The latest medical research on Pediatrics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pediatrics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Candidacy Decisions: An Argument for a Process-Based Longitudinal Approach.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Are all children extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) candidates? Navigating ECMO decisions represents an enormous challenge in pediatric cri...

Geospatial Analysis of Social Determinants of Health Identifies Neighborhood Hot Spots Associated With Pediatric Intensive Care Use for Acute Respiratory Failure Requiring Mechanical Ventilation.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Poverty, racial bias, and disparities are linked to adverse health outcomes for children in the United States. The social vulnerability and child opportunity indices are composite measures of the social, economic, education, health, and environmental qualities that affect human health for every U.S. census tract. Composite measures of social vulnerability and child opportunity were compared for neighborhood hot spots, where PICU admissions for acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were at the 90th percentile or greater per 1,000 children, versus non-hot spots.


Residential addresses were geocoded and spatially joined to census tracts. Composite measures of social vulnerability and childhood opportunity, PICU readmission rates, and hospital length of stay were compared between neighborhood hot spots versus non-hot spots. There were 340 of 3,514 children (9.7%) who lived within a hot spot. Hot spots were associated with a higher (worse) composite social vulnerability index ranking, reflecting differences in socioeconomic status, household composition and disability, and housing type and transportation. Hot spots also had a lower (worse) composite childhood opportunity index percentile ranking, reflecting differences in the education, health and environment, and social and economic domains. Higher social vulnerability and lower childhood opportunity were not associated with readmission rates but were associated with longer total median duration of hospital days per 1,000 children in a census tract.

Social determinants of health identified by geospatial analyses are associated with acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill children. Interventions addressing the neighborhood social vulnerability and child opportunity are needed to decrease disparities in intensive care admissions for acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation.

Semiautomated Regional Citrate Anticoagulation for Continuous Kidney Replacement Therapy: An Observational Study in Young Children.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To review use of semiautomated regional citrate anticoagulation (saRCA) for continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) in young children.


Twenty-one children weighing less than 11 kg underwent CKRT with saRCA. The total duration of the CKRT was 2,014 hours, with a total of 64 CKRT sessions. Citrate intoxication occurred in four of 64 CKRT sessions (6%). Citrate intoxication was consistently observed in the few CKRT sessions where the initial lactate concentration was greater than 4 mmol/L or the ratio of replacement fluid flow to citrate flow less than 50%. The rate of unscheduled interruptions of CKRT sessions was 25% (16/64).

We have used saRCA for CKRT in children weighing less than 11 kg. A strict protocol and intensive training are required to minimize complications.

Serum Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Concentrations in Sepsis: Secondary Analysis of the Swiss Pediatric Sepsis Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To determine circulating levels of ascorbic acid (VitC) and thiamine (VitB1) in neonates and children with blood culture-proven sepsis.

Nested single-center study of neonates and children prospectively included in the Swiss Pediatric Sepsis Study.

One tertiary care academic hospital.

Sixty-one neonates and children 0-16 years old.


VitC and VitB1 were quantified in serum of patients (median age, 10.5 mo; interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-62.1 mo) with blood culture-proven sepsis. Median time between sepsis onset and sampling for measurement of vitamins was 3 days (IQR, 2-4 d). Median serum levels of VitC and VitB1 were 32.4 μmol/L (18.9-53.3 μmol/L) and 22.5 nmol/L (12.6-82 nmol/L); 36% of the patients (22/61) had low VitC and 10% (6/61) had VitC deficiency; and 72% (44/61) had low VitB1 and 13% (8/61) had VitB1 deficiency. Children with low VitC were older (p = 0.007) and had higher C-reactive protein (p = 0.004) compared with children with VitC within the normal range. Children with low VitB1 levels were older (p = 0.0009) and were less frequently receiving enteral or parenteral vitamin supplementation (p = 0.0000003) compared with children with normal VitB1 levels.

In this cohort of newborns and children with sepsis, low and deficient VitC and VitB1 levels were frequently observed. Age, systemic inflammation, and vitamin supplementation were associated with vitamin levels during sepsis.

Vitamin C Deficiency in Critically Ill Children: Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To evaluate the presence of vitamin C deficiency in critically ill children admitted to the PICU.

Vitamin C level was drawn for the PICU group within 24 hours of admission. Vitamin C level was drawn prior to start of deep sedation for the noncritical group.

Vitamin C deficiency was present in 11/60 (18%) in the PICU group and 0/21 (0%) of the noncritical group (p < 0.05).

Vitamin C deficiency was prevalent in our patients admitted to PICU.

Prevalence and Time Course of Thiamine Deficiency in Critically Ill Children: A Multicenter, Prospective Cohort Study in Turkey.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To determine the prevalence and time course of thiamine deficiency (TD) in PICU patients.


We studied 476 patients and grouped them by TD status on days 1 and 3 of the PICU admission. There might be a risk of unintended bias since we excluded 386 patients because of the absence of consent, inadequate blood samples, loss of identifier information, and recent vitamin supplementation. On day 1, TD was present in 53 of 476 patients (11.1%) and median (minimum-maximum) thiamine levels were 65.5 ng/mL (5-431 ng/mL). On day 3, TD was present in 27 of 199 patients (13.6%) with repeated measurement. The median (minimum-maximum) thiamine levels were 63 ng/mL (13-357 ng/mL). The time course of TD from day 1 to day 3 in these 199 patients was as follows. In 21 of 199 patients (10.6%) with TD on day 1, 11 of 21 (52%) continued to have TD on day 3 and the other 10 of 21 patients (48%) improved to no longer having TD. In 178 of 199 patients (89.4%) without TD on day 1, 16 of 178 (9%) went on to develop TD by day 3, and the other 162 of 178 (91%) continued to have normal thiamine status.

In the PICU population in three centers in Turkey, the prevalence of TD in the sample of patients was 11.1%. In those TD patients who had serial studies, we also identified that by day 3 some continued to be TD, and some patients improved to normal thiamine status. Of concern, however, is the population who develop TD over the course of PICU stay.

Epidemiology of Neonatal Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Prospective, Multicenter, International Cohort Study.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Age-specific definitions for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are available, including a specific definition for neonates (the "Montreux definition"). The epidemiology of neonatal ARDS is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical course, treatment, and outcomes of neonatal ARDS.

Consecutive sample of neonates of any gestational age admitted to participating sites who met the neonatal ARDS Montreux definition criteria.

Neonatal ARDS was classified as direct or indirect, infectious or noninfectious, and perinatal (≤ 72 hr after birth) or late in onset. Primary outcomes were: 1) survival at 30 days from diagnosis, 2) inhospital survival, and 3) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-free survival at 30 days from diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included respiratory complications and common neonatal extrapulmonary morbidities. A total of 239 neonates met criteria for the diagnosis of neonatal ARDS. The median prevalence was 1.5% of neonatal ICU admissions with male/female ratio of 1.5. Respiratory treatments were similar across gestational ages. Direct neonatal ARDS (51.5% of neonates) was more common in term neonates and the perinatal period. Indirect neonatal ARDS was often triggered by an infection and was more common in preterm neonates. Thirty-day, inhospital, and 30-day ECMO-free survival were 83.3%, 76.2%, and 79.5%, respectively. Direct neonatal ARDS was associated with better survival outcomes than indirect neonatal ARDS. Direct and noninfectious neonatal ARDS were associated with the poorest respiratory outcomes at 36 and 40 weeks' postmenstrual age. Gestational age was not associated with any primary outcome on multivariate analyses.

Prevalence and survival of neonatal ARDS are similar to those of pediatric ARDS. The neonatal ARDS subtypes used in the current definition may be associated with distinct clinical outcomes and a different distribution for term and preterm neonates.

Prevalence of Cardiac Dysfunction in Malawian Children With Severe Febrile Illness.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To investigate the prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in Malawian children with severe febrile illness and to explore associations between LVSD and mortality and lactate levels.

Focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) was performed, and serum lactate was measured for each child at enrollment, with repeat FoCUS the following day. LV systolic function was later categorized as normal, reduced, severely reduced, or hyperdynamic by two pediatric cardiologists blinded to clinical course and outcomes.

Fifty-four children were enrolled. LVSD was present in 14 children (25.9%; 95% CI, 15.4-40.3%), of whom three had severely reduced function. Thirty patients (60%) had a lactate greater than 2.5 mmol/L, of which 20 (40%) were markedly elevated (>5 mmol/L). Ten children died during admission (18.5%). Of children who survived, 22.7% had decreased LV systolic function versus 40% of those who died. Dysfunction was not associated with mortality or elevated lactate.

Cardiac dysfunction may be present in one in four Malawian children with severe febrile illness, and mortality in these patients is especially high. Larger studies are needed to further clarify the role cardiac dysfunction plays in mortality and integrate practical bedside assessments for decision support around individualized resuscitation strategies.

Inferior and Superior Vena Cava Saturation Monitoring After Neonatal Cardiac Surgery.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Superior vena cava oxygen saturation (SVC O2) monitoring is well described for early detection of hemodynamic deterioration after neonatal cardiac surgery but inferior vena cava vein oxygen saturation (IVC O2) monitoring data are limited.


The primary aim was to correlate admission IVC O2 and SVC O2. Secondary aims included: correlate flank or cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy with IVC O2 and SVC O2, respectively, and exploratory analysis to evaluate associations between oximetry data and a composite adverse outcome defined as any of the following: increasing serum lactate or vasoactive support at 2 hours post-admission, cardiac arrest, or mortality. Admission IVC O2 and SVC O2 correlated (r = 0.54; p < 0.001). However, IVC O2 measurements were significantly lower than paired SVC O2 (mean difference, -6%; 95% CI, -8% to -4%; p < 0.001) with wide variability in sample agreement. Logistic regression showed that each 12% decrease in IVC O2 was associated with a 12-fold greater odds of the composite adverse outcome (odds ratio [OR], 12; 95% CI, 3.9-34; p < 0.001). We failed to find an association between SVC O2 and increased odds of the composite adverse outcome (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.99-3.3; p = 0.053). In an exploratory analysis, the area under the receiver operating curve for IVC O2 and SVC O2, and the composite adverse outcome, was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.92) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.52-0.73), respectively. Admission IVC O2 had strong correlation with concurrent flank near-infrared spectroscopy value (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). SVC O2 had a weak association with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (r = 0.22; p = 0.02).

In postoperative neonates, admission IVC O2 and SVC O2 correlate. Lower admission IVC O2 may identify a cohort of postsurgical neonates at risk for low cardiac output and associated morbidity.

Physical, Emotional/Behavioral, and Neurocognitive Developmental Outcomes From 2 to 4 Years After PICU Admission: A Secondary Analysis of the Early Versus Late Parenteral Nutrition Randomized Controlled Trial Cohort.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

PICU patients face long-term developmental impairments, partially attributable to early parenteral nutrition (PN) versus late-PN. We investigated how this legacy and harm by early-PN evolve over time.

In the PEPaNIC-RCT, patients were randomly allocated to early-PN versus late-PN.

This within-individual longitudinal study investigated changes in physical/emotional/behavioral/neurocognitive functions from 2 to 4 years after PICU admission for 614 patients (297 early-PN and 317 late-PN, tested at mean ± sd age 5.4 ± 4.2 and 7.3 ± 4.3 yr) and for 357 demographically matched healthy children tested at age 5.6 ± 4.3 and 7.5 ± 4.3 years. We determined within-group time-courses, interaction between time and group, and independent impact of critical illness and early-PN on these time-courses. Most deficits in patients versus healthy children remained prominent over the 2 years (p ≤ 0.01). Deficits further aggravated for height, body mass index, the executive function metacognition, intelligence, motor coordination (alternating/synchronous tapping), and memory learning-index, whereas verbal memory deficits became smaller (working/immediate/delayed memory) (p ≤ 0.05). Adjustment for risk factors confirmed most findings and revealed that patients "grew-into-deficit" for additional executive functions (flexibility/emotional control/total executive functioning) and "grew-out-of-deficit" for additional memory functions (recognition/pictures) (p ≤ 0.05). Time-courses were largely unaffected by early-PN versus late-PN, except for weight loss and limited catch-up for visual-motor integration and alertness in early-PN patients (p ≤ 0.05).

From 2- to 4-year post-PICU admission, developmental impairments remained prominent. Within that time-window, impaired growth in height, executive functioning and intelligence aggravated, and impaired memory and harm by early-PN only partially recovered. Impact on development into adulthood requires further investigation.

Clinical Decision Support in the PICU: Implications for Design and Evaluation.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To assess the current landscape of clinical decision support (CDS) tools in PICUs in order to identify priority areas of focus in this field.


The survey was completed by 109 respondents from 45 institutions, primarily attending physicians from university-affiliated PICUs in the United States. The most commonly used CDS tools were people-based resources (93% used always or most of the time) and laboratory result highlighting (86%), with order sets, order-based alerts, and other electronic CDS tools also used frequently. The most important goal providers endorsed for CDS tools were a proven impact on patient safety and an evidence base for their use. Negative perceptions of CDS included concerns about diminished critical thinking and the burden of intrusive processes on providers. Routine assessment of existing CDS was rare, with infrequent reported use of observation to assess CDS impact on workflows or measures of individual alert burden.

Although providers share some consensus over CDS utility, we identified specific priority areas of research focus. Consensus across practitioners exists around the importance of evidence-based CDS tools having a proven impact on patient safety. Despite broad presence of CDS tools in PICUs, practitioners continue to view them as intrusive and with concern for diminished critical thinking. Deimplementing ineffective CDS may mitigate this burden, though postimplementation evaluation of CDS is rare.

Peripheral and Central/Intraosseous Vasoactive Infusions During and After Pediatric Critical Care Transport: Retrospective Cohort Study of Extravasation Injury.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

To compare the prevalence of adverse events related to vasoactive drug infusions administered via a peripheral venous catheter versus a central venous or intraosseous catheter.


The medical records of all children transported between April 2017 and May 2020 receiving a vasoactive drug infusion were reviewed and cross-referenced with the service critical incident database. The outcome measure was anatomic catheter-related adverse events (including extravasation) reported during transport or in the first 24 hours on the PICU. During the study period, the service undertook 3,836 transports. Vasoactive drugs were administered during 558 patient transports (14.5%). During 198 of 558 transports (35.5%), vasoactive drugs were administered via a peripheral venous catheter, with seven of 198 (3.5%) adverse events. One extravasation event resulted in tissue necrosis. The median time to injury after the infusion was commenced was 60 minutes (interquartile range, 30-60 min). During 360 of 558 transports (64.5%), vasoactive infusions were administered by central venous or intraosseous catheter, with nine of 360 (2.5%) adverse events.

During pediatric critical care transport, we did not find a difference in prevalence of adverse events following the administration of vasoactive drugs via peripheral venous catheters or via central venous and intraosseous catheters.