The latest medical research on Pediatrics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pediatrics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Hemostasis Proteins in Invasive Meningococcal and Nonmeningococcal Infections: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

We aimed to describe the variation of hemostasis proteins in children with bacterial infections due to different pathogens (Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and group A streptococcus [GAS]) and to study hemostasis proteins in relation to mortality.


Fibronectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), thrombomodulin, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS-13) were measured in serum in 2019-2020. Additionally, von Willebrand factor, protein C, protein S, and factor IX were measured in citrate plasma available from a subset of patients. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and disease severity (need for ventilation/inotropes, Pediatric Index of Mortality score). Of 241 children, 21 (8.7%) died and 177 (73.5%) were admitted to PICU. Mortality rate was similar for the pathogen groups. Levels of fibronectin and thrombomodulin differed for the different pathogens (p < 0.05). Fibronectin levels were lower in GAS infections than in S. pneumoniae and S. aureus infections but did not differ from meningococcal infections. Thrombomodulin levels in meningococcal infections were higher than in S. aureus and pneumococcal infections. Overall, the area under the curve for mortality was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.92) for thrombomodulin and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.88) for ADAMTS-13. The association of each hemostasis protein did not vary across pathogens for any of the outcome measures.

Hemostatic disturbances in childhood bacterial infections are not limited to meningococcal sepsis but occur with a comparable severity across nonmeningococcal infections. High thrombomodulin and high ADAMTS-13 had good discriminative ability for mortality. Our results emphasize the importance of hemostatic disturbances in meningococcal and nonmeningococcal pediatric bacterial infections.

Factors Associated With Mechanical Ventilation Duration in Pediatric Burn Patients in a Regional Burn Center in the United States.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Among burned children who arrive at a burn center and require invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), some may have prolonged IMV needs. This has implications for patient-centered outcomes as well as triage and resource allocation decisions. Our objective was to identify factors associated with the duration of mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients with acute burn injury in this setting.


Ventilator days were defined as any full or partial day having received IMV via an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy, not inclusive of time spent ventilated for procedures. Of 5,766 admissions for acute burn care, 4.3% (n = 249) required IMV with a median duration of 10 days. A multivariable model for freedom from mechanical ventilation showed that the presence of inhalational injury (subhazard ratio [sHR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46-0.85) and burns to the head and neck region (sHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.98) were associated with increased risk of remaining mechanically ventilated at any time point. Older (sHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04) and male children (sHR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) were more likely to discontinue mechanical ventilation. A majority of children (94.8%) survived to hospital discharge.

The presence of inhalational injury and burns to the head and neck region were associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Older age and male gender were associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation. These factors should help clinicians better estimate a burned child's expected trajectory and resource-intensive needs upon arrival to a burn center.

A Core Outcome Measurement Set for Pediatric Critical Care.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To identify a PICU Core Outcome Measurement Set (PICU COMS), a set of measures that can be used to evaluate the PICU Core Outcome Set (PICU COS) domains in PICU patients and their families.


Measures were classified as general or additional based on generalizability across PICU populations, feasibility, and relevance to specific COS domains. Measures with high consensus, defined as 80% agreement for inclusion, were selected for the PICU COMS. Among 140 candidate measures, 24 were delineated as general (broadly applicable) and, of these, 10 achieved consensus for inclusion in the COMS (7 patient-oriented and 3 family-oriented). Six of the seven patient measures were applicable to the broadest range of patients, diagnoses, and developmental abilities. All were validated in pediatric populations and have normative pediatric data. Twenty additional measures focusing on specific populations or in-depth evaluation of a COS subdomain also met consensus for inclusion as COMS additional measures.

The PICU COMS delineates measures to evaluate domains in the PICU COS and facilitates comparability across future research studies to characterize PICU survivorship and enable interventional studies to target long-term outcomes after critical illness.

Association Between Centralization and Outcome for Children Admitted to Intensive Care in Australia and New Zealand: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To describe regional differences and change over time in the degree of centralization of pediatric intensive care in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) and to compare the characteristics and ICU mortality of children admitted to specialist PICUs and general ICUs (GICUs).


The primary outcome was risk-adjusted ICU mortality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of mortality with the exposure to ICU type, epoch, and their interaction. Compared with children admitted to GICUs, children admitted to PICUs were younger (median 25 vs 47 mo; p < 0.01) and stayed longer in ICU (median 1.6 vs 1.0 d; p < 0.01). For the study overall, 93% of admissions in Australia were to PICUs whereas in New Zealand only 63% of admissions were to PICUs. The adjusted odds of death in epoch 2 relative to epoch 1 decreased (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42-0.59). There was an interaction between unit type and epoch with increased odds of death associated with care in a GICU in epoch 2 (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.05-2.53 for all admissions; 1.73, CI, 1.002-3.00 for high-risk admissions).

Risk-adjusted mortality of children admitted to specialist PICUs decreased over a study period of 14 years; however, a similar association between time and outcome was not observed in high-risk children admitted to GICUs. The results support the continued use of a centralized model of delivering intensive care for critically ill children.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Outcomes in Children With Preexisting Neurologic Disorders or Neurofunctional Disability.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Patient selection for pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support has broadened over the years to include children with pre-existing neurologic morbidities. We aimed to determine the prevalence and nature of pre-ECMO neurologic disorders or disability and investigate the association between pre-ECMO neurologic disorders or disability and mortality and unfavorable neurologic outcome.

The primary exposure was presence of pre-ECMO neurologic disorders or moderate-to-severe disability, defined as Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) or Pediatric Overall Performance Category (POPC) 3-5. The primary outcome was unfavorable outcome at hospital discharge, defined as in-hospital mortality or survival with moderate-to-severe disability (discharge PCPC 3-5 with deterioration from baseline).

Of 598 children included in the final cohort, 68 of 598 (11%) had a pre-ECMO neurologic disorder, 70 of 595 (12%) had a baseline PCPC 3-5, and 189 of 592 (32%) had a baseline POPC 3-5. The primary outcome of in-hospital mortality (n = 267) or survival with PCPC 3-5 with deterioration from baseline (n = 39) was observed in 306 of 598 (51%). Overall, one or more pre-ECMO neurologic disorders or disability were present in 226 of 598 children (38%) but, after adjustment for age, sex, diagnostic category, pre-ECMO cardiac arrest, and ECMO mode, were not independently associated with increased odds of unfavorable outcome (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07-1.69; multivariable adjusted OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.92-1.82).

In this exploratory study using a multicenter pediatric ECMO registry, more than one third of children requiring ECMO support had pre-ECMO neurologic disorders or disability. However, pre-existing morbidities were not independently associated with mortality or unfavorable neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge after adjustment for diagnostic category and other covariates.

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in PICU settings: A Systematic Review.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Development of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) is strategy for prevention and management of emergence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature on antimicrobial stewardship interventions in PICUs and analyzed approaches, structure, implementation, and outcomes of the ASPs.

The strategy of intervention, structure of ASP team, implementation, and outcomes were assessed with a checklist tool for all studies included in the analysis. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias in Nonrandomized studies of Interventions tool.

Thirteen articles were found: 11 that applied ASP in PICUs, and two at hospital level. All PICU-dedicated ASPs applied a multimodal intervention combining strategies simultaneously; audit with feedback (6/11) and facility-specific clinical practice guidelines (7/11) were the most common strategies. A multidisciplinary team was formulated in all ASPs except for three biomarker-based interventions. Six of 11 studies included techniques to enhance behavior change and one implemented a behavior-based intervention. Antibiotic consumption was evaluated in all ASPs, cost in three of 11, antibiotic resistance in one of 11, length of hospitalization in six of 11, and mortality in eight of 11. All hospital-wide ASPs used audit with feedback in addition to facility-specific clinical practice guidelines and assessed antimicrobial consumption, expenditures, length of stay, and mortality.

The prevalence of ASPs in PICUs is limited, and few programs follow all of the currently available recommendations.

Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Trauma Patients in a Combat Zone.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

It is well known that polytrauma can lead to acute lung injury. Respiratory failure has been previously observed in combat trauma, but not reported in children, who account for over 11% of bed days at deployed Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs) using significant resources. We seek to identify risk factors associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) which is important in resource planning and allocation in austere environments.

PMV was defined using the Youden index for mortality. A multivariable logistic regression model was then performed to identify factors associated with PMV.

The Youden index identified greater than or equal to 6 days as the cutoff for PMV. Of the 859 casualties included in the analysis, 154 (17.9%) had PMV. On univariable analysis, age, severe injury to the thorax and skin, 24-hour volume/kg administration of crystalloids, colloids, platelets, plasma, and packed RBCs was associated with PMV. In the multivariable model, odds ratios (95% CI) associated with PMV were crystalloids 1.04 (1.02-1.07), colloids 1.24 (1.04-1.49), platelets 1.03 (1.01-1.05), severe injury to the thorax 2.24 (1.41-3.48), and severe injury to the skin 4.48 (2.72-7.38). Model goodness-of-fit r2 was 0.14.

In this analysis of factors associated with PMV in pediatric trauma patients in a combat zone, in addition to severe injury to skin and thorax, we found that administration of crystalloids, colloids, and platelets was independently associated with greater odds of PMV. Our findings will help inform resource planning and suggest potential resuscitation strategies for future studies.

Prophylactic Use of Antifibrinolytics During Pediatric Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Bleeding and Transfusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To determine the effect of intraoperative antifibrinolytics, including tranexamic acid (TXA), aminocaproic acid (EACA), or aprotinin, on bleeding in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

A standardized data extraction tool was used.

Sixty-eight studies including 28,735 patients were analyzed. TXA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.1 mL/kg (95% CI, 6.0-12.3 mL/kg), I2 equals to 65.2%, p value of less than 0.001, platelet requirement of 2.9 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.1-5.8 mL/kg), I2=72.5%, p value less than 0.001 and plasma requirement of 4.0 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.6-7.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 94.5%, p value less than0.001. Aprotinin compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 4.3 mL/kg (2.4-6.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 66.3%, p value of less than 0.001, platelet transfusion of 4.6 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.6-8.6 mL/kg), I2 equals to 93.6%, p value of less than 0.001, and plasma transfusion of 7.7 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.1-13.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 95.3%, p value of less than 0.001. EACA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.2 mL/kg (2.3-21.0 mL/kg), I2 equals to 96.4%, p value of less than 0.001, RBC transfusion of 7.2 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.4-12.1 mL/kg), I2 equals to 94.5%, p value equals to 0.002, and platelet transfusion of 10.7 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.9-18.5 mL/kg), I2 equals to 0%, p value of less than 0.001. No statistical difference was observed in chest tube output when TXA was compared with aprotinin. Subgroup analysis of cyanotic patients showed a significant decrease in chest tube output, platelet requirement, and plasma requirement for patients receiving aprotinin. Overall, the quality of evidence was moderate.

Antifibrinolytics are effective at decreasing blood loss and blood product requirement in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB although the quality of evidence is only moderate.

Characteristics and Outcomes of Critically Ill Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To characterize the prevalence of pediatric critical illness from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to assess the influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain on outcomes.

All children with MIS-C admitted to the PICU in 115 contributing hospitals between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2021.

Of the 145,580 children admitted to the PICU during the study period, 1,338 children (0.9%) were admitted with MIS-C with the largest numbers of children admitted in quarter 1 (Q1) of 2021 (n = 626). The original SARS-CoV-2 viral strain and the D614G Strain were the predominant strains through 2020, with Alpha B.1.1.7 predominating in Q1 and quarter 2 (Q2) of 2021. Overall, the median PICU length of stay (LOS) was 2.7 days (25-75% interquartile range [IQR], 1.6-4.7 d) with a median hospital LOS of 6.6 days (25-75% IQR, 4.7-9.3 d); 15.2% received mechanical ventilation with a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 3.1 days (25-75% IQR, 1.9-5.8 d), and there were 11 hospital deaths. During the study period, there was a significant decrease in the median PICU and hospital LOS and a decrease in the frequency of mechanical ventilation, with the most significant decrease occurring between quarter 3 and quarter 4 (Q4) of 2020. Children admitted to a PICU from the general care floor or from another ICU/step-down unit had longer PICU LOS than those admitted directly from an emergency department.

Overall mortality from MIS-C was low, but the disease burden was high. There was a peak in MIS-C cases during Q1 of 2021, following a shift in viral strains in Q1 of 2021. However, an improvement in MIS-C outcomes starting in Q4 of 2020 suggests that viral strain was not the driving factor for outcomes in this population.

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Associated Infectious Complications in the PICU: Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

We aimed to evaluate the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure and nosocomial infection (NI) during PICU stay.

Patients were retrospectively allocated into two groups and compared depending on whether they received a PPI or not.

Seven-hundred fifty-four patients were included of which 231 received a PPI (31%). PPIs were mostly used for stress ulcer prophylaxis (174/231; 75%), but upper gastrointestinal bleed risk factors were rarely present (18%). In the unadjusted analyses, the rate of NI was 8% in the PPI exposed group versus 2% in the nonexposed group. After propensity score matching (n = 184 per group), we failed to identify an association between PPI exposure and greater odds of NI (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 [95% CI, 0.9-9.3]; p = 0.082). However, these data have not excluded the possibility that there is up to nine-fold greater odds of NI.

This study highlights the prevalent use of PPIs in the PICU, and the potential association between PPIs and nine-fold greater odds of NI is not excluded.

Is Parental Presence in the Ambulance Associated With Parental Satisfaction During Emergency Pediatric Intensive Care Retrieval? A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Quality standards for pediatric intensive care transport services in the U.K. state that at least one parent should be allowed to travel with their child during emergency transport to a PICU. We aimed to identify the reasons why parents do, or do not, accompany their child and whether there is an association between parental presence in the ambulance and their satisfaction with the transport.


A parent feedback questionnaire was completed by parents whose child received an emergency interhospital transfer. As part of the questionnaire, a brief nine-item scale was developed to summarize parental transport experience (ranging from 1 to 5). The association between parental presence in the ambulance and parental experience was analyzed. A total of 4,558 children were transported during the study. Consent was obtained from 2,838 parents, and questionnaires received in 2,084 unique transports (response rate: 45.7%). In 1,563 transports (75%), at least one parent traveled in the ambulance. Parents did not travel in 478 transports (23%) and, in most instances (442 transports; 93%), offered reasons (emotional, practical, and health-related) for declining to travel or explanations why they were not permitted to travel (mainly due to space restrictions). Most parents rated their experience with the retrieval teams very highly, and within this context, we found evidence of greater variability in experience ratings if parents were not present in the ambulance and if this was not their choice.

Most parents who completed questionnaires rated their experience with their PCCT team highly. Parental presence and choice to travel in the ambulance were associated with a more positive experience.

Long-Term Pulmonary Outcomes in Children Mechanically Ventilated for Severe Bronchiolitis.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Bronchiolitis is a common indication for mechanical ventilation in the PICU. Both bronchiolitis and invasive mechanical ventilation may cause adverse long-term pulmonary outcomes. This study investigates children with a history of invasive mechanical ventilation for bronchiolitis, addressing: 1) the extent, 2) potential explanatory factors, and 3) possible impact on daily life activities of adverse long-term pulmonary outcomes.


Long-term pulmonary outcomes were assessed by a standardized questionnaire and by spirometry. Nineteen out of 74 included children (26%) had adverse long-term pulmonary outcomes, of whom the majority had asthma (14/74, 19%). By logistic regression analysis, we assessed whether background characteristics and PICU-related variables were associated with long-term pulmonary outcomes. In general, we failed to identify any explanatory factors associated with adverse long-term pulmonary outcomes. Nonetheless, atopic disease in family and longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (days) were associated with greater odds of having asthma at follow-up (odds ratio, 6.4 [95% CI, 1.2-36.0] and 1.3 [95% CI, 1.0-1.7], respectively). Adverse pulmonary outcome at follow-up was associated with more frequent use of pulmonary medication after PICU discharge. In comparison with those without adverse pulmonary outcomes, we did not identify any difference in frequency of sports performance or school absenteeism.

In this single-center cohort, one-quarter of the children attending follow-up with a history of invasive mechanical ventilation for bronchiolitis had adverse, mostly previously undetected, long-term pulmonary outcomes at 6-12 years. Atopic disease in family and longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation were associated with presence of asthma. The presence of adverse pulmonary outcomes was associated with more frequent use of pulmonary medication after PICU discharge.