The latest medical research on Pediatrics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pediatrics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Hyperoxia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Is Associated With Mortality in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass have variable degrees of blood oxygen tension during surgery. Hyperoxia has been associated with adverse outcomes in critical illness. Data are not available regarding the association of hyperoxia and outcomes in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We hypothesize that among infants undergoing cardiac surgery, hyperoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with greater odds of morbidity and mortality.


The study included 469 infants with a median age of 97 days (interquartile range, 14-179 d), weight 4.9 kg (interquartile range, 3.4-6.4 kg), and cardiopulmonary bypass time 128 minutes (interquartile range, 91-185 min). A PaO2 of 313 mm Hg (hyperoxia) on cardiopulmonary bypass had highest sensitivity with specificity greater than 50% for association with operative mortality. Approximately, half of the population (237/469) had hyperoxia on cardiopulmonary bypass. Infants with hyperoxia were more likely to have acute kidney injury, prolonged postoperative length of stay, and mortality. They were younger, weighed less, had longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, and had higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery mortality scores. There was no difference in sex, race, preoperative creatinine, single ventricle physiology, or presence of genetic syndrome. On multivariable analysis, hyperoxia was associated with greater odds of mortality (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-13.2) but failed to identify an association with acute kidney injury or prolonged postoperative length of stay. Hyperoxia was associated with greater odds of mortality in subgroup analysis of neonatal patients.

Hyperoxia occurred in a substantial portion of infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery. Hyperoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass was an independent risk factor for mortality and may be a modifiable risk factor. Furthermore, hyperoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with four-fold greater odds of mortality within 30 days of surgery. Hyperoxia failed to identify an association with development of acute kidney injury or prolonged postoperative length of stay when controlling for covariables. Validation of our data among other populations is necessary to better understand and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the association between excess oxygen delivery during cardiopulmonary bypass and outcome.

A Framework for Pediatric Intensivists Providing Compassionate Extubation at Home.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

For families facing end-of-life decisions for their critically ill children, compassionate extubation at home is a valuable service that pediatric ...

Intraosseous or Peripheral Intravenous Access in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest? Results From the French National Cardiac Arrest Registry.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Despite the evolving recommendations that favor the use of intraosseous access in pediatric resuscitation, the impact of vascular access type on survival in young children has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the intravascular injection route on the return on spontaneous circulation, survival to hospital admission (0 day), and 30 days or survival to hospital discharge, by comparing survival rates in young children having intraosseous and peripheral IV access. The second aim was to compare the rates of favorable neurologic outcome after 30 days or survival to hospital discharge.

Patients with adrenaline administration by intraosseous versus peripheral venous technique were compared, using propensity score matching.

The analysis included 603 prepubescent patients, 351 (58%) in the intraosseous group and 252 (42%) in the peripheral IV group. Intraosseous group patients were younger, lighter, with more medical cause for arrest. The intraosseous group had lower survival rates at 30 days or hospital discharge (n = 6; 1.7%) than the peripheral IV group (n = 12; 4.8%) (p = 0.030). After matching, 101 pairs of patients were created. No difference was observed on return of spontaneous circulation or 0-day survival rates (odds ratio = 1.000 [95% CI, 0.518-1.930]; odds ratio = 0.946 [95% CI, 0.492-1.817], respectively) and on 30 days or hospital discharge survival (n = 3 in both groups) (odds ratio = 1.000 [95% CI, 0.197-5.076]). Meaningful statistical evaluation of neurologic status among survivors was precluded by inadequate numbers.

The type of injection route (intraosseous or peripheral venous access) does not appear to have an impact on survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a prepubescent population, but limitations of propensity matching limit a definitive conclusion.

Research Priorities for U.K. Pediatric Critical Care in 2019: Healthcare Professionals' and Parents' Perspectives.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

The Paediatric Intensive Care Society Study Group conducted a research prioritization exercise with the aim to identify and agree research priorities in Pediatric Critical Care in the United Kingdom both from a healthcare professional and parent/caregiver perspective.


Forty-nine healthcare professional submitted topics in round 1, 98 participated in round 2, and 102 in round 3. These topics were categorized into eight broad domain areas, and within these, there were 73 specific topics in round 2. At round 3, 18 topics had a mean score less than 5.5 and were removed, leaving 55 topics for ranking in round 3. Ninety-five parents and family members completed the surveys from at least 17 U.K. PICUs. Both parents and healthcare professional prioritized research topics associated with the PICU workforce. Healthcare professional research priorities reflected issues that impacted on day-to-day management and practice. Parents' prioritized research addressing acute situations such as infection identification of and sepsis management or research addressing long-term outcomes for children and parents after critical illness. Parents prioritized research into longer term outcomes more than healthcare professional. Parental responses showed clear support for the concept of research in PICU, but few novel research questions were proposed.

This is the first research prioritization exercise within U.K. PICU setting to include parents' and families' perspectives and compare these with healthcare professional. Results will guide both funders and future researchers.

Readiness for and Response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 Among Pediatric Healthcare Providers: The Role of Simulation for Pandemics and Other Disasters.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Early preparation for the training and education of healthcare providers, as well as the continuation or modification of routine medical education programs, is of great importance in times of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic or other public health emergencies. The goal of this study was to characterize these self-reported efforts by the pediatric simulation community.


Description of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic simulation-based preparation activities of pediatric acute and critical care healthcare providers. The Delphi process included 20 content experts and required three rounds to reach consensus. The survey was completed by 234 participants (42.2%) from 19 countries. Preparation differed significantly between the geographic regions, with 79.3% of Anglo-American/Anglo-Saxon, 82.6% of Indian, and 47.1% of European participants initiating specifically coronavirus disease 2019-related simulation activities. Frequent modifications to existing simulation programs included the use of telesimulation and virtual reality training. Forty-nine percent of institutions discontinued noncoronavirus disease 2019-related simulation training.

The swift incorporation of disease-specific sessions and the transition of standard education to virtual or hybrid simulation training modes occurred frequently. The approach used, however, depended heavily on local requirements, limitations, and circumstances. In particular, the use of telesimulation allowed education to continue while maintaining social distancing requirements.

Organ Donation Authorization After Brain Death Among Patients Admitted to PICUs in the United States, 2009-2018.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To identify trends in and factors associated with pediatric organ donation authorization after brain death.

Patients less than 19 years old eligible for organ donation after brain death.

Of 2,777 eligible patients, 1,935 (70%) were authorized for organ donation; the authorization rate remained unchanged over time (ptrend = 0.22). In a multivariable logistic regression model, hospitalizations lasting greater than 7 days had lower odds of authorization (adjusted odds ratio, 0.5; p < 0.001 vs ≤ 1 d) and White patients had higher odds than other race/ethnicity groups. Authorization was higher for trauma-related encounters (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5; p < 0.001) and when donation was discussed with an organ procurement organization coordinator (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; p < 0.001). Of 123 hospitals, 35 (28%) met or exceeded a 75% organ donation authorization target threshold; these hospitals more often had an organ procurement organization coordinator discussing organ donation (85% vs 72% of encounters; p < 0.001), but no difference was observed by PICU bed size.

Organ donation authorization after brain death among PICU patients was associated with length of stay, race/ethnicity, and trauma-related encounter, and authorization rates were higher when an organ procurement organization coordinator was involved in the donation discussion. This study identified factors that could inform initiatives to improve the authorization process and increase pediatric organ donation rates.

Avoidable Serum Potassium Testing in the Cardiac ICU: Development and Testing of a Machine-Learning Model.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To create a machine-learning model identifying potentially avoidable blood draws for serum potassium among pediatric patients following cardiac surgery.


We collected variables related to potassium homeostasis, including serum chemistry, hourly potassium intake, diuretics, and urine output. Using established machine-learning techniques, including random forest classifiers, and hyperparameter tuning, we created models predicting whether a patient's potassium would be normal or abnormal based on the most recent potassium level, medications administered, urine output, and markers of renal function. We developed multiple models based on different age-categories and temporal proximity of the most recent potassium measurement. We assessed the predictive performance of the models using an independent test set. Of the 7,269 admissions (6,196 patients) included, serum potassium was measured on average of 1 (interquartile range, 0-1) time per day. Approximately 96% of patients received at least one dose of IV diuretic and 83% received a form of potassium supplementation. Our models predicted a normal potassium value with a median positive predictive value of 0.900. A median percentage of 2.1% measurements (mean 2.5%; interquartile range, 1.3-3.7%) was incorrectly predicted as normal when they were abnormal. A median percentage of 0.0% (interquartile range, 0.0-0.4%) critically low or high measurements was incorrectly predicted as normal. A median of 27.2% (interquartile range, 7.8-32.4%) of samples was correctly predicted to be normal and could have been potentially avoided.

Machine-learning methods can be used to predict avoidable blood tests accurately for serum potassium in critically ill pediatric patients. A median of 27.2% of samples could have been saved, with decreased costs and risk of infection or anemia.

Early Mobilization in a PICU: A Qualitative Sustainability Analysis of PICU Up!

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To identify staff-reported factors and perceptions that influenced implementation and sustainability of an early mobilization program (PICU Up!) in the PICU.


Fifty-two staff members involved in PICU mobilization across multiple disciplines were interviewed. Three constructs emerged that reflected the different stages of PICU Up! program execution: 1) factors influencing the implementation process, 2) staff perceptions of PICU Up!, and 3) improvements in program integration. Themes were developed within these constructs, addressing facilitators for PICU Up! implementation, cultural changes for unitwide integration, positive impressions toward early mobility, barriers to program sustainability, and refinements for more robust staff and family engagement.

Three years after implementation, PICU Up! remains well-received by staff, positively influencing role satisfaction and PICU team dynamics. Furthermore, patients and family members are perceived to be enthusiastic about mobility efforts, driving staff support. Through an ongoing focus on stakeholder buy-in, interprofessional engagement, and bundled care to promote mobility, the program has become part of the culture in the Johns Hopkins Hospital PICU. However, several barriers remain that prevent consistent execution of early mobility, including challenges with resource management, sedation decisions, and patient heterogeneity. Characterizing these staff perceptions can facilitate the development of solutions that use institutional strengths to grow and sustain PICU mobility initiatives.

Respiratory Variation in Aortic Blood Flow Velocity in Hemodynamically Unstable, Ventilated Neonates: A Pilot Study of Fluid Responsiveness.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To assess whether respiratory variation in aortic blood flow peak velocity can predict preload responsiveness in mechanically ventilated and hemodynamically unstable neonates.

Fluid challenge with 10 mL/kg of normal saline over 20 minutes.

Respiratory variation in aortic blood flow peak velocity and superior vena cava flow were measured at baseline (T0), immediately upon completion of the fluid infusion (T1), and at 1 hour after fluid administration (T2). Our main outcome was preload responsiveness which was defined as an increase in superior vena cava flow of at least 10% from T0 to T1. Forty-six infants with a median (interquartile range) gestational age of 30.5 weeks (28-36 wk) were included. Twenty-nine infants (63%) were fluid responders, and 17 (37%) were nonresponders Fluid responders had a higher baseline (T0) respiratory variation in aortic blood flow peak velocity than nonresponders (9% [8.2-10.8] vs 5.5% [3.7-6.6]; p < 0.001). Baseline respiratory variation in aortic blood flow peak velocity was correlated with the increase in superior vena cava flow from T0 to T1 (rho = 0.841; p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of respiratory variation in aortic blood flow peak velocity to predict preload responsiveness was 0.912 (95% CI, 0.82-1). A respiratory variation in aortic blood flow peak velocity cut-off point of 7.8% provided a 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 71-97), 88% specificity (95% CI, 62-98), 7.6 positive likelihood ratio (95% CI, 2-28), and 0.11 negative likelihood ratio (95% CI, 0.03-0.34) to predict preload responsiveness.

Respiratory variation in aortic blood flow velocity may be useful to predict the immediate response to a fluid challenge in hemodynamically unstable neonates under mechanical ventilation. If our results are confirmed, this measurement could be used to guide safe and individualized fluid resuscitation in critically ill neonates.

Spillover of Early Extubation Practices From the Pediatric Heart Network Collaborative Learning Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

The Pediatric Heart Network Collaborative Learning Study used collaborative learning strategies to implement a clinical practice guideline that increased rates of early extubation after infant repair of tetralogy of Fallot and coarctation of the aorta. We assessed early extubation rates for infants undergoing cardiac surgeries not targeted by the clinical practice guideline to determine whether changes in extubation practices spilled over to care of other infants.


Aggregate outcomes were compared between the 12 month pre-clinical practice guideline and 12 months after study completion (Follow Up). In infants undergoing lower complexity surgeries, early extubation increased during Follow Up compared with Pre-Clinical Practice Guideline (30.2% vs 18.8%, p = 0.006), and hours to initial postoperative extubation decreased. We observed variation in these outcomes by surgery type, with only ventricular septal defect repair associated with a significant increase in early extubation during Follow Up compared with Pre-Clinical Practice Guideline (47% vs 26%, p = 0.006). Variation by study site was also seen, with only one hospital showing an increase in early extubation. In patients undergoing higher complexity surgeries, there was no difference in early extubation or hours to initial extubation between the study eras.

We observed spillover of extubation practices promoted by the Collaborative Learning Study clinical practice guideline to lower complexity operations not included in the original study that was sustainable 1 year after study completion, though this effect differed across sites and operation subtypes. No changes in postoperative extubation outcomes following higher complexity surgeries were seen. The significant variation in outcomes by site suggests that center-specific factors may have influenced spillover of clinical practice guideline practices.

Echocardiographic Parameters and Mortality in Pediatric Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of echocardiographic parameters in pediatric septic patients.

Echocardiography data were categorized as those describing left ventricular systolic or diastolic function, right ventricular function, and strain echocardiography parameters. Data from neonates and children were considered separately. Analysis is reported as standardized mean difference and 95% CI.

We included data from 14 articles (n = 5 neonates, n = 9 children). The fractional shortening was the most commonly reported variable (11 studies, n = 555 patients) and we did not identify an association with mortality (standardized mean difference 0.22, 95% CI [-0.02 to 0.47]; p = 0.07, I = 28%). In addition, we did not find any association with mortality also for left ventricular ejection fraction (nine studies, n = 417; standardized mean difference 0.06, 95% CI [-0.27 to 0.40]; p = 0.72, I = 51%), peak velocity of systolic mitral annular motion determined by tissue Doppler imaging wave (four studies, n = 178; standardized mean difference -0.01, 95% CI [-0.34 to 0.33]; p = 0.97, I = 0%), and myocardial performance index (five studies, n = 219; standardized mean difference -0.51, 95% CI [-1.10 to 0.08]; p = 0.09, I = 63%). However, in regard to left ventricular diastolic function, there was an association with mortality for higher early wave of transmitral flow/peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion determined by tissue Doppler imaging ratio (four studies, n = 189, standardized mean difference -0.45, 95% CI [-0.80 to -0.10]; p = 0.01, I = 0%) or lower peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion determined by tissue Doppler imaging wave (three studies, n = 159; standardized mean difference 0.49, 95% CI [0.13-0.85]; p = 0.008, I = 0%). We did not find any association with mortality for early wave of transmitral flow/late (atrial) wave of trans-mitral flow ratio (six studies, n = 273; standardized mean difference 0.28, 95% CI [-0.42 to 0.99]; p = 0.43, I = 81%) and peak velocity of systolic mitral annular motion determined by tissue Doppler imaging wave measured at the tricuspid annulus (three studies, n = 148; standardized mean difference -0.18, 95% CI [-0.53 to 0.17]; p = 0.32, I = 0%). Only a few studies were conducted with strain echocardiography.

This meta-analysis of echocardiography parameters in pediatric sepsis failed to find any association between the measures of left ventricular systolic or right ventricular function and mortality. However, mortality was associated with higher early wave of transmitral flow/peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion determined by tissue Doppler imaging or lower peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion determined by tissue Doppler imaging, indicating possible importance of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. These are preliminary findings because of high clinical heterogeneity in the studies to date.

Standardized Work Rounds Enhance Teaming, Comprehensiveness, Shared Mental Model Development, and Achievement Rate of End-of-Shift Goals.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To determine the impact of standardized PICU work rounds on the frequency of ideal teaming behaviors, rounds comprehensiveness, shared mental model index development, and rate of completed end-of-shift goals.

Standardized, bedside, nurse-led PICU work rounds, emphasizing ideal teaming behaviors using a collaboratively developed rounding script and quality/safety checklist.

Study data were collected by direct observation and immediate postrounds participant questionnaire data. Primary outcomes were frequency of observed ideal teaming behaviors, rounds comprehensiveness, efficiency (rounds content divided by duration), shared mental model index (congruence among rounds participants regarding key healthcare data and planning), rounds face validity, and achievement rate of rounds-established, end-of-shift goals. During study, 154 encounters were observed (50 preintervention, 52 after Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle 1, and 52 after Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle 2). We observed improvements in overall shared mental model index (24-87%), rounds comprehensiveness (72-98%), and ideal teaming behaviors (including closed-loop communication: 82-100%; responsibility delegation: 74-100%; interdependence behaviors: 26-98%, all p < 0.01) by the end of study. Nursing presentations accounted for 3.6 ± 1.5 minutes of rounds and rounds duration was unchanged postintervention (11 ± 5 min preintervention and 11 ± 4 min after Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle 2, p > 0.99). Face validity, assessed using questionnaire data from 953 participants, revealed positive attitudes regarding efficiency, clarity, and participant self-value. Greatest enhancements in self-value were noted among advanced practice providers and respiratory therapists. On exploratory modeling, we noted associations between ideal teaming behaviors, rounds comprehensiveness, and shared mental model index. Similarly, we noted a positive association between the shared mental model index and the rate of achieved rounds-established, end-of-shift goals (odds ratio, 8.9; 95% CI, 1.7-46; p < 0.01).

Standardization of PICU work rounds may encourage ideal teaming behaviors, enhance rounds comprehensiveness, strengthen the congruence of participant shared mental model, and affect the rate of achieved goals established during rounds without compromising workplace efficiency.