The latest medical research on Neurology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about neurology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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SPORTS STARS: a practitioner-led, peer-group sports intervention for ambulant, school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Parent and physiotherapist perspectives.

Cerebral Palsy

Sports participation is an important goal for children with cerebral palsy classified at GMFCS Level I or II, however there are no studies of parent or physiotherapist perspectives on effectiveness or overall acceptability of transition-to-sports interventions.

Parent and physiotherapist perspectives of Sports Stars: a novel, practitioner-led, peer-group sports intervention (Trial registration: ACTRN12617000313336) were collected from Sports Stars Session Reports (39 children, 6-12 years, GMFCS I = 11, II = 28, Female = 12), Fidelity Evaluations (28 children), and Perspectives Surveys (Parents = 29, female = 26; Physiotherapists = 8, female = 5). Outcomes were perceived impact on: (1) sports Participation (Attendance, Involvement), (2) sports Activity Competence across Physical, Social, Cognitive and Psychological Physical Literacy domains and (3) overall acceptability.

Over 84% of children Attended most sessions. Physiotherapists rated session Involvement as high (median = 3/4). In Session Reports, physiotherapists recorded quantitative improvements in Physical and Cognitive performance and described improvements across all domains. Parents reported improvements across all domains, with comments focusing on Social and Psychological performance. All physiotherapists (8/8) and most parents (26/29) reported a community-based peer-group was the intervention design of choice for sports-focused goals.

Parents and physiotherapists perceived Sports Stars, a practitioner-led, peer-group sports intervention, as effective and acceptable for children with cerebral palsy with sports-focussed goals. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Parents and physiotherapists agree that Sports Stars improved sports Participation and Physical, Social, Psychological and Cognitive Activity Competence for children with cerebral palsy. Children with sports-focused goals should be offered practitioner-led, peer-group sports interventions in community environments. Therapists should design sports interventions with Physical, Cognitive, Social and Psychological content and outcomes.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy genotypes in The Netherlands reveal novel pathogenic ARSA variants in non-Caucasian patients.

Neurogenetics

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessively inherited sulfatide storage disease caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal en...

Correction to: Somatic mutations in neurons during aging and neurodegeneration.

Acta Neuorpathica

In the original article, the panels "Brain organoids" and "Transgenics" were included in Fig. 5 without permission.

Rare neurovascular conflict between oculomotor nerve and posterior communicating artery.

Neuroradiology

Paroxysmal diplopia could be the expression of a multitude of clinical or anatomical conditions. Both ophthalmological and neurological pathologies...

Temozolomide and seizure outcomes in a randomized clinical trial of elderly glioblastoma patients.

Journal of Neuro-Oncology

NCT00482677 2007-06-05.

We performed an unplanned secondary analysis of this trial's data. The trial design has been previously reported. Seizures were recorded by clinicians as adverse events and by patients in quality of life questionnaires. A Chi-square test of seizure rates between the two groups (α = 0.05) and a Kaplan-Meier estimator of time-to-first self-reported seizure were planned.

Almost all patients were followed until they died. In the radiotherapy alone group, 68 patients (24%) had a documented or self-reported seizure versus 83 patients (30%) in the temozolomide plus radiotherapy group, Chi-square analysis showed no difference (p = 0.15). Patients receiving radiotherapy alone tended to develop seizures earlier than those receiving temozolomide plus radiotherapy (p = 0.054). Patients with seizures had shorter overall survival than those without seizures (hazard ratio 1.24, p = 0.02).

This study was not powered to detect differences in seizure outcomes, but temozolomide seemed to have minimal impact on seizure control in elderly patients with glioblastoma.

Stereotactic reirradiation with temozolomide in patients with recurrent aggressive pituitary tumors and pituitary carcinomas.

Journal of Neuro-Oncology

To evaluate the efficacy of a second course of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (re-SRT) and temozolomide (TMZ) as salvage treatment option in patients with aggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) and pituitary carcinomas (PCs).

Twenty-one patients with recurrent or progressive APTs (n = 17) and PCs (n = 4) who received combined TMZ and re-SRT, 36 Gy/18fractions or 37.5 Gy/15fractions, were retrospectively evaluated. TMZ was given at a dose of 75 mg/m2 given concurrently to re-SRT, and then 150-200 mg/m2/day for 5 days every 4 weeks or 50 mg/m2 daily for 12 months. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the time of re-SRT by Kaplan-Meier method.

With a median follow-up of 27 months (range 12-58 months), 2-year and 4-year LC rates were 73% and 65%, respectively; 2-year and 4-year survival rates were 82% and 66%, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 2 and partial response in 11 patients. Six patients recurred with a median time to progression of 14 months. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status and tumor volume emerged as prognostic factors. Grade 3 radiation-related toxicities occurred in 3 (14%) patients. Grade 2 or 3 hematologic toxicities during chemotherapy occurred in 8 (38%) patients.

Re-SRT and TMZ is a safe treatment offering high LC in patients with progressive APTs and PCs. The potential advantages of combined chemoradiation as up-front or salvage treatment need to be explored in prospective trials.

Pontine gliomas a 10-year population-based study: a report from The Canadian Paediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC).

Journal of Neuro-Oncology

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are midline gliomas that arise from the pons and the majority are lethal within a few months after diagnosis. Due to the lack of histological diagnosis the epidemiology of DIPG is not completely understood. The aim of this report is to provide population-based data to characterize the descriptive epidemiology of this condition in Canadian children.

A national retrospective study of children and adolescents diagnosed with DIPG between 2000 and 2010 was undertaken. All cases underwent central review to determine clinical and radiological diagnostic characteristics. Crude incidence figures were calculated using age-adjusted (0-17 year) population data from Statistics Canada. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

A total of 163 patients with pontine lesions were identified. Central review determined one-hundred and forty-three patients who met clinical, radiological and/or histological criteria for diagnosis. We estimate an incidence rate of 1.9 DIPG/1,000,000 children/year in the Canadian population over a 10 years period. Median age at diagnosis was 6.8 years and 50.3% of patients were female. Most patients presented with cranial nerve palsies (76%) and ataxia (66%). Despite typical clinical (i.e. long length of symptoms) and radiological characteristics, (i.e. focal tumors, tumors with exophytic components or cystic components) histological confirmation reported three lesions to be low-grade gliomas and three were diagnosed as CNS embryonal tumor not otherwise specified (NOS).

Our study highlights the challenges associated with epidemiology studies on DIPG and the importance of central review for incidence rate estimations. It emphasizes that tissue biopsies are required for accurate histological and molecular diagnosis in patients presenting with pontine lesions and reinforces the limitations of radiological and clinical diagnosis in DIPG. Likewise, it underscores the urgent need to increase the availability and accessibility to clinical trials.

Antithrombotic treatment in patients with stroke and supracardiac atherosclerosis.

Neurology

To compare the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants vs antiplatelets in patients with stroke and atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic arch or cervical or intracranial arteries, collectively described as supracardiac atherosclerosis.

We searched PubMed and Scopus until August 28, 2019, for randomized trials comparing oral anticoagulants vs antiplatelets in patients with stroke and supracardiac atherosclerosis using the terms "anticoagulant or anticoagulation" and "antiplatelet or aspirin" and "randomized controlled trial or RCT" and "stroke or cerebral ischemia" and "aortic or carotid or vertebrobasilar or intracranial or atherosclerosis or stenosis or arterial." Four outcomes were assessed: recurrent ischemic stroke, major ischemic event or death, major bleeding, and intracranial bleeding. Treatment effects (relative risk [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were estimated by meta-analysis using random-effects models.

Among 1,117 articles identified in the literature search, results from 10 randomized controlled trials involving 6,068 patients with stroke/TIA with supracardiac atherosclerosis were included in the meta-analysis. Recurrent ischemic stroke rates were 2.94 per 100 patient-years in the anticoagulant-assigned patients vs 3.30 per 100 patient-years in the antiplatelet-assigned patients (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.18 for the SJ estimator, I2 = 26%). Major ischemic event or death rates were 4.39 per 100 patient-years in anticoagulant-assigned patients vs 4.32 in antiplatelet-assigned patients (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79-1.35; I2 = 54.5%). Major bleeding rates were 2.88 per 100 patient-years in anticoagulant-assigned patients vs 0.82 in antiplatelet-assigned patients (RR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.96-5.24; I2 = 46%).

This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that anticoagulant-assigned patients with stroke and supracardiac atherosclerosis were not at different risk of ischemic stroke recurrence and increased risk of major bleeding compared to antiplatelet-assigned patients.

EEG features of brain injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children.

Neurology

To examine EEG features of major pathophysiology in children undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

Single-center, retrospective study of 201 pediatric ECMO patients, using the first 24 hours of continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring, collating background activity and electrographic seizures (ES) with imaging, ECMO type and outcome.

Severely abnormal cEEG background occurred in 12% (25/201), and was associated with death (sensitivity 0.23, specificity 0.97). ES occurred in 16% (33/201) within 3.2 (0.6-20.3) hours (median [interquartile range]) of cEEG commencement, and higher ES burden was associated with death. ES was always associated with ipsilateral injury (p=0.006), but occurred in only one-third of cases with abnormal imaging. In 28 patients with isolated hemisphere lesion, type of arterial ECMO cannulation was associated with side of injury: right carotid cannulation was associated with right hemisphere lesions, and ascending aorta cannulation with left hemisphere lesions (odds ratio 0.29 [95% confidence interval 0.08-0.98], p=0.03).

After starting ECMO, cEEG background activity has the potential to inform prognosis. Type of arterial (carotid versus aortic) ECMO correlates with side of focal cerebral injury - which in ≈33% is associated with presence of ES. We hypothesize that the differential distribution reflects abnormal flow dynamics or embolic injury.

Neurology Grand Rounds Complications from "Stem Cell Tourism" in Neurology.

Annals Neurology

"Stem cell tourism," the practice of offering unproven cellular preparations to patients as approved therapy, is rising in neurology. Currently, th...

A Nomogram to Predict Symptomatic Epilepsy in Patients with Radiation-induced Brain Necrosis.

Neurology

This study aimed to develop and validate a nomogram to predict epilepsy in patients with radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN).

This study provides Class III evidence that a nomogram predicts post-RN epilepsy.

A total of 302 RN patients with a median follow-up of 3.43 years (IQR 2.54-5.45) were included in the training cohort, among which 65 (21.5%) developed symptomatic epilepsy during follow-up. Seven variables remained significant predictors of epilepsy after multivariable analyses: MRI lesion volume, creatine phosphokinase, the maximum radiation dose to the temporal lobe, RN treatment, history of hypertension and/or diabetes, gender, and total cholesterol level. In the validation cohort, twenty-eight out of 128 (21.9%) patients had epilepsy after RN within a median follow-up of 3.2 years. The nomogram showed comparable discrimination between the training and validation cohort (corrected C-index 0.76 [training] vs. 0.72 [95% CI 0.62-0.81; validation]).

Our study developed an easily applied nomogram for the prediction of RN-related epilepsy in a large RN cohort.

Intracranial Atherosclerosis on 7T MRI and Cognitive Functioning - the SMART-MR study.

Neurology

To investigate the association between intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) and cognitive functioning in patients with a history of vascular disease.

Within the SMART-MR study cross-sectional analyses were performed in 130 patients (mean±SD age 68±9 years) with 7T vessel wall-magnetic resonance imaging data. Vessel wall lesions were rated according to established criteria and summed into a circulatory and artery-specific ICAS burden. Associations between ICAS burden and Z-scores of memory, executive functioning, working memory and processing speed, were estimated using linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, reading ability, and vascular risk factors.

A total of 125 patients (96%) had ≥1 vessel wall lesions; the mean ICAS burden was 8.5±5.7.A statistically non-significant association was found between total ICAS burden and memory (b = -0.03 per +1 lesion; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.00). No associations were found for the other domains.A statistically significant association was found for ICAS burden of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and memory (b= -0.12 per +1 lesion; 95%CI -0.23 to -0.01) and executive functioning (b= -0.10 per +1 lesion; 95%CI -0.19 to -0.01). Statistically non-significant associations were found for the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) burden and memory (b= -0.13 per +1 lesion; 95%CI -0.26 to 0.01) and executive functioning (b= -0.11 per +1 lesion; 95%CI -0.22 to 0.01).Additional adjustments for large infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes and ≥50% carotid stenosis, produced similar results.

Our results suggest an artery-specific vulnerability of memory and executive functioning to ICAS, possibly due to strategic brain regions involved with these cognitive domains, which are located in the arterial territory of the PCA and ACA.