The latest medical research on Cosmetic Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about cosmetic surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Impact of Hematoma on Capsular Contracture: A Comparative Study of Smooth and Textured Implants in a Miniature Pig Model.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

Capsular contracture is a significant complication following mammaplasty, with varying incidence rates and symptoms. The etiology of capsular contracture is multifactorial, with postoperative hematoma being recognized as a potential contributing factor.

The study aimed to investigate the impact of postoperative hematoma on capsular contracture following mammaplasty, utilizing pig models and modified biomechanical testing. It sought to compare the severity of capsular contracture between smooth and textured implants in the presence of hematoma, assess the biomechanical properties of the capsules, and explore the histological and molecular changes associated with the condition.

The study involved five female miniature pigs, implanted with both smooth and textured implants. Hematoma models were established, and various methods were employed to evaluate the impact of the prosthesis surface and hematoma on capsular contracture, including ultrasound assessment, biomechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy, histological analysis, and transcriptome sequencing.

Capsules in hematoma groups were classified as Baker III/IV, with significantly unfavorable thickness, elastic modulus, and relaxation/creep amounts compared to non-hematoma groups. Smooth implants under hematoma conditions exhibited increased muscle content and biomechanical strength of the capsule. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted differential gene expression related to muscle development and contraction in smooth implants with hematomas.

Hematomas increase the risk of capsular contracture, with smooth implants exacerbating this effect by enhancing pathways related to muscle development and contraction. This underscores the importance of hematoma prevention and treatment strategies, particularly when using smooth implants, to minimize the occurrence of capsular contracture. The study provides insights into the mechanisms underlying capsular contracture and offers evidence to guide surgical and postoperative management strategies.

High Quality of Care Delivery Improves Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Life Outcomes After Breast Augmentation.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

Breast augmentation is one of the most common aesthetic procedures worldwide. Most studies focused on evaluating the outcome with validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and factors that may influence them. However, the influence of care delivery, which can be measured with patient-reported experience measures (PREMs), is scarce in breast augmentation patients.

This study aimed to evaluate the associations between PREMs and PROMs in patients who underwent breast augmentation.

A multicenter cohort study was conducted in breast augmentation patients. Patients completed PREMs, including aspects such as communication between physician and patient, expectation management, welcome, and hygiene and the BREAST-Q PROM Satisfaction with Breasts, Psychosocial-, Physical- and Sexual well-being, preoperatively and six-months postoperatively. Regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between PREMs and PROMs.

Overall, 329 patients were included between 2018-2022. Univariate regression analysis showed a positive association between PREMs and PROMs scales. The aspects of the feeling of being heard (B=-38.39 and B=-18.90), the opportunity to ask questions (B=-9.21) and trust in their physician (B=-39.08) had the highest association with the change in the four BREAST-Q scales. The multivariable regression analysis showed that the variance in PROMs related to changes in PREMs (19%) was hardly influenced by patient characteristics (1%).

Patient outcomes are more positive after breast augmentation when patients feel they are being heard, have the opportunity to ask questions and have trust in their physician. Future studies should be targeted at optimizing patient-reported experience to investigate whether this would improve patient-reported outcomes.

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face, Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of DKL23 and Juvéderm Volift for Correcting Moderate-to-Severe Nasolabial Folds.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers are used for multiple indications including wrinkle correction and restoration of volume/fullness.

To compare the efficacy and safety of two hyaluronic acid products for correcting moderate to severe nasolabial folds.

A prospective randomized double-blind split-face study. Subjects' left and right NLF were randomized for treatment with DKL23 and Juvéderm Volift. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. The changes from baseline in wrinkle severity rating scale (WSRS) and Global Aesthetics Improvement Scale (GAIS) were evaluated. Post-treatment adverse events (AEs) were recorded.

Forty-eight women (median age, 57.0 years) with skin type I-VI were enrolled. Both treatments showed statistically significant improvement (p<0.0001) in NLFs according to WSRS score from baseline to each of the timepoints assessed. The improvement in NLFs was maintained until the end of the study (9 months). Furthermore, the change from baseline to each of the timepoints assessed was similar between DKL23 and Juvéderm Volift. Investigator- and subject-rated GAIS showed similar rates of improvement (indicated by the sum of responses of improved, much or very much improved) between the 2 products. AEs reported in the study were in line with prior and expected experience after injection of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers. The types of AEs, their rates, intensity and duration were comparable between the 2 products.

DKL23 improved NLF severity from baseline and up to 9 months with comparable improvement to that shown by Juvéderm Volift. Treatment was safe and well tolerated.

Decoding the Implications of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Accelerated Facial and Skin Aging.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

Following the advent of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA), subsequent unintended effects such as accelerated facial aging and alte...

Multi-Subunit Repair With the Nasolabial Burow's Advancement Flap.

Journal of Cutaneous Pathology

We will describe the use of nasolabial Burow's advancement flaps (perialar crescentic advancements) to repair multi subunit defects of the nasal sidewall including the adjacent cheek, dorsum, tip, and ala without the need of additional flaps.

This retrospective single centre study analyzed 6 month postoperative photographs using the Manchester Scar scale. The operative technique is described in detail.

Of 355 cases, 336 were available for analysis. The median Manchester Scar scale was 7 for both sidewall defects and multi-subunit defects. There were low rates of infection or necrosis.

With the correct technique, the nasolabial Burow's advancement alone is suitable to repair even large multi-subunit defects involving the nasal sidewall, cheek, dorsum, tip, and ala with high-level aesthetic and functional results.

Lymphatic Vessel-Mediated Attenuation of Persistent Macrophage Infiltration Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes in Mice Models.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

Persistent macrophage infiltration may lead to adverse consequences, such as calcifications and nodules in fat grafts. Lymphatic vessels, which transport inflammatory cells, are involved in regulating inflammatory responses. Less is known, however, about lymphatic vessels after fat grafting.

The aim of this study was to explore the regulation of fat graft survival by lymphatic vessels.

A common adipose graft model was constructed to assess the processes responsible for changes in the number of lymphatic vessels in grafts. Adipose tissue samples from C57/BL6 mice and green fluorescent protein-expressing mice were cross-grafted to determine the source of lymphatic vessels. The number of lymphatic vessels in the grafts was increased by treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor C, and the effects of this increase on fat grafting were evaluated.

The number of lymphatic vessels was greater in postgrafted fat than in inguinal fat before transplantation, with lymphatic vessels in these grafts gradually transitioning from donor to recipient sources. Lymphatic vessels grew more slowly than blood vessels during early stages of grafting; during later stages, however, the number of blood vessels declined markedly, with more lymphatic vessels than blood vessels being observed 60 days after grafting. Vascular endothelial growth factor C treatment increased graft lymphatics and distant volume retention, while reducing fibrosis and oil sacs. Lymphatic vessels acted as drainage channels for macrophages, with the degree of sustained macrophage infiltration decreasing with increases in the number of lymphatic vessels.

Increasing the number of lymphatic vessels is beneficial for fat graft survival, which may be related to a reduction in prolonged macrophage infiltration.

Lower Eyelid Position Changes Following Müller's Muscle-Conjunctival Resection Blepharoptosis Surgery.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

Asymmetry of the lower eyelids and a lower position of the lower eyelid on the ptotic side are common issues in patients with upper lid ptosis. Understanding the relationship between upper lid ptosis correction and lower eyelid position will facilitate better treatment strategies for ptosis.

To assess the lower eyelid position before and after Müller's muscle-conjunctival resection (MMCR) in unilateral myogenic ptosis (MP) and aponeurotic ptosis (AP).

This prospective interventional before-and-after study, included adults with blepharoptosis. Measurements were taken before and 6 months after the surgery.

A total of 47 patients included, with 29 having MP and 18 having AP. The mean ages were 31.55 ± 5.30 years and 50.11 ± 6.45 years, respectively. In MP group, there was a significant association between baseline MRD2 and the severity of ptosis (MRD1) (β= -0.739, p=0.004, multivariate regression analysis). After MMCR, significant decreases were observed in MRD2 for both MP (-0.38 ± 0.48 mm, p<0.001) and AP (-0.39 ± 0.47 mm, p=0.003). The symmetry of MRD2 remained stable at 41.4% in the MP, while it decreased from 44.4% to 16.7% in the AP. The baseline MRD2 was the only factor associated with postoperative MRD2 in the MP.

Patients with myogenic and aponeurotic ptosis often exhibit a lower position of the lower eyelid, which typically elevates after posterior upper lid ptosis surgery. In myogenic cases, the severity of preoperative lower eyelid position correlates with the severity of upper lid ptosis and predicts postoperative elevation of the lower lid.

Did She or Didn't She? Perceptions of Operative Status of Female Genitalia.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

While extensive research has explored why women undergo labiaplasty, little attention has been paid to societal and professional abilities to distinguish between altered and unaltered labia, impacting both patient concerns and broader societal perceptions.

This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the general public and healthcare professionals in identifying labiaplasty and to pinpoint the misconceptions driving their perceptions. The goal was to inform more effective patient counseling strategies and challenge existing stigmas around cosmetic genital surgery.

We conducted an online survey with 511 lay adults and a group of 21 gynecologists and aesthetic vulvar surgeons, assessing their ability to detect labiaplasty from images, focusing on aesthetic appearance, hair patterns, and size. The analysis involved Pearson correlation and Z-tests to compare perceptions against actual operative status.

Our analysis revealed a pronounced difficulty among participants in accurately discerning labiaplasty, with neither group showing a significant ability to identify surgical alterations. Misinterpretations were notably influenced by expectations of aesthetic appearance, with 49% associating an "odd" or "fake" look with surgery, and hair and size misconceptions also misleading respondents. Additionally, 20% of participants mistakenly related surgical changes to gender affirming surgery or female genital mutilation.

The study highlights a gap in the ability of both the general public and medical professionals to accurately identify labiaplasty, pointing to a broad misunderstanding of cosmetic genital surgery's visual outcomes. Addressing these misconceptions through targeted education could substantially improve patient counseling and help dismantle the stigmas associated with labiaplasty.

Time From Colorectal Cancer Surgery to Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Post Hoc Analysis of the SCOT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

The timing of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for colorectal cancer and its association with long-term outcomes have been investigated in national cohort studies, with no consensus on the optimal time from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy.

To analyze the association between the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for colorectal cancer and disease-free survival.

This is a post hoc analysis of the phase 3 SCOT randomized clinical trial, from 244 centers in 6 countries, investigating the noninferiority of 3 vs 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with high-risk stage II or stage III nonmetastatic colorectal cancer who underwent curative-intended surgery were randomized to either 3 or 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin regimens. Those with complete information on the date of surgery, treatment type, and long-term follow-up were investigated for the primary and secondary end points. Data were analyzed from May 2022 to February 2024.

In the post hoc analysis, patients were grouped according to the start of adjuvant chemotherapy being less than 6 weeks vs greater than 6 weeks after surgery.

The primary end point was disease-free survival. The secondary end points were adverse events in the total treatment period or the first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy.

A total of 5719 patients (2251 [39.4%] female; mean [SD] age, 63.4 [9.3] years) were included in the primary analysis after data curation; among them, 914 were in the early-start group and 4805 were in the late-start group. Median (IQR) follow-up was 72.0 (47.3-88.1) months, with a median (IQR) of 56 (41-66) days from surgery to chemotherapy. Five-year disease-free survival was 78.0% (95% CI, 75.3%-80.8%) in the early-start group and 73.2% (95% CI, 72.0%-74.5%) in the late-start group. In an adjusted Cox regression analysis, the start of adjuvant chemotherapy greater than 6 weeks after surgery was associated with worse disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46; P = .01). In adjusted logistic regression models, there was no association with adverse events in the total treatment period (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.65-1.04; P = .09) or adverse events in the first cycle of treatment (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; P = .13).

In this international population of patients with high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer, starting adjuvant chemotherapy more than 6 weeks after surgery was associated with worse disease-free survival, with no difference in adverse events between the groups. Identifier: ISRCTN59757862.

Open Retromuscular Sugarbaker vs Keyhole Mesh Placement for Parastomal Hernia Repair: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Durable parastomal hernia repair remains elusive. There is limited evidence comparing the durability of the open retromuscular Sugarbaker and keyhole mesh configurations.

To determine if the open retromuscular Sugarbaker mesh placement technique would lower parastomal hernia recurrence rates.

In this single-center, randomized clinical trial, 150 patients with a permanent stoma and associated parastomal hernia who were candidates for open retromuscular parastomal hernia repair were enrolled and randomized from April 2019 to April 2022 and followed up for 2 years.

Following intraoperative assessment to determine the feasibility of either technique, enrolled patients were randomized to receive either retromuscular Sugarbaker or keyhole synthetic mesh placement.

The primary outcome was parastomal hernia recurrence at 2 years. Secondary outcomes included mesh-related complications, wound complications, reoperations, as well as patient-reported pain, abdominal wall-specific quality of life, stoma-specific quality of life, and decision regret at 1 year and 2 years.

A total of 150 patients were randomized, and with 91% follow-up at 2 years, there were 13 (17%) parastomal hernia recurrences in the retromuscular Sugarbaker arm and 18 (24%) in the keyhole arm (adjusted risk difference, -0.029; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.153, and adjusted risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.42 to 1.69). There were no statistically significant differences between the Sugarbaker and keyhole groups regarding reoperations for recurrence (2 vs 7, respectively), nonhernia intra-abdominal pathology (4 vs 10, respectively), stoma necrosis (1 vs 0, respectively), mesh-related complications (4 vs 1, respectively), patient-reported pain, abdominal wall-specific quality of life, stoma-specific quality of life, and decision regret at any time point.

In the setting of open parastomal hernia repair, a retromuscular Sugarbaker mesh placement technique was not superior to a keyhole configuration 2 years after repair. Further innovation is necessary to improve parastomal hernia repair outcomes. Identifier: NCT03972553.

Surgical Approach and Long-Term Recurrence After Ventral Hernia Repair.

JAMA Surgery

The prevalence of robotic-assisted anterior abdominal wall (ventral) hernia repair has increased dramatically in recent years, despite conflicting evidence of patient benefit. Whether long-term hernia recurrence rates following robotic-assisted repairs are lower than rates following more established laparoscopic or open approaches remains unclear.

To evaluate the association between robotic-assisted, laparoscopic, and open approaches to ventral hernia repair and long-term operative hernia recurrence.

Secondary retrospective cohort analysis using Medicare claims data examining adults 18 years and older who underwent elective inpatient ventral, incisional, or umbilical hernia repair from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2020. Data analysis was performed from January 2023 through March 2024.

Operative approach to ventral hernia repair, which included robotic-assisted, laparoscopic, and open approaches.

The primary outcome was operative hernia recurrence for up to 10 years after initial hernia repair. To help account for potential bias from unmeasured patient factors (eg, hernia size), an instrumental variable analysis was performed using regional variation in the adoption of robotic-assisted hernia repair over time as the instrument. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the risk-adjusted cumulative incidence of operative recurrence up to 10 years after the initial procedure, controlling for factors such as patient age, sex, race and ethnicity, comorbidities, and hernia subtype (ventral/incisional or umbilical).

A total of 161 415 patients were included in the study; mean (SD) patient age was 69 (10.8) years and 67 592 patients (41.9%) were male. From 2010 to 2020, the proportion of robotic-assisted procedures increased from 2.1% (415 of 20 184) to 21.9% (1737 of 7945), while the proportion of laparoscopic procedures decreased from 23.8% (4799 of 20 184) to 11.9% (946 of 7945) and of open procedures decreased from 74.2% (14 970 of 20 184) to 66.2% (5262 of 7945). Patients undergoing robotic-assisted hernia repair had a higher 10-year risk-adjusted cumulative incidence of operative recurrence (13.43%; 95% CI, 13.36%-13.50%) compared with both laparoscopic (12.33%; 95% CI, 12.30%-12.37%; HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.94) and open (12.74%; 95% CI, 12.71%-12.78%; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97) approaches. These trends were directionally consistent regardless of surgeon procedure volume.

This study found that the rate of long-term operative recurrence was higher for patients undergoing robotic-assisted ventral hernia repair compared with laparoscopic and open approaches. This suggests that narrowing clinical applications and evaluating the specific advantages and disadvantages of each approach may improve patient outcomes following ventral hernia repairs.

Oxylipins in Breast Implant Associated Systemic Symptoms.

Aesthetic Surgery Journal

A subset of women with breast implants have reported a myriad of nonspecific systemic symptoms collectively termed systemic symptoms associated with breast implants (SSBI). SSBI symptoms are similar to manifestations associated with autoimmune and connective tissue disorders Breast tissue is rich in adipose cells, comprised of lipids. Insertion of an implant creates an oxidative environment leading to lipid oxidation. Oxylipins can influence immune responses and inflammatory processes.

This study explores the abundance of a spectrum of oxylipins in the peri-prosthetic tissue surrounding the breast implant. Since oxylipins are immunogenic, we sought to determine if they are associated with the SSBI subjects. We have also attempted to determine if the common manifestations exhibited by such subjects have any association with oxylipin abundance.

The study included 120 subjects divided in three cohorts. Forty-six subjects with breast implants exhibiting manifestation associated with SSBI, 29 in control cohort I subjects with breast implants not exhibiting manifestation associated with SSBI (non-SSBI) and 45 in control cohort II subjects without implants (normal tissue) were analyzed. Lipid extraction and oxylipin quantification was performed using LCMS. LC-MS/MS targeted analysis from the breast adipose tissue was performed.

Of the fifteen oxylipins analyzed, four exhibited increased abundance in the SSBI cohort compared to the non-SSBI and normal cohorts.

The study documents the association of the oxylipins with each manifestation reported by the subject. This study provides an objective assessment on the subjective questionnaire highlighting which symptoms could be more relevant than the others.