The latest medical research on Public Health Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about public health medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Identification and Characterization of Species-Specific Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Physicochemical Properties.

COVID 19

There is an urgent need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) so that vaccines and treatments can be devised. Se...

Comparing the initial impact of COVID-19 on burden and psychological distress among family caregivers of children with and without developmental disabilities.

COVID 19

The current COVID-19 pandemic is presenting challenges for families (Cluver et al., The Lancet, 2020), which may be exacerbated for caregivers of c...

Antimicrobial stewardship strategies in wound care: evidence to support the use of dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC)- coated wound dressings.

COVID 19

Traditionally, infections are treated with antimicrobials (for example, antibiotics, antiseptics, etc), but antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the most serious health threats of the 21st century (before the emergence of COVID-19). Wounds can be a source of infection by allowing unconstrained entry of microorganisms into the body, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. The development of new antimicrobials (particularly antibiotics) is not keeping pace with the evolution of resistant microorganisms and novel ways of addressing this problem are urgently required. One such initiative has been the development of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, which educate healthcare workers, and control the prescribing and targeting of antimicrobials to reduce the likelihood of AMR. Of great importance has been the European Wound Management Association (EWMA) in supporting AMS by providing practical recommendations for optimising antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of wound infection. The use of wound dressings that use a physical sequestration and retention approach rather than antimicrobial agents to reduce bacterial burden offers a novel approach that supports AMS. Bacterial-binding by dressings and their physical removal, rather than active killing, minimises their damage and hence prevents the release of damaging endotoxins.

Our objective is to highlight AMS for the promotion of the judicious use of antimicrobials and to investigate how dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC)-coated dressings can support AMS goals.

MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar were searched to identify published articles describing data relating to AMS, and the use of a variety of wound dressings in the prevention and/or treatment of wound infections. The evidence supporting alternative wound dressings that can reduce bioburden and prevent and/or treat wound infection in a manner that does not kill or damage the microorganisms (for example, by actively binding and removing intact microorganisms from wounds) were then narratively reviewed.

The evidence reviewed here demonstrates that using bacterial-binding wound dressings that act in a physical manner (for example, DACC-coated dressings) as an alternative approach to preventing and/or treating infection in both acute and hard-to-heal wounds does not exacerbate AMR and supports AMS.

Some wound dressings work via a mechanism that promotes the binding and physical uptake, sequestration and removal of intact microorganisms from the wound bed (for example, a wound dressing that uses DACC technology to successfully prevent/reduce infection). They provide a valuable tool that aligns with the requirements of AMS (for example, reducing the use of antimicrobials in wound treatment regimens) by effectively reducing wound bioburden without inducing/selecting for resistant bacteria.

COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease: From Bench to Bedside.

COVID 19

A pandemic of historic impact, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has potential consequences on the cardiovascular health of millions of people wh...

Benefits of sucrose octasulfate (TLC-NOSF) dressings in the treatment of chronic wounds: a systematic review.

COVID 19

Management of chronic wounds remains one of the major challenges for health professionals and patients. An evidence-based decision is important to ensure that patients are receiving the best treatment proven to reduce healing time and improve outcomes, including economic benefits and patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Due to recent restrictions because of the COVID-19 pandemic, including closure of wound care centres within hospitals and a drop in patient volume, chronic wound management needs simple-to-use dressings which are still effective and evidence-based solutions. This systematic review was conducted to identify the clinical evidence available on a sucrose octasulfate dressing (TLC-NOSF, UrgoStart dressing range, Laboratoires Urgo, France) to explore its efficacy in the management of chronic wounds, particularly lower limb ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure ulcers.

A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar was conducted based on the PICO model (patient/population, intervention, comparison and outcomes) to retrieve publications of different levels of evidence in order to evaluate outcomes of the use of TLC-NOSF dressings.

A total of 21 publications of different levels, ranging from double-blind randomised control trials to case reports, involving over 12,000 patients, were identified through PubMed, with a further eight publications through Google Scholar and two publications through Cochrane Library. A total of seven results were omitted due to the lack of relevance or repetition.

All the evidence provided suggest that these dressings provide clinicians with an evidence-based option for the management of chronic wounds; that the TLC-NOSF dressings are beneficial in promoting the healing process, reducing healing times, enhancing patients' HRQoL, and in allowing a more cost-effective procedure.

The distribution and psychological distress related to COVID-19 of spine patients in a Grade-A tertiary hospital in Anhui province, China.

COVID 19

The COVID-19 pandemic may cause psychological distress, changes in numbers and distributions of patients in spine surgery patients, which all affec...

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on an Israeli Acute Care Surgery Unit: Fewer Patients, More Disease.

COVID 19

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed and affected every aspect of health care. Like any catastrophic event, the stress on hospitals to maintain a certain level of function is immense. Acute surgical pathologies cannot be prevented or curtailed; therefore, it is important to understand patterns and outcomes during catastrophes in order to optimize care and organize the health care system.

In a single urban tertiary care center, a retrospective study examined the first complete lockdown period of Israel during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was compared to the same time period the previous year.

During the pandemic, time to hospitalization was significantly decreased. There was also an overall reduction in surgical admissions yet with a higher percentage being hospitalized for further treatment (69.2% vs 23.5%). The patients admitted during this time had a higher APACHE-II score and Charlson comorbidity index score. During the pandemic, time to surgery was decreased, there were less laparoscopic procedures, and more RBC units were used per patient. There were no differences in overall complications, except when sub-analyzed for major complications (9.7% vs 6.3%). There was no significant difference in overall in-house mortality or morbidity. Length of hospitalization was significantly decreased in the elderly population during the pandemic.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, despite a significantly less number of patients presenting to the hospital, there was a higher percentage of those admitted needing surgical intervention, and they were overall sicker than the previous year.

Patterns of Media Use, Strength of Belief in COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories, and the Prevention of COVID-19 from March to July 2020 in the US.

COVID 19

Holding conspiracy beliefs regarding the coronavirus pandemic in the US has been associated with reductions in both actions to prevent the spread of the infection (e.g., mask wearing) and intentions to accept a vaccine when one becomes available. Patterns of media use have also been associated with acceptance of Covid-19 conspiracy beliefs. Here we ask whether the type of media on which a person relies increased, decreased or had no additional effect on that person's Covid-19 conspiracy beliefs over a four-month period.

We used panel data to explore whether use of conservative and social media in the US, which were previously found to be positively related to holding conspiracy beliefs about the origins and prevention of Covid-19, were associated with a net increase in the strength of those beliefs from March to July of 2020. We also asked whether mainstream news sources, which were previously found to be negatively related to belief in pandemic-related conspiracies, were associated with a net decrease in the strength of such beliefs over the study period. Additionally, we asked whether subsequent changes in pandemic conspiracy beliefs related to the use of media were also related to subsequent mask wearing and vaccination intentions.

A survey that we conducted with a national US probability sample in March of 2020 and again in July with the same 840 respondents assessed belief in pandemic-related conspiracies, use of various types of media information sources, actions taken to prevent the spread of the disease and intentions to vaccinate, and various demographic characteristics. Change across the two waves was analyzed using path analytic techniques.

We found that conservative media use predicted increase in conspiracy beliefs (ß=.17, 99% CI .10-.25) and that reliance on mainstream print predicted decrease in their belief, ß=-.08, 99% CI, -.14 to -.02. Although many social media platforms reported downgrading or removing false or misleading content, ongoing use of them by respondents predicted growth in conspiracy beliefs, as well ß=.072, 99% CI .018-.123. Importantly, conspiracy belief changes related to media use between the two waves of the study were associated with the uptake of mask wearing and changes in vaccination intentions in July. Unlike other media, mainstream broadcast TV predicted greater mask wearing (ß =.17, 99% CI .09-.26) and vaccination intention (ß=.08, 95% CI .02-.14) independent of conspiracy beliefs.

The findings point to the need for greater efforts on the part of commentators, reporters, and guests on conservative media to report verifiable information about the pandemic. They suggest as well that social media platforms need to be more aggressive in downgrading, blocking, and counteracting claims about Covid-19 vaccines, mask wearing and conspiracy beliefs that have been judged problematic by public health authorities.

Validation of Withings ScanWatch as a Wrist-Worn Reflective Pulse Oximeter: Hypoxia Study.

COVID 19

A decrease in the pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) level is an indicator of hypoxemia that may occur in various respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and COVID-19. There is currently no mass-market wrist-worn SpO2 monitor meeting the medical standards for pulse oximeters.

The main objective of this monocentric and prospective clinical study with single-blind analysis was to test and validate the accuracy of the Withings ScanWatch's reflective pulse oximeter function to measure SpO2 levels at different stages of hypoxia. The secondary objective is to confirm the safety of this device when used as intended.

To achieve these objectives, we included 14 healthy participants aged 23 to 39, and we induced several stable plateaus of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ranging from 100% to 70% to mimic non-hypoxic conditions and then mild, moderate, and severe hypoxic conditions. We measured the SpO2 level with a Withings ScanWatch on each participant's wrist and the SaO2 from blood samples with a co-oximeter, the ABL90 hemoximeter.

After removal of the inconclusive measurements, we had 275 and 244 conclusive measurements with the two ScanWatches on the participants' right and left wrists, evenly distributed among the 3 predetermined SpO2 groups: SpO2 ≤ 80%, 80% < SpO2 ≤ 90% and 90% < SpO2. We found a strong association and a high level of agreement between the measurements collected from the devices, with a high Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of r = 0.944 and r = 0.954 on correlation plots, a low PCC of r = 0.083 (P=.17) and r = 0.23 (P=.001) on Bland-Altman plots, a bias of 0.98% (95% CI [0.65, 1.32]) and 1.56% (95% CI [1.24, 1.87]), and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.97% and 3.00% from the participants' right and left hands, respectively.

In conclusion, the Withings ScanWatches is able to measure SpO2 levels with an adequate accuracy at a clinical grade. No undesirable effects or adverse events were reported during the study.

This clinical study, "Accuracy of ScanWatch Pulse Oximeter With Profound Hypoxia" (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04380389, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04380389), was conducted in compliance with Good Clinical Practices (ISO 14155:2011, ICH guidelines) and the declaration of Helsinki after approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB), Laurel Heights Panel, on March 9, 2020. (NIRB: 10-00437, N Reference: 272720 I). The selected eligible participants were informed and gave their signed consent prior to enrollment.

The Correlation between Psychiatric Disorders and COVID-19: A Narrative Review.

COVID 19

Since December 2019, the havoc caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has increased exponentially in a short pe...