The latest medical research on Respiratory Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about respiratory medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Assessing ventilatory control stability in children with and without an elevated central apnoea index.

Respirology

Frequent central apnoeas are sometimes observed in healthy children; however; the pathophysiology of an elevated central apnoea index (CAI) is poorly understood. A raised CAI may indicate underlying ventilatory control instability (i.e. elevated loop gain, LG) or a depressed ventilatory drive. This pilot study aimed to compare LG in otherwise healthy children with an elevated CAI to healthy controls.

Polysomnographic recordings from children (age > 6 months) without obstructive sleep apnoea and with a CAI > 5 events/h (n = 13) were compared with age and gender-matched controls with a CAI < 5 events/h (n = 13). Spontaneous sighs were identified during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and breath-breath measurements of ventilation were derived from the nasal pressure signal. A standard model of ventilatory control (gain, time constant and delay) was used to calculate LG by transforming ventilatory fluctuations seen in response to a sigh into a ventilatory-drive signal that best matches observed ventilation.

The high CAI group had an elevated LG (median = 0.36 (interquartile range, IQR = 0.35-0.53) vs 0.28 (0.23-0.36); P ≤ 0.01). There was no difference in either the time constant (P = 0.63) or delay (P = 0.29) between groups. Elevated LG observed in the high CAI group remained after accounting for degree of hypoxia (average oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during each analysable window) experienced (0.40 (0.30-0.53) vs 0.25 (0.23-0.37); P = 0.04).

An elevated CAI in otherwise healthy children is associated with a raised LG compared to matched controls with a low CAI, irrespective of level of hypoxia. This relative ventilatory instability helps explain the high CAI and may ultimately be able to help guide diagnosis and management in patients with high CAI.

Challenges to and opportunities for the implementation of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the Asia-Pacific region.

Respirology

Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is undoubtedly one of the most significant advancements in mechanical ventilation technology in t...

Histology of Pulmonary and Bronchiolar Disorders in Connective Tissue Diseases.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders, acquired or hereditary, involving an autoimmune-mediated inflammation of ...

Computed Tomographic Imaging in Connective Tissue Diseases.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Pulmonary disease represents a significant extra-articular manifestation in the majority of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). The identification, ...

Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Connective Tissue Disease.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in most forms of connective tissue disease (CTD); the prevalent type of PH depends on the particular CTD. Thu...

Multidisciplinary Evaluation in Patients with Lung Disease Associated with Connective Tissue Disease.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Multidisciplinary diagnosis is now viewed as the diagnostic reference standard in interstitial lung disease (ILD). This process consists of the int...

Pulmonary Complications of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic autoimmune disorder that characteristically causes joint inflammation and damage. In addition, many p...

Systemic Sclerosis Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A Comprehensive Overview.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). SSc-ILD adversely impacts quality of life and is currently th...

Pulmonary Complications of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease characterized by the production of pathogenic autoantibodies and immune compl...

Pulmonary and Bronchiolar Involvement in Sjogren's Syndrome.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by mononuclear cells (principally lymphocytes) infiltrating exocrine glands (...

Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

In 2015, a multidisciplinary task force comprising pulmonologists, rheumatologists, pathologists, and radiologists representing the European Respir...

Lung Disease in Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

Seminars in Respiratory and Critical

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired prothrombotic condition characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or obstetric complications, in the ...