The latest medical research on Chinese Medical Practitioner

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Correlation between Characteristics of Coronary Plaque and Chinese Medicine Syndromes of Coronary Heart Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study Analysed by Intravascular Ultrasound.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To analyse the correlation between the characteristics of coronary plaque in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with phlegm-blood stasis syndrome (PBS) and blood stasis syndrome (BSS).

Patients were divided into different groups based on Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome differentiation. The baseline demographics and clinical variables were collected from the medical records. Additionally, the characteristics of plaque and pathological manifestations in coronary artery were evaluated using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).

A total of 213 CHD patients were enrolled in two groups: 184 were diagnosed with PBS and the remaining 29 were diagnosed with BSS. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, proportions of patients with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, history of coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention, medications, index from cardiac ultrasound image, blood lipids and C-reactive protein between the two groups (P>0.05), except gender, weight and proportions of IVUS observed target vessels (P<0.05 or P<0.01). More adverse events such as acute myocardial infarction (P=0.003) and unstable angina (P=0.048) were observed in BSS. Additionally, dissection, thrombus and coronary artery ectasia were significantly increased in BSS (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In contrast, PBS had more patients with stable angina and chronic total occlusion with significantly higher SYNTAX (synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with Taxus and coronary artery bypass surgery) scores (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, dense-calcium was significantly elevated in PBS (P<0.01).

Coronary plaque characteristics were correlated with different CM syndromes. Patients with PBS were associated with a higher degree of calcified plaque and severe coronary artery stenosis, indicating poor clinical prognosis but with a low probability of acute coronary events. In contrast, the degree of calcified plaque in patients with BSS remained relatively low, and plaque was more vulnerable, resulting in the possibility of the occurrence of acute coronary events remaining high.

Efficacy and Safety of Mulberry Twig Alkaloids Tablet for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Clinical Study.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To assess the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloids (Sangzhi alkaloids, SZ-A) for treatment of type 2 diabetes in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial.

A total of 200 patients were randomized to receive SZ-A (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 16 weeks. The data analysis system for electronic data capture clinical trial central randomization system was used for randomization and dispensing of drugs. The primary outcome was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The secondary outcome included the proportions of cases with HbA1c <7.0% and HbA1c <6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), area under curve for the PBG (AUC0-2h), body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Adverse events (AEs), severe adverse events (SAEs), treatment-related adverse events (TAEs), gastrointestinal disorders (GDs), blood pressure, routine blood tests, and liver and kidney function were monitored.

Compared with baseline, the change of HbA1c at week 16 was -0.80% (95% CI: -0.98% to -0.62%) and -0.09% (95% CI: -0.27% to 0.09%) in SZ-A group and placebo group, respectively. The proportion of patients with HbA1c <7% and <6.5% was higher in the SZ-A group than in the placebo group (46.8% vs. 21.6% and 29.9% vs. 10.8%). The observed values and changes in FBG, 1 h-PBG, 2 h-PBG, and AUC0-2h differed significantly between groups (P<0.001), but differences were not significant in body weight and BMI (P>0.05). The incidence rates of AEs, TAEs, and GDs differed significantly between groups (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.006, respectively), whereas the incidence rates of SAEs showed no significant differences between groups (P=1.000).

SZ-A are effective and safe for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The protocol was registered in http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=60117 (ChiCTR2000038550).

Effect of Wrist-Ankle Acupuncture on Postoperative Analgesia after Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To evaluate the effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) in pain and functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

From June to September 2020, 94 participants were included from the Second Hospital of Tangshan and randomly assigned to the WAA group (47 cases) and the sham WAA group (47 cases) by a random number table, receiving real or sham WAA treatment, respectively. The primary outcome measure involved the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at rest and in motion. The secondary outcomes involved the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joints, straight-leg raising time, postoperative weight-bearing time, sufentanil consumption within 48 h of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications.

The VAS scores on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days at rest and in motion was significantly lower in the WAA group than that of the sham WAA group (P<0.01). The ROM on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd PODs was significantly higher in the WAA group than that of the sham WAA group (P<0.01). In comparison to the sham WAA group, the sufentanil consumption within 48 h of PCA pump was significantly less in the WAA group (156.3 ± 12.2 µg vs. 128.8 ± 9.8 µg, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in active straight-leg raising time, postoperative weight-bearing time, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications between the two groups (P>0.05).

WAA could alleviate post-TKA pain, improve knee joint function, and reduce the sufentanil consumption within 48 h of PCA pump. WAA is a safe and effective treatment in the perioperative analgesic management for TKA.

Andrographolide Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Bladder Cancer Cells by Interfering with NF-κB and PI3K/AKT Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To explore the influences of andrographolide (Andro) on bladder cancer cell lines and a tumor xenograft mouse model bearing 5637 cells.

For in vitro experiments, T24 cells were stimulated with Andro (0-40 µmol/L) and 5637 cells were stimulated with Andro (0 to 80 µmol/L). Cell growth, migration, and infiltration were assessed using cell counting kit-8, colony formation, wound healing, and transwell assays. Apoptosis rate was examined using flow cytometry. In in vivo study, the antitumor effect of Andro (10 mg/kg) was evaluated by 5637 tumor-bearing mice, and levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT related-proteins were determined by immunoblotting.

Andro suppressed growth, migration, and infiltraion of bladder cancer cells (P⩽0.05 or P⩽0.01). Additionally, Andro induced intrinsic mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines. Furthermore, Andro inhibited bladder cancer growth in mice (P⩽0.01). The expression of p65, p-AKT were suppressed by Andro treatment in vitro and in vivo (P⩽0.05 or P⩽0.01).

Andrographolide inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by interfering with NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling in vitro and in vivo.

Enhancement of Swimming Endurance by Herbal Supplement M3P.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To investigate the effect of M3P (containing Deer antler, Cordyceps sinensis, Rhodiola rosea, and Panax ginseng); an herbal remedy with the function of tonifying Kidney (Shen) and invigorating Spleen (Pi), replenishing qi and nourishing blood; on fatigue alleviation, endurance capacity and toxicity.

Swimming with weight-loading of 24 male ICR mice was used to evaluate the endurance capacity, and fatigue-related plasma biomarkers were determined. Mice were randomly assigned to control or M3P treatment groups with 6 mice for each group and were orally administered with M3P everyday for 8 weeks at doses 0, 10, 33 or 100 mg/kg. Swimming time to exhaustion was measured in a specialized water tank. Lliver and kidney functions, body weight, and hematological profile were determined to evaluate the safety and toxicity after long-term M3P administration.

M3P supplementation 100 mg/kg significantly increased swimming endurance time up to approximate 2.4 folds of controls (P<0.05). The plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic glycogen content were significantly increased in mice received M3P (P<0.05, P<0.01 respectively). The lactic acid level and blood glucose were not changed after M3P treatment (P>0.05). The liver and kidney functions muscle damage biomarker creatine, body weight, and hemograms were not altered in M3P supplementation (P>0.05).

M3P supplementation may improve swimming endurance accompanied by increasing hepatic glycogen content and serum cortisol level without major toxicity.

Autophagy and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Journal of Asian Earth Sciences

Autophagy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Dysregulation of autophagy may have a huge effect on cardiac hype...

Comparison of blood tonic efficacy and chemical constituents of Kadsura interior A.C. Smith and its closely related species.

Chinese Medicine

The stems of Kadsura interior A. C. Smith are used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Kadsurae Caulis, with the traditional efficacy of tonifying and invigorating the blood, therefore being favored to treat blood deficiency (BD) widely. However, the stems of K. interior and its closely related species are morphologically similar and they may readily be misused as Kadsurae Caulis, thus likely to exert negative effects on clinical efficacy and clinical medication safety.

Firstly, blood tonic efficacies of the stems of K. interior (KIS) and its closely related species were compared using BD mouse model induced by 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). Secondly, the chemical constituents from the stems of K. interior and its closely related species were evaluated and compared using a plant metabolomics approach. Plant metabolomics in this study aims at discovering differential metabolites and comprehensively assessing the chemical constituents by combining state-of-the-art high-resolution UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS technique and multivariate data analysis. Finally, based on the pharmacological data and the chemical constituents in UPLC-Q/TOF-MS fingerprints, the potential blood tonic active markers were screened by the spectrum-effect relationship analysis and quantified by UPLC-UV-DAD.

The ethanol extract of the stems of K. interior significantly increased the levels of hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (HGB), and red blood cells (RBC) in BD mice. In addition, it significantly increased the serum levels of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and macrophage-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in BD mice (P < 0.01). The blood tonic efficacy of the stems of K. interior was superior to those of its closely related species, especially at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Six differential compounds in the stems of K. interior were screened out to distinguish it from its closely related species. In combination with the results of the spectrum-effect relationship analysis, heteroclitin D, interiorin C, and heteroclitin G were identified as potential bioactive markers. The contents of heteroclitin D and heteroclitin G in the freeze-dried powder of KIS were 15.90 and 3.74 μg/mg.

This study illustrated the differences in the blood tonic efficacies and the chemical constituents of the stems of K. interior and its closely related species, and pinpointed the potential bioactive markers of K. interior.

Bioactivities and mechanisms of natural medicines in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Chinese Medicine

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and rare disease without obvious clinical symptoms that shares characteristics with pulmonar...

A review on the applications of Traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides in drug delivery systems.

Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides (TCMPs) are plentiful and renewable resources with properties such as biocompatibility, hydrophilicity...

Protective Effect of Shenfu Injection () on Vascular Endothelial Damage in a Porcine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To investigate the effects of Shenfu Injection (, SFI) on endothelial damage in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock (HS).

After being bled to a mean arterial pressure of 40±3 mm Hg and held for 60 min, 32 pigs were treated with a venous injection of either shed blood (transfusion group), shed blood and saline (saline group), shed blood and SFI (SFI group) or without resuscitation (sham group). Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after HS. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), serum interleuking (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM -1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 proteins were determined by Western blot.

The serum level of TNF-α in the SFI group was significantly lower than in the other groups at 0, 1, and 2 h after HS, while the level of IL-6 was lower at 4 and 6 h compared with the saline group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The concentration of serum IL-10 was significantly higher in the SFI group than in the other groups at 0, 1, 4, and 6 h after HS (P<0.01). Western blot and immunohistochemistry of vascular tissue showed that the expression of caspase-3 was downregulated, and that of Bcl-2 and Bax was upregulated in the SFI group compared to other groups (P<0.05).

SFI attenuated endothelial injury in the porcine model of HS by inhibiting cell apoptosis, suppressing the formation of proinflammatory cytokines, and reducing endothelial activation.

New Proposals for Application of Terahertz Imaging Technique in Chinese Medicine.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

The rapid development of terahertz technology promotes the realization of various terahertz imaging systems. Terahertz technology features terahert...

A Network Pharmacology-Based Study on Antidepressant Effect of Salicornia europaea L. Extract with Experimental Support in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model Mice.

Chinese Journal of Cancer

To investigate the pharmacodynamic material basis, mechanism of actions and targeted diseases of Salicornia europaea L. (SE) based on the network pharmacology method, and to verify the antidepressant-like effect of the SE extract by pharmacological experiments.

Retrieval tools including Chinese medicine (CM), PubMed, PharmMapper, MAS 3.0 and Cytoscape were used to search the components of SE, predict its targets and related therapeutic diseases, and construct the "Component-Target-Pathway" network of SE for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Further, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) function annotation of depression-related targets were analyzed to predict the antidepressant mechanism of SE. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model was used to construct a mouse model with depression-like symptoms. And the animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10) including the normal group (nonstressed mice administered with distilled water), the CUMS group (CUMS mice administered with distilled water), the venlafaxine group (CUMS mice administered with venlafaxine 9.38 mg/kg), SE high-, medium-, and low-dose groups (CUMS mice administered with SE 1.8, 1.35 and 0.9 g/kg, respectively). Then some relevant indicators were determined for experimental verification by the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test (TST) and open-field test (OFT). Dopamine (DA) concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, IL-2 and corticosterone (CORT) levels in blood, and nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), kelch-like epichlorohydrin related protein 1 (Keap1), NAD(P) H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels in mice were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot respectively to explore the possible mechanisms.

The "target-disease" network diagram predicted by network pharmacology, showed that the potential target of SE involves a variety of CNS diseases, among which depression accounts for the majority. The experimental results showed that SE (1.8, 1.35 g/kg) significantly decreased the immobility period, compared with the CUMS group in FST and TST in mice after 3-week treatment, while SE exhibited no significant effect on exploratory behavior in OFT in mice. Compared with CUMS group, the SE group (0.9 g/kg) showed significant differences (P<0.05) in DA levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In addition, compared with CUMS control group, SE (1.8 g/kg) group showed a significant effect on decreasing the activities of CORT (P<0.05), and serum IL-2 level with no statistical significance. Finally, Western blot results showed that compared with the model group, Nrf2, Keap1, NQO1 and HO-1 protein expressions in SE group (1.8 g/kg) were up-regulated (all P<0.01).

The SE extract may have an antidepressant effect, which appeared to regulate Nrf2-ARE pathway and increased levels of DA and CORT in the hippocampus and cortex.