The latest medical research on Addiction Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about addiction medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

The selection below is filtered by medical specialty. Registered users get access to the Plexa Intelligent Filtering System that personalises your dashboard to display only content that is relevant to you.

Want more personalised results?

Request Access

Involvement in Sexaholics Anonymous and life satisfaction: The mediating role of meaning in life and hope.

Behavioral Addiction

Some people are preoccupied with their sexual urges and fantasies and lose control over their sexual behaviors, which can cause adverse consequences for their health and well-being. One of the options available for individuals seeking treatment for compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is a self-help group based on the twelve-step program. The main purpose of the current study was to examine the direct and indirect (through meaning in life and hope) relationships between involvement in Sexaholics Anonymous (SA) and life satisfaction.

The sample consisted of 80 Polish members of SA (72 men and 8 women) with a mean age of 38.96 years (SD = 10.56). The Sex Addiction Screening Test-Revised, the Meaning of Life Questionnaire, the Herth Hope Index, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and items adapted from the Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement Scale were used to measure the study variables.

Path analysis showed a direct positive relationship between SA involvement and life satisfaction. Moreover, the relationship between these variables was mediated by the presence of meaning in life and hope. Simultaneously, more severe symptoms of CSBD were related to lower levels of the presence of meaning in life and higher levels of the search for meaning in life, which, in turn, predicted lower levels of life satisfaction.

The results suggest that finding meaning in life and restoring hope partly underlie the relationship between SA involvement and life satisfaction.

Problematic use of digital media in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to controls. A meta-analysis.

Behavioral Addiction

Problematic use of digital media and problematic use of the internet (PUI) in particular are growing problems in the general population. Moreover, studies have shown links between PUI and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analysis investigated whether children and adolescents with ADHD are more often affected by PUI compared to control groups.

Multiple databases (EBSCOhost, Pubmed) were reviewed. Studies were eligible if individuals (aged 6-18 years) were diagnosed with ADHD, assessed on PUI-related measures, and compared to non-clinical or/and clinical controls without a diagnosis of ADHD. Out of 3,859 identified studies, 14 studies assessing 2,488 participants met all inclusion criteria. Four meta-analyses examining time-based and scale-based measures, different informants and non-clinical vs. clinical controls using random-effects models were performed. Funnel plots were used to investigate publication bias.

The analyses revealed significantly more severe PUI in individuals with ADHD compared to controls, both when PUI was assessed via rating scale (scaled-based) and via units for time (time-based measures). Different informants (self- vs. parent-rating) had no impact on results. Differences in PUI between groups with ADHD and non-clinical controls were significant, whereas differences between ADHD and clinical controls were not. Due to the high heterogeneity observed and the small sample sizes, these latter findings should be interpreted cautiously.

Children and adolescents with ADHD show more severe PUI compared to non-clinical controls without ADHD. However, the small number of studies does not allow for a systematic comparison between ADHD and groups with other psychopathologies.

Vaccinating across the aisle: using co-partisan source cues to encourage COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the ideological right.

Behavioral Medicine

Overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States will require most Americans to vaccinate against the disease. However, considerable research ...

Baseline depressive symptoms, personal control, and concern moderate the effects of preoperative psychological interventions: the randomized controlled PSY-HEART trial.

Behavioral Medicine

This study examined whether baseline (3-14 days pre-surgery) levels of (i) depressive or (ii) anxiety symptoms and (iii) illness beliefs moderate t...

Impact of Canada's menthol cigarette ban on quitting among menthol smokers: pooled analysis of pre-post evaluation from the ITC Project and the Ontario Menthol Ban Study and projections of impact in the USA.

Tobacco Control

Between 2015 and 2018, Canada banned menthol cigarettes. This study pooled data from two pre-post cohort studies (the Ontario Menthol Ban Study, and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Canada Survey, conducted in seven provinces) to derive more precise estimates of the impact of Canada's menthol ban on quitting and to apply these estimates to project the impact of a menthol ban in the USA.

Weighted multivariable logistic analyses compared post-ban quit success of menthol smokers with non-menthol smokers (for daily smokers and for all (daily + non-daily) smokers), controlling for sex, age, ethnicity, education, baseline smoking status, baseline cigarettes per day and study regions. Projections to the USA were created by multiplying the effect size of the Canadian menthol ban on quitting (percentage of increased quitting among menthol smokers) by the number of menthol smokers overall and among African Americans, from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

After the menthol cigarette ban, menthol smokers were more likely than non-menthol smokers to have quit smoking among daily smokers (difference=8.0%; 95% CI: 2.4% to 13.7%,p=0.005) and all (daily+non-daily) smokers (difference=7.3%; 95% CI: 2.1% to 12.5%,p=0.006). The projected number of smokers who would quit after a US menthol ban would be 789 724 daily smokers (including 199 732 African Americans) and 1 337 988 daily+non-daily smokers (including 381 272 African Americans).

This pooled analysis of Canada's menthol cigarette ban provides the foundation for estimating the impact of menthol bans in the USA and other countries. Projections suggest that a US menthol cigarette ban would have a substantial impact on increasing quitting.

Ice flavours and non-menthol synthetic cooling agents in e-cigarette products: a review.

Tobacco Control

E-cigarettes with cooling flavours have diversified in ways that complicate tobacco control with the emergence of: (1) Ice-hybrid flavours (eg, 'Ra...

Is disgust proneness prospectively associated with influenza vaccine hesitancy and uptake?

Behavioral Medicine

Although various demographic and psychosocial factors have been identified as correlates of influenza vaccine hesitancy, factors that promote infec...

Ex ante evaluation of the impact of tobacco control policy measures aimed at the point of sale in the Netherlands.

Tobacco Control

The Netherlands aims to implement stricter tobacco control policies targeting the retail environment. This paper is an ex ante policy evaluation of the potential impact of the current tobacco display and advertising ban as well as future tobacco sales bans on tobacco outlet visibility and availability.

Between September 2019 and June 2020, all potential tobacco retailers in four Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Haarlem and Zwolle) were visited and mapped using Global Positioning System. For each retailer selling tobacco, we completed a checklist on the visibility of tobacco products and advertising. Expected reductions in tobacco outlet visibility and availability were calculated per policy measure in absolute numbers (percentage or percentage point decrease) as well as density and proximity.

Out of 870 tobacco outlets, 690 were identified with visible tobacco products/advertising. The display ban in supermarkets and small outlets (respectively) is expected to decrease the number (-15; -42 percentage points), outlet density per 10 000 capita (-0.9; -2.6) and proximity in metres (+27 m; +400 m) of outlets with visible products/advertising. The upcoming bans on vending machines and sales in supermarkets are expected to decrease the number (-12%; -31%), density (-0.7; -1.9) and proximity (+12 m; +68 m) of tobacco outlets. Further changes in the number, density and proximity (respectively) of tobacco outlets may be achieved with future sales bans in petrol stations (-7%; -0.4; +60 m) and particularly with a ban on sales in small outlets (-43%; -2.7; +970 m).

A display ban and a sales ban in small outlets will contribute most to reducing tobacco outlet visibility and availability, assuming that no market shift towards other tobacco outlets will take place.

Public support for policies to phase out the retail sale of cigarettes in Australia: results from a nationally representative survey.

Tobacco Control

There is growing international interest in a goal once considered unthinkable: phasing out the retail sales of smoked tobacco products. In this study, we examined public support for phasing out sales and specific measures for moving towards a phase-out among a nationally representative sample of Australian adults.

In December 2019, we used a probability-based online panel, Life in Australia™, to survey n=1939 Australian adults (n=1874 included in analyses due to missing data).

Almost two-thirds of respondents thought it would be 'a good thing' if there came a time when it was no longer legal to sell cigarettes in shops in Australia and only 16.7% thought it would be 'a bad thing'. After the concept of a phase-out was defined as removing a product from the Australian market over a set period, such as 5 years, but still allowing purchases online from overseas companies, 50.7% indicated support for such a phase-out and 61.8% thought it should happen within 10 years. Support was greater for specific measures such as licensing tobacco retailers (75.3%) and restricting sales to places children cannot enter (76.3%). Support tended to be consistent across demographic subgroups but was stronger among never and former smokers than among current smokers.

There has been little public discussion in Australia about the goal of 1 day phasing out the retail sale of cigarettes. It is notable that such policies are reasonably well supported by the Australian public, with only minority opposition.

Understanding e-cigarette content and promotion on YouTube through machine learning.

Tobacco Control

YouTube is a popular social media used by youth and has electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) content. We used machine learning to identify the content of e-cigarette videos, featured e-cigarette products, video uploaders, and marketing and sales of e-cigarette products.

We identified e-cigarette content using 18 search terms (eg, e-cig) using fictitious youth viewer profiles and predicted four models using the metadata as the input to supervised machine learning: (1) video themes, (2) featured e-cigarette products, (3) channel type (ie, video uploaders) and (4) discount/sales. We assessed the association between engagement data and the four models.

3830 English videos were included in the supervised machine learning. The most common video theme was 'product review' (48.9%), followed by 'instruction' (eg, 'how to' use/modify e-cigarettes; 17.3%); diverse e-cigarette products were featured; 'vape enthusiasts' most frequently posted e-cigarette videos (54.0%), followed by retailers (20.3%); 43.2% of videos had discount/sales of e-cigarettes; and the most common sales strategy was external links for purchasing (34.1%). 'Vape trick' was the least common theme but had the highest engagement (eg, >2 million views). 'Cannabis' (53.9%) and 'instruction' (49.9%) themes were more likely to have external links for purchasing (p<0.001). The four models achieved an F1 score (a measure of model accuracy) of up to 0.87.

Our findings indicate that on YouTube videos accessible to youth, a variety of e-cigarette products are featured through diverse videos themes, with discount/sales. The findings highlight the need to regulate the promotion of e-cigarettes on social media platforms.

Activity-induced pain as a predictor of physical activity behavior among individuals with chronic pain: the role of physical activity enjoyment.

Behavioral Medicine

Nearly 70% of adults with chronic pain experience increased pain during activity, and this may reduce enjoyment of physical activity (PA), and subs...

Discrimination experiences, resilience, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among sexual minority women.

Behavioral Medicine

Resilience, or the process of adapting to adversity, may protect against the harmful effects of minority-related stressors on the cardiovascular he...