The latest medical research on Public Health Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about public health medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Core Capacities for Public Health Emergencies of International Concern at Ground Crossings: A Case Study from North India.

Disaster Prevention & Management

International airports, ports, and ground crossings are required to have health units for undertaking public health measures during routine times and specific measures during the time of public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). This study was conducted at a ground crossing of North India to assess the implementation status of International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) at a ground crossing in the prevention and control of public health emergencies and to assess the risk of imported infections from a ground crossing.

A qualitative study was conducted at the selected point of entry. The World Health Organization (WHO) core capacity assessment tool and in-depth interviews were used for data collection in the form of meetings and visits to isolation sites, and general observations were conducted regarding facilities on routine and other infrastructure and equipment that can be used during emergencies. Respondents were recruited using purposive methods.

The findings reveal that there is lack of awareness among the travelers, which increases the risks of spreading diseases. The overall implementation status at the ground crossing according to the assessment conducted using WHO Tool was 76%. It showed the need for further strengthening of the implementation at the site. Gaps were identified regarding the local capacity for handling chemical, radiological and nuclear hazards, and shortage of regular staff through stakeholders.

The findings from this study, as well as the suggestions and recommendations given by stakeholders, should help revise the current strategies of action. Hence, the gaps identified should be fulfilled to better respond to PHEIC at the ground crossings.

Injury-Related Emergency Department Visits After Hurricane Maria in a Southern Puerto Rico Hospital.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.

After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017-March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.

Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.

Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.

Research on National Disaster Life Support Course in China.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

To provide scientific, theoretical support for the improvement of medical disaster training, we systematically analyzed the National Disaster Life Support (NDLS) Course and established a training curriculum with feedback based on the current status of disaster medicine in China.

The gray prediction model is applied to long-term forecast research on course effect. In line with the hypothesis, the NDLS course with feedback capability is more scientific and standardized.

The current training NDLS course system is suitable for Chinese medical disasters. After accepting the course training, audiences' capabilities were enhanced. In the constructed GM (1,1) model prediction, the developing coefficients of the pretest and the posttest are 0.04 and 0.057, respectively. In light of the coefficient, the model is appropriate for the long-term prediction. The predicted results can be used as the basis for constructing training closed-loop optimization feedback. It can indicate that the course system has a good effect as well.

According to the constructed GM model, the NDLS course system is scientific, practical, and operational. The research results can provide reference for relevant departments and be used for the construction of similar training course systems.

Promoting Integrated Mental Health Care Services in Disaster Response Programs: Lessons Learned After the Impact of Hurricane María in Puerto Rico.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

Meteorological and even human-made disasters are increasing every year in frequency and magnitude. The passage of a disaster affects a society with...

A Comparison of US Federal Government Spending for Research and Development Related to Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, 2008-2017.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed 15 National Public Health Emergency and Preparedness Response Capabilities (NPHPRCs) to serve as national standards for health-related core capabilities. The objective of this study is to determine the level of federal funding allocated for research related to NPHPRCs during 2008-2017.

An online search of http://www.USAspending.gov was performed to identify federal awards, grants, contracts from 2008-2017 related to research associated with NPHPRCs. Inclusion criteria were identifiable as research and disaster-related; US-based; and specific reference to any of the NPHPRCs. A panel of 3 experts reviewed each entry for inclusion.

The search identified 15 278 transactions representing US $29.2 billion in awards. After exclusions, 93 entries were found to be related to NPHPRCs, averaging US $2 783 136 annually. Funding notably dropped to US $168 684 in 2010 and ceased entirely in 2016. Ten (67%) of NPHPRCs received funding. Eighty-percent of funding focused on 4 capabilities. Three federal agencies funded 80% of research. Sixteen (24%) of the 47 recipients received 80% of all funding.

US federal investments in research and development related to NPHPRCs have been highly variable over the past decade. One-third of NPHPRCs receive no funding. There are notable gaps in funding, content, continuity, and scope of participation.

Medical Civil-Military Relationships: A Feasibility Study of a United Kingdom Deployment in South Sudan.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

Civil-military relationships are necessary in humanitarian emergencies but, if poorly managed, may be detrimental to the efforts of humanitarian organizations. Awareness of guidelines and understanding of risks relating to the relationship among deployed military personnel have not been evaluated.

Fifty-five military and 12 humanitarian healthcare workers in South Sudan completed questionnaires covering experience, training and role, agreement with statements about the deployment, and free text comments.

Both cohorts were equally aware of current guidance. Eight themes defined the relationship. There was disagreement about the benefit to the South Sudanese people of the military deployment, and whether military service was compatible with beneficial health impacts. Two key obstacles to the relationship and 3 areas the relationship could be developed were identified.

This study shows that United Kingdom military personnel are effectively trained and understand the constraints on the civil-military relationship. Seven themes in common between the groups describe the relationship. Current guidance could be adapted to allow a different relationship for healthcare workers.

Coping With a Mass Casualty: Insights into a Hospital's Emergency Response and Adaptations After the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

The study provides a comprehensive insight into how an initial receiving hospital without adequate capacity adapted to coping with a mass casualty incident after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion (FFCDE).

Data collection was via in-depth interviews with 11 key participants. This was combined with information from medical records of FFCDE patients and admission logs from the emergency department (ED) to build a detailed timeline of patients flow and ED workload changes. Process tracing analysis focused on how the ED and other units adapted to coping with the difficulties created by the patient surge.

The hospital treated 30 victims with 36.3% average total body surface area burn for over 5 hours alongside 35 non-FFCDE patients. Overwhelming demand resulted in the saturation of ED space and intensive care unit beds, exhaustion of critical materials, and near-saturation of clinicians. The hospital reconfigured human and physical resources differently from conventional drills. Graphical timelines illustrate anticipatory or reactive adaptations. The hospital's ability to adapt was based on anticipation during uncertainty and coordination across roles and units to keep pace with varying demands.

Adapting to beyond-surge capacity incident is essential to effective disaster response. Building organizational support for effective adaptation is critical for disaster planning.

Does Preparedness Matter? The Influence of Household Preparedness on Disaster Outcomes During Superstorm Sandy.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

This study empirically examines preparedness with a kit, medication, and a disaster plan on disaster outcomes including perceived recovery, property damage, and use of medical or mental health services.

Using a cross-sectional, retrospective study design, 1114 households in New York City were interviewed 21-34 months following Super Storm Sandy. Bivariate associations were examined and logistic regression models fit to predict the odds of disaster outcomes given the level of preparedness.

Respondents with an evacuation plan were more likely to report not being recovered (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.8), property damage (OR =1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), and use of medical services (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). Respondents reporting a supply of prescription medication were more likely to report using mental health (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.2-9.8) and medical services (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.8).

Having a kit, plan, and medication did not reduce risk of adverse outcomes in Superstorm Sandy in this sample. Disaster managers should consider the lack of evidence for preparedness when making public education and resource allocation decisions. Additional research is needed to identify preparedness measures that lead to better outcomes for more efficient and effective response and recovery.

Health Consequences of Lake Urmia in Crisis in the Disaster Area: A Pilot Study.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

This study investigated the health effects of Lake Urmia's drought on adjacent urban and rural areas and people.

The data for sociodemographic status, physical activity, dietary pattern, smoking, and angina of the subjects living in areas adjacent to and far from Lake Urmia were collected through validated questionnaires. Physical examinations, including blood pressure, anthropometrics, and biochemical measurements, were performed.

There were no significant differences between 2 areas in the case of age, sex, educational, and physical activity and smoking status (P > 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, and anemia in cases living in the adjacent areas were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between 2 districts in the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, overweight/obesity, asthma, angina, infraction, diabetes, and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

Our data showed that Lake Urmia's drought has serious effects on hypertension and anemia. More longitudinal and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these results.

Forecasting Internally Displaced Population Migration Patterns in Syria and Yemen.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

Armed conflict has contributed to an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons (IDPs), individuals who are forced out of their homes but remain within their country. IDPs often urgently require shelter, food, and healthcare, yet prediction of when IDPs will migrate to an area remains a major challenge for aid delivery organizations. We sought to develop an IDP migration forecasting framework that could empower humanitarian aid groups to more effectively allocate resources during conflicts.

We modeled monthly IDP migration between provinces within Syria and within Yemen using data on food prices, fuel prices, wages, location, time, and conflict reports. We compared machine learning methods with baseline persistence methods of forecasting.

We found a machine learning approach that more accurately forecast migration trends than baseline persistence methods. A random forest model outperformed the best persistence model in terms of root mean square error of log migration by 26% and 17% for the Syria and Yemen datasets, respectively.

Integrating diverse data sources into a machine learning model appears to improve IDP migration prediction. Further work should examine whether implementation of such models can enable proactive aid allocation for IDPs in anticipation of forecast arrivals.

Paracetamol poisoning-related hospital admissions and deaths in Australia, 2004-2017.

Medical Journal of Australia

To assess the numbers of paracetamol overdose-related hospital admissions and deaths in Australia since 2007-08, and the overdose size of intentional paracetamol overdoses since 2004.

Retrospective analysis of data on paracetamol-related exposures, hospital admissions, and deaths from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD; 2007-08 to 2016-17), the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC; 2004-2017), and the National Coronial Information System (NCIS; 2007-08 to 2016-17).

Annual numbers of reported paracetamol-related poisonings, hospital admissions, and deaths; number of tablets taken in overdoses.

The NHMD included 95 668 admissions with paracetamol poisoning diagnoses (2007-08 to 2016-17); the annual number of cases increased by 44.3% during the study period (3.8% per year; 95% CI, 3.2-4.6%). Toxic liver disease was documented for 1816 of these patients; the annual number increased by 108% during the study period (7.7% per year; 95% CI, 6.0-9.5%). The NSWPIC database included 22 997 reports of intentional overdose with paracetamol (2004-2017); the annual number increased by 77.0% during the study period (3.3% per year; 95% CI, 2.5-4.2%). The median number of tablets taken increased from 15 (IQR, 10-24) in 2004 to 20 (IQR, 10-35) in 2017. Modified release paracetamol ingestion report numbers increased 38% between 2004 and 2017 (95% CI, 30-47%). 126 in-hospital deaths were recorded in the NHMD, and 205 deaths (in-hospital and out of hospital) in the NCIS, with no temporal trends.

The frequency of paracetamol overdose-related hospital admissions has increased in Australia since 2004, and the rise is associated with greater numbers of liver injury diagnoses. Overdose size and the proportion of overdoses involving modified release paracetamol have each also increased.

The economic cost of preventable disease in Australia: a systematic review of estimates and methods.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

The aim of this literature review was to establish the economic burden of preventable disease in Australia in terms of attributable health care costs, other costs to government and reduced productivity.

A systematic review was conducted to establish the economic cost of preventable disease in Australia and ascertain the methods used to derive these estimates. Nine databases and the grey literature were searched, limited to the past 10 years, and the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines were followed to identify, screen and report on eligible studies.

Eighteen studies were included. There were at least three studies examining the attributable costs and economic impact fr each risk factor. The greatest costs were related to the productivity impacts of preventable risk factors. Estimates of the annual productivity loss that could be attributed to individual risk factors were between $840 million and $14.9 billion for obesity; up to $10.5 billion due to tobacco; between $1.1 billion and $6.8 billion for excess alcohol consumption; up to $15.6 billion due to physical inactivity and $561 million for individual dietary risk factors. Productivity impacts were included in 15 studies and the human capital approach was the method most often employed (14 studies) to calculate this.

Substantial economic burden is caused by lifestyle-related risk factors. Implications for public health: The significant economic burden associated with preventable disease provides an economic rationale for action to reduce the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors. New analysis of the economic burden of multiple risk factors concurrently is needed.