The latest medical research on Addiction Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about addiction medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Determinants of tobacco cultivation in Bangladesh.

Tobacco Control

Tobacco production continues to increase in low-income and middle-income countries including in Bangladesh. It has spreads to different parts of Bangladesh and is now threatening food cultivation, the environment and health. The aim of this study is to determine the factors those are influenced farmers' decisions to grow tobacco.

We surveyed 371 tobacco farmers using a simple random sampling in the Meherpur district of Bangladesh. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the variables affecting farmers' decision to cultivate tobacco.

Approximately 87.0% of the respondents were contract farmers with different tobacco companies. Almost 83.3% of the farmers had intentions to continue tobacco farming. Binary logistic regression results suggest that company's incentives to farmers, farmers' profitability, a guaranteed market for the tobacco crop and economic viability were the variables most affecting the decision to cultivate tobacco.

Governments seeking to shift farmers away from tobacco will need to consider how to address the dynamics revealed in this research.

Carbon monoxide concentration in mainstream E-cigarette emissions measured with diode laser spectroscopy.

Tobacco Control

The e-fluid heated in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is largely composed of organic compounds, specifically propylene glycol, vegetable glyce...

Building the evidence base for waterpipe regulation and policy.

Tobacco Control

Waterpipe (hookah, shisha, narghileh) smoking is emerging as an epidemic, particularly among young people in the USA and globally. Unlike cigarette...

The effect of flavoured and non-flavoured tobacco on subjective experience, topography and toxicant exposure among waterpipe smokers.

Tobacco Control

Flavoured waterpipe (WP) tobacco is a major factor in the resurgence of WP smoking and a main attractant of WP use among youth. Yet, evidence of the effects of limiting flavour on WP smoker's experiences and exposures is limited. This study examined the impact of flavour manipulation on WP smokers' toxicant exposure and smoking experiences.

A total of 144 WP smokers attended two, 45 min ad libitum smoking sessions (flavoured vs non-flavoured tobacco) in a crossover design study. Participants completed a battery of questions assessing subjective smoking experiences. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and plasma nicotine concentrations were measured before and after the smoking sessions. Puff topography was recorded throughout the smoking sessions.

Compared with the non-flavoured WP tobacco, participants reported enhanced subjective smoking measures of satisfaction and enjoyment following smoking flavoured WP tobacco (ps <0.05). Although participants spent a longer time smoking flavoured tobacco, they took on average larger puffs while smoking the non-flavoured tobacco (ps <0.05). Greater levels of eCO were recorded following the non-flavoured tobacco session (p<0.05) compared with flavoured tobacco. No significant differences were observed in plasma nicotine concentrations between the two tobacco conditions. WP harm perception was higher among participants after smoking non-flavoured WP tobacco compared with their preferred flavour (p<0.05).

Smoking the flavoured tobacco product was associated with enhanced subjective experiences compared with the non-flavoured, suggesting a potential role for flavour regulation in reducing WP use. Mixed results were observed for toxicants exposure in relation to smoking flavoured compared with non-flavoured products suggesting the need for a more comprehensive assessment of the effects of other tobacco constituents and additives on toxicant exposure in WP smokers.

What factors reliably predict electronic cigarette nicotine delivery?

Tobacco Control

The ability of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) to deliver nicotine effectively may be dependent on features of the device, the liquid and the user. Some of these features have been examined in previous work (eg, liquid nicotine concentration and puff topography), while others have not (eg, nicotine dependence and demographic characteristics). The purpose of this secondary analysis is to examine such features as predictors of e-cigarette nicotine delivery using a relatively large sample.

Four studies were combined in which e-cigarette-experienced users (n=63; 89% men; 75% white) and e-cigarette-naïve cigarette smokers (n=67; 66% men; 54% white) took 10 puffs from an eGo-style e-cigarette (~7.3 watts) filled with liquid that had a nicotine concentration of 18, 25 or 36 mg/mL. Thus, held constant across all studies were device features of battery/cartomiser style and power level and the topography parameters of puff number and interpuff interval. Blood was sampled before and after use, and puff topography was measured. Three general linear models were conducted to predict plasma nicotine concentrations (pre-post increase) for: (1) e-cigarette users only, (2) smokers only and (3) both groups combined. Predictor variables included puff duration, puff volume, liquid nicotine concentration, presession plasma nicotine concentration, nicotine dependence score (smokers only), gender and race.

In all models tested, longer puff durations and higher liquid nicotine concentrations were associated significantly with increased nicotine delivery (ps<0.05). For e-cigarette users only, higher presession nicotine concentration was associated significantly with increased nicotine delivery (p<0.05).

Puff duration and liquid nicotine concentration may be among the more important factors to consider as regulators attempt to balance e-cigarette safety with efficacy. These findings should be interpreted in the context of devices with relatively low power output, a variable not studied here but likely also directly relevant to product regulation.

Nearly 20 000 e-liquids and 250 unique flavour descriptions: an overview of the Dutch market based on information from manufacturers.

Tobacco Control

Flavours increase attractiveness of electronic cigarettes and stimulate use among vulnerable groups such as non-smoking adolescents. It is important for regulators to monitor the market to gain insight in, and regulate the range of e-liquid flavours that is available to consumers. E-liquid manufacturers are required to report key product information to authorities in the European Member States in which they plan to market their products. This information was used to provide an overview of e-liquid flavour descriptions marketed in the Netherlands in 2017.

Two researchers classified 19 266 e-liquids into the 16 main categories of the e-liquid flavour wheel, based on information from four variables in the European Common Entry Gate system. Flavour descriptions were further specified in subcategories.

For 16 300 e-liquids (85%), sufficient information was available for classification. The categories containing the highest number of e-liquids were fruit (34%), tobacco (16%) and dessert (10%). For all e-liquids, excluding unflavoured ones, 245 subcategories were defined within the main categories. In addition to previously reported subcategories, various miscellaneous flavours such as sandwich, buttermilk and lavender were identified.

In 2017, ~20 000 e-liquids were reported to be marketed in the Netherlands, in 245 unique flavour descriptions. The variety of marketed flavour descriptions reflects flavour preference of e-cigarette users as described in literature. Our systematic classification of e-liquids by flavour description provides a tool for organising the huge variety in market supply, serves as an example for other countries to generate similar overviews and can support regulators in developing flavour regulations.

Tobacco industry tactics in response to cigarette excise tax increases in Mauritius.

Tobacco Control

In response to high smoking rates, especially among men, Mauritius launched a National Action Plan on Tobacco Control in 2008. It changed its tax system from a mixed system to a uniform specific system. Despite these interventions, cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence in Mauritius decreased only marginally in the subsequent decade.

Using publicly available data, we decompose the retail price of cigarettes into tax and net-of-tax components, between 2011 and 2017. We cover premium, popular and economy cigarettes.

Since its introduction in 2008, the nominal excise tax was increased six times. Between 2011 and 2017, the real value of the excise tax increased by 47%. Meanwhile, British American Tobacco (BAT) increased the real net-of-tax price of premium cigarettes by 61.8% and of popular cigarettes by 47.2%, thus overshifting the tax increase. On economy cigarettes, BAT decreased the real net-of-tax price by 14.7%, thus undershifting the excise tax increase.

Through its pricing strategy, BAT has greatly undermined Mauritius's tobacco control policy. However, BAT cannot continue undershifting the excise tax on economy brands, since the net-of-tax proportion of the retail price is very low already. BAT would have little choice but to increase the retail price on economy brands in response to future excise tax increases. The government of Mauritius is encouraged to keep the specific excise tax structure but to increase the rate at which it is levied.

Evaluating the effect of switching to non-menthol cigarettes among current menthol smokers: an empirical study of a potential ban of characterising menthol flavour in cigarettes.

Tobacco Control


29 non-treatment-seeking adults who smoked menthol cigarettes were recruited in Connecticut in 2017-2018 (n=15 female; n=17 Black, n=10 White, n=5 Hispanic). Repeated-measures analyses examined within-person changes in smoking behaviour when participants were switched from smoking their usual brand menthol cigarettes to a matched-brand non-menthol cigarette for 2 weeks to model a potential ban of menthol cigarettes.

Participants smoked significantly fewer non-menthol (vs menthol) cigarettes per day (mean decrease=2.2 cigarettes, SD=3.2, p<0.001), confirmed by significant reductions in urine cotinine levels (p=0.013). After switching to non-menthol cigarettes, participants had significantly lower nicotine dependence scores (reduced by >18%, p<0.001) and greater increases in quitting motivation and confidence (rated 1-10) (motivation: mean increase=2.1, SD=2.8, p<0.001; confidence: mean increase=1.3, SD=3.3, p=0.04). Exploratory analyses indicated significant interactions by race (p=0.004); Black smokers had greater reductions in cigarettes per day (mean decrease=3.5 cigarettes, SD=2.8) versus non-Black smokers (mean decrease=0.2, SD=2.6).

Banning menthol as a characterising flavour in cigarettes may decrease smoking and reduce the addictive potential of cigarettes among current smokers. Results provide additional support for tobacco regulatory policies banning menthol flavour in an effort to improve public health.

Tobacco 21 policies in California and Hawaii and sales of cigarette packs: a difference-in-differences analysis.

Tobacco Control

To measure the association of raising the minimum legal age of tobacco sales to 21 years (T21) statewide with monthly sales of cigarette packs in California and Hawaii, the first two states to implement T21 statewide.

State monthly cigarette tax revenues from state departments of taxation were analysed for 11 states from January 2014 through December 2018 (n=660). Monthly cigarette packs sold were constructed using cigarette tax revenue and cigarette tax rate in each state. A difference-in-differences regression method was used to estimate the association of statewide T21 policies with monthly cigarette packs sold in California and Hawaii, separately, compared to the western states that did not implement such policies. Both models were controlled for year-month fixed effects, cigarette tax rates, smoke-free air laws, Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation, minimum legal sales ages for e-cigarettes and state marijuana laws, in addition to state demographic characteristics (sex, age, education, race/ethnicity and population size).

Implementation of T21 statewide was associated with a reduction of 9.41 (95% CI=-15.52 to -3.30) million monthly packs sold in California and 0.57 (95% CI=-0.83 to -0.30) million monthly packs sold in Hawaii, compared to regional states. These translate to a reduction of 13.1%-18.2%, respectively, in monthly packs sold relative to mean values before the implementation of T21.

Raising the minimum legal age for tobacco sales to 21 years could reduce cigarette sales as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that complements and builds on proven approaches to achieve this goal.

New Zealand tobacco retailers' understandings of and attitudes towards selling Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: a qualitative exploration.

Tobacco Control

In 2017, the New Zealand Government signalled its intent to legalise the widespread sale of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), which many New Zealand retailers have actually sold for several years. Although ENDS uptake may reduce the harm smokers face, it requires them to adopt an entirely new practice; we therefore explored how effectively existing non-specialist tobacco retailers could advise and support potential quitters.

Using in-depth interviews with 18 tobacco retailers (prior to legislative change), we explored knowledge of ENDS, attitudes towards selling ENDS and supporting customers' cessation attempts, perceptions of ENDS' risks and benefits, and views on the proposed legislation.

Participants generally had poor knowledge of ENDS products and provided either no advice or gave incorrect information to customers. They believed that the main benefit consumers would realise from using ENDS rather than tobacco would be cost savings; relatively, few saw ENDS as smoking cessation devices. Those who stocked ENDS did so despite reporting very low customer demand, and saw tobacco as more important to their business than ENDS, citing higher repeat business, ancillary sales and rebates. Participants typically supported liberalising ENDS availability, though several expressed concerns about potential youth uptake.

Tobacco retailers' limited understanding of ENDS, and the higher value they placed on tobacco, suggests they may have little capacity or inclination to support ENDS users to quit smoking. Licensing schemes for both ENDS and smoked tobacco could simultaneously reduce supply of smoked tobacco while requiring ENDS retailers to meet minimum knowledge standards.

Communicating risk differences between electronic and combusted cigarettes: the role of the FDA-mandated addiction warning and a nicotine fact sheet.

Tobacco Control

The US Food and Drug Administration requires e-cigarettes to carry a nicotine addiction warning. This research compared the effects of messages communicating comparative risk of electronic and combusted cigarettes (CR messages) with and without the mandated warning and tested the effects of showing a nicotine fact sheet (NFS) before exposure to CR messages with warning.

In an online experiment, 1528 US adult smokers were randomised to one of four conditions: (1) three CR messages, (2) three CR messages in condition one with an addiction warning, (3) an NFS followed by the three messages in condition 2 and (4) control messages. Outcomes included message reactions and perceived effectiveness, e-cigarette-related and cigarette-related beliefs and behavioural intentions and nicotine-related beliefs.

CR messages with and without an addiction warning did not differ. The NFS condition produced higher odds of correctly understanding the risk of nicotine and stronger beliefs that switching to e-cigarettes could reduce health risks (response efficacy) than other treatments. Compared with control, all messages made it more likely for people to report e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes and increased response efficacy and switch intentions to e-cigarettes. Only NFS condition increased correct beliefs about the risk of nicotine and self-efficacy about switching to e-cigarettes.

Including an addiction warning on CR messages did not reduce intentions to switch to e-cigarettes. Communicating accurate risk of nicotine together with CR messages and addiction warning increased smokers' self-efficacy beliefs about switching completely to e-cigarettes, making it a potentially promising antitobacco communication strategy.

See you in court: obstacles to enforcing the ban on electronic cigarette flavours and marketing in Finland.

Tobacco Control

The aim of Finnish tobacco policy is to end the use of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products by 2030. Towards that end, the regulation of ...