the level of schooling of guardians.

Eruption pattern of the maxillary canines: features indicating treatment needs as seen in PTG at the late mixed stage-Part II.

Eur Paed Dent

To describe features of maxillary permanent canines in the late mixed stage as seen in panoramic radiograph (PTG) that later needed treatment to erupt into the oral cavity and to compare them with naturally erupted canines.

The cross-sectional part of this retrospective register-based study consisted of 1454 PTGs of children (mean age 9.3 years) living in Eastern Finland, while the longitudinal part involved patient data on 184 treated maxillary canines. The variables examined were treatment needs, overlapping and inclination of the maxillary canines, the development stage of the canines and lateral incisors and dental age.

Only 11.6% of the maxillary canines needed treatment, including interceptive procedures. The treated canines significantly more often had overlapping (p < 0.001), larger inclination (p = 0.001) and incomplete lateral incisors (p = 0.002) than did the naturally erupted canines. The children treated significantly more often had a delayed dental age (p = 0.035). Clear overlapping was closely associated with all treatment modalities, whereas some overlapping and a large inclination angle (≥ 25°) were associated especially in cases of late treatment. An incomplete lateral incisor and delayed dental age were associated with treatment.

An association with treatment needs was found especially in the case of overlapping and a large inclination angle of the maxillary canine a couple of years before eruption into the oral cavity. These features can be early signs and indications for instant or later treatment of a maxillary canine and underline the importance of monitoring space conditions and erupting canines.

Use of pulse oximetry during nitrous oxide- oxygen inhalation sedation: mandatory or recommended?

Eur Paed Dent

There is skepticism amongst many dentists about the interference of nitrous oxide with the physiological parameters. This commentary attempts to make clear recommendations on the use of pulse oximeter during nitrous oxide inhalation sedation.

Nitrous oxide is used commonly in dentistry as a tool to reduce fear/ anxiety and build a positive dental attitude. Dentists use pulse oximeter to monitor oxygen saturation during the period of administration of nitrous oxide. There is no consensus amongst various guidelines across the world on the necessity of using pulse oximeter during the period of administration of nitrous oxide CONCLUSION: Pulse oximetry may not be considered mandatory when nitrous oxide gas is being administered for minimal sedation to a healthy patient having no pre- existing diseases/illness.

Influence of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with different pre-irradiation times on children's dental biofilm: randomized clinical trial.

Eur Paed Dent

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in reducing pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity and in preventing dental diseases. This study evaluated the pre-irradiation time using PDT (diode laser associated with 0.01% methylene blue) to decrease the number of microorganisms in the visible plaque in permanent teeth.

This randomized clinical trial included 108 homologous lower permanent first molars (36 and 46) with biofilm from 54 children aged six to 12 years. PDT was performed (0.01% methylene blue photosensitizer/therapeutic laser-InGaAIP), according to the following protocols: Group 1, biofilm collection of the distal area of the lingual surface of 36 µm before PDT; group 2, mesial area of the lingual surface of 36 µm 1 min after PDT; group 3, area of the lingual surface of 46 µm before PDT; and group 4, mesial area of the lingual surface of 46 µm 5 min after PDT.

After statistical analysis, significant differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.000). In groups 2 and 4, the number of bacteria tended to decrease, with a more evident bacterial reduction in group 4.

Pre-irradiation reduced the number of colony-forming units of mature bacterial biofilms in vivo. A time of 5 min resulted in a greater reduction in the number of colony-forming units.

ReBEC Identifier: RBR-6bqfp3; Date of Register: March 2nd, 2020. Retrospectively Registered.

Decontamination practices of paediatric crowns: a systematic review.

Eur Paed Dent

A systematic review was conducted into paediatric crown decontamination practices using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines.

After database retrieval using predefined search terms, two reviewers independently applied the selection criteria, extracted the data, and assessed for risk of bias. From 92 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included for analysis.

Steam sterilisation (autoclaving) was used as the gold standard for reducing biological contaminants on paediatric crowns across in vivo studies. However, autoclaving was associated with microstructural changes such as crazing and contour alterations. Furthermore, several tooth coloured crowns were liable to undergo colour changes from steam sterilisation.

Ambiguous manufacturer guidelines on protocols for reprocessing and reuse after biological exposure raises concerns regarding cross contamination and leaves practitioners open to potential litigation. A better understanding of the compatibility of paediatric crowns and decontamination practices is needed. More research into alternative chairside technologies that use low temperature, such as hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilisation, is warranted.

Clinical and radiographic comparison of Biodentine and Formocresol: an updated meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

Eur Paed Dent

This meta-analysis aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic success rate of Biodentine as an alternative to Formocresol to provide a critical appraisal of the available literature and evidence-based conclusion as well as update the previous systematic review.

MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched up to 20 October 2021 to identify RCTs evaluating pulpotomy with Biodentine/Formocresol in carious primary molars among children ≤ 10 years old. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane RoB-2 tool. RRs and corresponding 95% CIs were calculated to pool results that RR ˃ 1 indicated a higher success rate in the Biodentine group and RR < 1 indicated a higher success rate in the Formocresol group. Heterogeneity was calculated using the I2 and τ2 statistics. In addition, trial sequential analysis was performed to adjust results for type I and type II errors and evaluate power of the meta-analysis.

Nine RCTs were identified and eight RCTs were included in the meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. The obtained evidence showed no significant difference between Biodentine and Formocresol in terms of clinical efficacy. However, considering the radiographic success rate the results of the meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis significantly favoured Biodentine.

Within the limitations of the present review and based on the retrieved findings it has been clearly shown that Biodentine is superior compared to Formocresol in terms of radiographic success rate with firm evidence in this regard. Although the performed meta-analysis showed no significant clinical difference between Biodentine and Formocresol, however, trial sequential analysis revealed a lack of firm evidence in this regard.

Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and molar incisor hypomineralisation and hypomineralised second primary molars in the offspring at 7-9 years of age: a longitudinal study.

Eur Paed Dent

The study aimed to investigate associations between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) and hypomineralised second primary molars (HSPM) among children.

The study had a longitudinal design using prospectively collected data from 176 mother and child pairs. Mothers were initially recruited in a randomised controlled trial to assess a pregnancy exercise programme. Along with the 7-year follow-up, we invited the children to a dental examination. The exposure variable was maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in gestational weeks 18-22 and 32-36, categorised as insufficient (< 50 nmol/l) and sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/l). Negative binomial hurdle models were used to analyse potential associations between the exposure variables and MIH or HSPM. The models were adjusted for potential confounders.

Among the children (7-9 years old), 32% and 22% had at least one tooth with MIH or HSPM, respectively. A significant association was found between insufficient maternal vitamin D measured in gestational weeks 18-22 and the number of affected teeth among those with MIH at 7-9 years (adjusted RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.13-2.93).

Considering any limitations of the present study, it has been shown that insufficient maternal serum vitamin D at mid-pregnancy was associated with a higher number of affected teeth among the offspring with MIH at 7-9 years of age. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate whether this finding is replicable and to clarify the role of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and MIH, as well as HSPM, in children.