The latest medical research on Public Health Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about public health medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Role of Religious Institutions in Disaster Risk Management: A Systematic Review.

Disaster Prevention & Management

The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the relevant research on religious organizations' participation in disasters risk management and to understand the ways in which these organizations impact on disaster management. Today, community-based disaster risk management is emphasized as a very effective approach. Religious organizations are one of the most important components of community. They have access to resources that can be critical to help government agencies to manage disasters successfully.

This systematic review was conducted since August 2018 to investigate the role of religious institutions in disasters management and was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, Proquest, Embase, and Google scholar were the primary databases used for search of literature. Keywords used in this review were "religious institution," "disaster management," and their equivalents were obtained from Mesh, Emtree, or extracted from related articles. The papers from a broad range of disciplines related to keywords were included, and those articles that focus on response to disaster based on religious beliefs' and religion rather than participation of religious institutions in disaster risk management were excluded. From the 18,071 records identified through database searching in the early stage, 22 articles were selected for this review followed by analysis of the characteristics and content analysis of the included studies to answer the study questions.

The findings of this systematic review that emerged from content analysis are summarized in 11 themes: religious institutions' potential for disaster management, preparedness of religious institutions for disasters, response, recovery, the social capital, partnership with all stakeholders, collaboration and communication between mental health professionals and faith-based organization leaders, unity of information and message, religious institution shelters, dealing with disaster in old and new approaches, and barriers and challenges.

Religious institutions have a vital role and great potential in disasters management. They often contribute in response and recovery phases of disasters, although these services are valuable but the great potential of these groups should also be recruited to participate in preparedness and mitigation efforts as part of disasters cycle. Coordination and collaboration of all stakeholders is essential in this way.

Self-reported injury in Australian young adults: demographic and lifestyle predictors.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

Injury is the major cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents and young adults. This study examined the use of injury self-reports and various causes of injury among adolescents.

A cohort recruited in 2002 as a representative sample of students from the State of Victoria in south-east Australia was followed and resurveyed in young adulthood in 2010 (mean age 21.0) and 2012 (mean age 23.1) with 75% of the target sample retained (N=2,154, 55.8% female).

Prior injuries were reported by 55.5% in 2010 and 54.6% in 2012, leaving 18% with continuing disability. Reported causes of injury in 2012 were sports (55.1%) and alcohol use (9.7%). Logistic regression revealed that injury in 2012 was predicted by rural school attendance in 2002 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [OR] 1.4 CI 1.1-1.7) and in 2010 by male gender (OR 2.2, CI 1.8-2.6), reported self-harm (OR 1.6 CI 1.1-2.2), and unemployment (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-1.0).

Self-reported injury among young adults is reliably reported, and suggests the need to further examine gender, rural communities and self-harm, and indicates modifiable contributors to injury. Implications for public health: Modifiable contributors to injury prevention are revealed as work environment, sports participation and alcohol use.

Factors influencing the willingness of community service organisation staff to provide smoking cessation support: a qualitative study.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

This study aimed to explore factors influencing community service organisation (CSO) staff members' willingness to provide tobacco cessation support to clients experiencing disadvantage.

Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 staff members from seven services in the alcohol and other drugs, homelessness, and mental health sectors in Western Australia.

The primary barriers to providing cessation support were believing that addressing smoking was not a priority relative to other issues, being a current smoker, and the lack of a formal tobacco cessation program within the organisation. Factors that appeared to be most influential in enabling the delivery of cessation support were organisational processes requiring staff to routinely ask clients about tobacco use, confidence to provide support, and being a past smoker.

The introduction of organisational procedures that include routine cessation care should be of high priority in CSOs to help reduce smoking rates among clients. Staff may also benefit from receiving training in the provision of cessation support and education about the importance and feasibility of addressing smoking concurrently with other issues. Implications for public health: The results may inform future efforts to increase the delivery of cessation care to groups of people experiencing disadvantage and comorbidity.

Alcohol and fast food sponsorship in sporting clubs with junior teams participating in the 'Good Sports' program: a cross-sectional study.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

To examine: alcohol and fast food sponsorship of junior community sporting clubs; the association between sponsorship and club characteristics; and parent and club representative attitudes toward sponsorship.

A cross-sectional telephone survey of representatives from junior community football clubs across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, and parents/carers of junior club members. Participants were from junior teams with Level 3 accreditation in the 'Good Sports' program.

A total of 79 club representatives and 297 parents completed the survey. Half of participating clubs (49%) were sponsored by the alcohol industry and one-quarter (27%) were sponsored by the fast food industry. In multivariate analyses, the odds of alcohol sponsorship among rugby league clubs was 7.4 (95%CI: 1.8-31.0, p=<0.006) that of AFL clubs, and clubs located in regional areas were more likely than those in major cities to receive fast food industry sponsorship (OR= 9.1; 95%CI: 1.0-84.0, p=0.05). The majority (78-81%) of club representatives and parents were supportive of restrictions to prohibit certain alcohol sponsorship practices, but a minority (42%) were supportive of restrictions to prohibit certain fast food sponsorship practices.

Large proportions of community sports clubs with junior members are sponsored by the alcohol industry and the fast food industry. There is greater acceptability for prohibiting sponsorship from the alcohol industry than the fast food industry. Implications for public health: Health promotion efforts should focus on reducing alcohol industry and fast food industry sponsorship of junior sports clubs.

Regional primary health care organisations and migrant and refugee health: the importance of prioritisation, funding, collaboration and engagement.

Australian and New Zealand Journal

This paper examines whether Australian regional primary health care organisations - in this case, Medicare Locals (MLs) and Primary Health Networks (PHNs) - have engaged with migrant and refugee health, and what factors encourage work in this area.

The study used mixed methods with surveys of ML (N=210) and PHN staff (N=66), interviews with ML (N=50) and PHN (N=55) staff, national consultations with migrant and refugee organisations (N=8 groups with 62 participants), and analysis of ML and PHN documents.

Needs assessment documents identified migrant and refugee health issues in 46% of MLs and 74% of PHNs. However, 48% of MLs and 55% of PHNs did not report any activities on migrant health, and 78% and 62% did not report any activities for refugees, respectively. Key factors identified by participants as associated with whether ML and PHN focus on migrant and refugee health were the determination of local priority areas, policy context and funding, collaboration with migrant and refugee organisations and communities, and mechanisms for engagement.

Despite the importance of primary health care for migrants and refugees, there was relatively little attention paid to these population groups in MLs and PHNs, with a small number of notable exceptions. Implications for public health: The paper concludes with a range of recommendations for improving regional primary health care organisation engagement with migrant and refugee health.

Health-Related Quality of Life After the 2015 Gorkha Earthquakes, Among Older Adults Living in Lalitpur District of Central Nepal.

Disaster Medicine and Public Health

Health-related quality of life (HQL) among older adults is often neglected and underprioritized in developing countries and is further burdened during natural disasters, such as earthquakes. The main objective of this study was to explore the factors affecting HQL among older adults living in Lalitpur District of Nepal.

A total of 362 older adults participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to interview the respondents on various aspects, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, functional ability, and social support. An analysis was made to explore the factors affecting HQL.

HQL scores ranged between 3.13 and 90.63. A majority of the respondents (215/362; 59.4%) scored ≤ 50, indicating poorer HQL. The multivariate analysis found the impact of the following factors on HQL: functional status (β = 0.295; P < 0.001), PTSD (β = -0.225; P < 0.001), chronic disease (β = -0.168; P < 0.001), social support (β = 0.120; P = 0.019), injury (β = -0.104; P = 0.024), age (β = -0.116; P < 0.001), and accessibility to resources.

Poor HQL of older adults was dependent on various factors. The disaster preparedness program in Nepal needs urgent attention to address the concerns of older adults by incorporating the findings from this study.

An integrative review of the limited evidence on international travel bans as an emerging infectious disease disaster control measure.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

In our increasingly interconnected world, the potential for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to spread globally is of paramount concern. Travel ...

Extinguishing wildfires by saturation water bombing: A new concept.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

To present a new concept for the extinguishment of wildfires by saturation water bombing.

Following an exhaustive literature search, a published mathematical model and a published empirical rainfall model were used to estimate the rate at which water would have to be applied to extinguish intense wildfires. Applying the estimated amount by quasi-continuous saturation water bombing was then evaluated.

The mathematical model yielded a regression equation that estimates the amount of water to extinguish wildfires of varying sizes as y = 0.1041 x - 5.0096 where y is the quantity of water and x is the size of the fire. The predicted quantities of 1000 metric tonnes ha for intense wildfires vastly exceed the minimum of 50 metric tonnes ha of the empirical rain model, likely due to the limited data available. They nevertheless serve to define the likely range of water application rates that must be applied for wildfire extinguishment. These application rates are shown to be feasible by deploying a team of large, amphibious water scooping aircraft operating in relay continuously day and night. The operating cost of such a team (±$10 million annually) is trivial compared to the potential for reducing the current economic burden of US wildfire of $71.1-347.8 billion annually.

The saturation water bombing concept seems promising enough to warrant the commitment of funds to implement field trials on the ground that it could, potentially, result in savings of billions of dollars.

Infrastructure assessment post-disaster: Remotely sensing bridge structural damage by unmanned aerial vehicle in low-light conditions.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

The initial experiment explores the viability of using a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with thermal imaging and lowlight camera to asse...

The role of 3D-CFD simulation in optimizing pre-emergency responses.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

Consequences of an incident resulted from the release of hazards shall be mitigated to limit the undesirable effects. Emergency preparedness and re...

Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and nat...

Sequential ambiguity and uncertainty in the early stage of a disaster relief: A case study of the Bam earthquake.

Journal of Emergency Medicine

This study aimed to identify issues that arose during the early response stage of the Bam earthquake as perceived by the aid workers. Eleven people...