The latest medical research on Public Health Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about public health medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Ethnic-specific suggestions for physical activity based on existing recreational physical activity preferences of New Zealand women.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Recreational physical activities of New Zealand women were examined to develop ethnic-specific suggestions encouraging physical activity (PA) participation as a targeted approach to reduce obesity rates among different groups.

Healthy Māori, Pacific and European women (n=331; 16-45 years of age) completed an online Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess recreational PA and adherence to PA guidelines. Existing PA preferences were tailored to make ethnic-specific suggestions aimed at increasing PA participation.

Achievement of PA guidelines was: Māori 74%; Pacific 60%; European 70%. Highest participation across all women was for walking (Māori 72%, Pacific 60%, European 83%), followed by floor exercise (Māori 54%, Pacific 37%, European 56%). Gym-type activities (e.g. weights, aerobics) and jogging were also common across ethnic groups. Group/team activities (dance, netball, touch football) were among the top 10 activities for Māori and Pacific, but not European women.

Obesity rates among specific ethnic groups of New Zealand women might be reduced by promoting activities that are: family/whānau-oriented (netball, touch), community-linked (hula, dance) and outdoor-based. Implications for public health: Tailoring existing PA preferences to develop ethnic-specific sets of activity suggestions could be important avenues to increase PA participation, improving the PA habits and subsequent health of New Zealand women and their communities.

Public health and natural hazards: new policies and preparedness initiatives developed from an Australian bushfire case study.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Public preparedness for natural hazard events is low. With worsening severe weather events due to climate change, public health policy and practices must evolve to more effectively engage communities. This study's findings identify and suggest new strategic public health policies to shift the practice of all-hazards preparedness into routine, everyday life.

Semi-structured interviews, focus groups and Thematic Analysis were used to investigate the interactions between participant groups: emergency responders and animal owners.

Three policies designed to improve human safety and well-being are proposed and discussed. These are (i) a new system of workplace leave, (ii) an innovative regime of financial incentives for fire-ready properties, and (iii) review of the use of firebreaks on farms and rural blocks.

Policies proposed in this research aim to proactively narrow the awareness-preparedness gap and build adaptive capacity to minimise risk to human health in all-hazards contexts. Further research could evaluate the efficacy of trialled public policy. Implications for public health: These new policies seek to contribute to establishing and maintaining a culture of preparedness as a routine aspect of everyday life, and thus promote and protect public health in the short, medium and long terms.

Age-related differences in the perception of gap affordances: Impact of standardized action capabilities on road-crossing judgements.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Recent road-crossing literature has found that older adults show performance differences between estimation and perception-action tasks suggesting ...

An approach for evaluating the effectiveness of traffic guide signs at intersections.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Traffic guide signs play important roles in people's daily lives. However, the effectiveness and performance of traffic guide signs at intersection...

A vehicle speed harmonization strategy for minimizing inter-vehicle crash risks.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Recent technological advancements have facilitated the implementation of speed harmonization based on connected and automated vehicles (CAV) to pre...

Could wearing motorcycle protective clothing compromise rider safety in hot weather?

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Motorcycle protective clothing (PPE) effectively reduces the risk of injury in crashes, however in hot conditions many motorcyclists ride unprotected. Recent work found available motorcycle PPE to be thermally inefficient in hot weather with potential to cause significant thermal strain under average Australian summer conditions. The current study investigated the potential for the cognitive and psychophysical concomitants of thermal strain to compromise reaction times, mood and fatigue with potential consequences for motorcyclists' safety.

Volunteers wearing motorcycle PPE participated in a 90 min trial (cycling 30 W) in 35 °C, 40%RH with overhead radiant heaters and a fan to simulate wind speed. Heart rate, core and skin temperature were recorded continuously. Reaction time and subjective ratings of thermal sensation and comfort, workload and mood were recorded at baseline, during rest breaks at 25 min intervals and on completion of the trail. Repeated measures analysis assessed each participant's performance against their own baseline.

Core temperatures increased by 2 °C (p < .0001), skin temperatures (3 °C, (p < .0001) and heart rates (66bpm, p < .0001). Reaction times fluctuated 36 ms 8% (p < .0001) over the trial. Subjective workload increased 68% (p = 0.001) and mood deteriorated 33 points (p < .0001) including feeling less alert (p = <.0001), contented (p = 0.001) and calm (p = 0.0004). Multivariate repeated measures analysis found significant associations between core temperature and workload (p = 0.01), mood (p = 0.001) and reaction time (<.0001). Skin temperature and workload (p = 0.02), mood (p = 0.01) and reaction time (<.0001). Subjective ratings of temperature sensation and wetness discomfort were associated respectively with increased workload (p = 0.0001, p = 0.004), mood change (p < .0001, p = 0.04) and reaction time (p < .0001, p < .0001).

The physiological impact of wearing thermally inefficient motorcycle PPE in hot conditions could impair motorcyclists cognitive and psychophysical functioning and, potentially, their riding performance and safety. These outcomes indicate an urgent need for manufacturers to develop motorcycle PPE that is effective and suitable for use, in hot conditions.

An analysis of factors influencing accidents on road bridges in Norway.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Factors explaining systematic variation in the number of injury accidents on road bridges in Norway during 2010-2016 have been identified by means ...

Adaptive forward collision warnings: The impact of imperfect technology on behavioral adaptation, warning effectiveness and acceptance.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Adaptive ADAS that adjust warnings according to the driver´s current need for support offer a great potential to increase safety. However, it is cr...

Renal Failure Patients in Disasters.

Disaster Prevention & Management

ABSTRACTDisasters occur regularly, and frequently large numbers of patients treated with maintenance dialysis or with the recent onset of acute kid...

Pattern of road traffic crash hot zones versus probable hot zones in Tunisia: A geospatial analysis.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Focusing on how hot zones mapping can predict spatial patterns of crashes and how different mapping approaches compare can help to better inform th...

Evaluation of cooperative systems on driver behavior in heavy fog condition based on a driving simulator.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

This paper studies the effectiveness of fog warning systems on driving performance and traffic safety in heavy fog condition. A comparison study wa...

Effects of connected vehicle-based variable speed limit under different foggy conditions based on simulated driving.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

In response to developing and/or diminishing foggy conditions, the variable speed limit application in a connected vehicle environment (CV-VSL) can...