The latest medical research on Public Health Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about public health medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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[Improving the diagnosis, treatment and secondary prevention of stroke using a unified online system: primary vascular department - regional vascular center - family doctor].

COVID 19

The introduction of the Stroke Platform (SP) in the Belgorod Region to improve the efficiency of diagnosis and care for patients with stroke. Stroke platform is a unified information platform that unites all stages of treatment of a patient with stroke, from the first symptoms to dispensary observation by a family doctor and control of targeted provision of medicines for the secondary prevention of vascular events.

The SP includes 6 modules: the Central Archive of Medical Images or the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and connection to a single circuit of all CT devices of the regional medical institutions; Stroke register; secondary prevention register; routing bureau; statistics and analytics; COVID platform. The SP, as it develops, can be supplemented with those modules that are necessary to improve the quality and availability of patient care. More than 100 consultations of CT images are carried out monthly through the SP, the average response time is less than 10 minutes, 52 platform participants are in constant contact, all medical institutions of the region are connected. Five hundred and forty patients were consulted for 6 months of 2020.

The share of hospitalizations in specialized departments increased to 97.6% versus 86.3%. The availability of high-tech medical care for patients with stroke has increased due to timely transfer to the district vascular center. Endovascular interventions for aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, stenting of extracerebral arteries during dissection, mechanical thrombectomy from large arteries are performed. Mortality decreased from 19.7% (2019) to 17.6%. At the stage of outpatient follow-up, it is possible to obtain information about the range of those drugs that are prescribed to the patient for prophylaxis and are delivered to the target.

The main feature of the SP is the speed and efficiency of making medical decisions, ergonomics and ease of interaction, a single workspace.

Parasites and Parasitology in this SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 World: An American Society of Parasitologists Presidential Address.

COVID 19

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the worst global health crises of this generation. The core of this pandemic is the rapid t...

Antiviral Nanostructured Surfaces Reduce the Viability of SARS-CoV-2.

COVID 19

In this letter, we report the ability of the nanostructured aluminum Al 6063 alloy surfaces to inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome cor...

Palliative Care and COVID-19 Pandemic: Retrospective Study of Factors Associated With Infection and Death at an Oncological Palliative Care Reference Center.

COVID 19

Advanced cancer patients are part of a group likely to be more susceptible to COVID-19.

To describe the profile of advanced cancer inpatients to an exclusive Palliative Care Unit (PCU) with the diagnosis of COVID-19, and to evaluate the factors associated with death in these cases.

Retrospective cohort study with data from advanced cancer inpatients to an exclusive PCU, from March to July 2020, with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Diagnostic of COVID-19 and death were the dependent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed, with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

One hundred fifty-five patients were selected. The mean age was 60.9 (±13.4) years old and the most prevalent tumor type was breast (30.3%). Eighty-three (53.5%) patients had a diagnostic confirmation of COVID-19. Having diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6) and having received chemotherapy in less than 30 days before admission (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12.2) were associated factors to diagnosis of COVID-19. Among those infected, 81.9% died and, patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) < 30% (OR: 14.8; 95% CI 2.7-21.6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) >21.6mg/L (OR: 9.3; 95% CI 1.1-27.8), had a greater chance of achieving this outcome.

Advanced cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy in less than 30 days before admission and who had diabetes mellitus were more likely to develop Coronavirus 2019 disease. Among the confirmed cases, those hospitalized with worse KPS and bigger CRP were more likely to die.

OHNS Residency Program and Applicant Social Media Presence During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

COVID 19

In addition to clinical and social disruption, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many aspects of the otolaryngology residency application process. With delays in the 2021 Electronic Residency Applications Service (ERAS) timeline, students and programs have had more time to interact prior to the formal application process. This communication will report recent trends in social media presence by OHNS residency programs, and discuss mechanisms to compensate for decreased applicant-program interactions using social media ahead of the 2021 Match.

In a cross-sectional study of the accredited otolaryngology residency programs in the United States, the number of social media profiles on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook from 2009 to 2019 were recorded and compared.

Most programs (61%) have at least 1 social media profile. Over the past 10 years, the number of programs on social media has increased. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Twitter and Instagram showed higher rates of growth compared to Facebook. With the reduction of in-person opportunities for interactions, both applicants and programs are utilizing social media to showcase their values and their research. Twitter, in particular, also serves as a platform for professional networking.

Both Twitter and Instagram are growing in popularity among programs and applicants to enhance networking. Social media is a powerful tool for networking and may help compensate for limitations imposed on the residency match process by the COVID-19 pandemic while maintaining professionalism considerations. The impact of social media on the 2021 otolaryngology residency match is an evolving phenomenon.

SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Immunoassay for Diagnosis of COVID-19 in the Emergency Department.

COVID 19

In the emergency department (ED) setting, rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 is likely associated with advantages to patients and healthcare workers, for example enabling early but rationale use of limited isolation resources. Most recently, several SARS-CoV-2 rapid point-of-care antigen tests (AGTEST) became available. There is a growing need for data regarding their clinical utility and performance in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the real life setting of 5 EDs.

We implemented AGTEST (here: Roche/SD Biosensor) in all four adult and the one pediatric EDs at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in our diagnostic testing strategy. Test indication was limited to symptomatic suspected COVID-19 patients. Detailed written instructions on who to test were distributed and testing personnel were trained in proper specimen collection and handling. In each suspected COVID-19 patient, two sequential deep oro-nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for viral tests. The first swab was collected for nucleic acid testing through SARS-CoV-2 Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (rt)-PCR diagnostic panel (PCRTEST) in the central laboratory. The second swab was collected to perform the AGTEST. Analysis of routine data was prospectively planned and data were retrieved from the medical records after the inclusion period in the adult or pediatric ED. Diagnostic performance was calculated using the PCRTEST as reference standard. False negative and false positive AGTEST results were analyzed individually and compared with viral concentrations derived from the calibrated PCRTEST.

We included n = 483 patients including n= 202 from the pediatric ED. N = 10 patients had to be excluded due to missing data and finally n = 473 patients were analyzed. In the adult cohort, the sensitivity of the AGTEST was 75.3 (95%CI: 65.8/83.4)% and the specificity was 100 (95%CI: 98.4/100)% with a SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 32.8%; the positive predictive value was 100 (95%CI: 95.7/100)% and the negative predictive value 89.2 (95%CI: 84.5/93.9)%. In the pediatric cohort the sensitivity was 72.0 (95%CI: 53.3/86.7)%, the specificity was 99.4 (95%CI:97.3/99.9)% with a prevalence of 12.4%; the positive predictive value was 94.7 (95%CI: 78.3/99.7)% and the negative predictive value was 96.2 (95%CI:92.7/98.3)%.Thus, n = 22 adult and n = 7 pediatric patients showed false negative AGTEST results and only one false positive AGTEST occurred, in the pediatric cohort. Calculated viral concentrations from the rt-PCR lay between 3.16 and 9.51 log10 RNA copies/mL buffer. All false negative patients in the adult ED cohort, who had confirmed symptom onset at least seven days earlier had less than 5x 10^5 RNA copies/mL buffer.

We conclude that the use of AGTEST among symptomatic patients in the emergency setting is useful for the early identification of COVID-19, but patients who test negative require confirmation by PCRTEST and must stay isolated until this result becomes available. Adult patients with a false negative AGTEST and symptom onset at least one week earlier have typically a low SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration and likely pass the infectious period.

Adaptation and evaluation of COVID-19 related Psychological Distress Scale Turkish form.

COVID 19

This study aimed to adapt COVID-19 Related Psychological Distress Scale (CORPD) into Turkish and evaluate its psychometric properties. Participants...

Impact of mitigation measures against the COVID 19 pandemic on the perinatal results of the reference maternity hospital in Uruguay.

COVID 19

Social consequences of pandemics, impacts on perinatal results, especially those who are the most vulnerable.

Determine effect of mitigation measures of the COVID 19 pandemic on perinatal results in the maternity hospital of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (CHPR).

A retrospective cross-sectional cohort study, with a comparative analysis of the semesters of March 15-30 September 2019 versus the same period in 2020 based on three variables low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PB), and small for gestational age (SGA).

Incidence of PB (14.5%), LBW (12%) and SGA (6.9%) was higher in the 2020 semester during COVID 19 pandemic compared to the same period of 2019 (12.2%; 9.8%; 5.5%). PB showed a statistically significant increase of 21% in our hospital.

Mitigation measures of the COVID 19 pandemic, aggravate the effects of the global syndemic on the reproductive process of the social sectors most violated in their rights.

Evaluating Crisis Communication. A 30-item Checklist for Assessing Performance during COVID-19 and Other Pandemics.

COVID 19

The primary objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual checklist to assess crisis communication efforts during pandemics and in their after...

Ischaemic stroke as an initial presentation in patients with COVID-19: evaluation of a case series in an emergency in Brazil.

COVID 19

The disease caused by the new coronavirus, initially described in China in December 2019, became known as coronavirus disease 2019 and quickly spre...

Food for thought; the importance of Nutritional wellbeing during COVID-19.

COVID 19

Individuals with mental illness have poorer physical health, nutritional status and lowered life expectancy. Optimising their physical and nutritio...

Deep Learning Models for Predicting Severe Progression in COVID-19-infected Patients.

COVID 19

Many COVID-19 patients rapidly progress to respiratory failure with a broad range of severity. Identification of high-risk cases is critical for an early intervention.

The aim of this study is to develop deep learning models that can rapidly identify high-risk COVID-19 patients based on computed tomography (CT) images and clinical data.

We analyzed 297 COVID-19 patients from five hospitals in Daegu, South Korea. A mixed artificial convolution neural network (ACNN) model, combining an artificial neural network for clinical data and a convolution neural network for 3D CT imaging data, is developed to classify these cases as either high risk of severe progression (event) or low risk (event-free).

Using the mixed ACNN model, we were able to obtain high classification performance using novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) lesion images (93.9% accuracy, 80.8% sensitivity, 96.9% specificity, and 0.916 AUC) and lung segmentation images (94.3% accuracy, 74.7% sensitivity, 95.9% specificity, and 0.928 AUC) for event vs. event-free groups.

Our study successfully differentiated high risk cases among COVID-19 patients using imaging and clinical features. The developed model can be used as a predictive tool for interventions in aggressive therapies.