The latest medical research on Emergency Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about emergency medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Development of prehospital care quality indicators for the Australian setting: a modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method.

Emergency Medicine Journal

Globally, the measurement of quality is an important process that supports the provision of high-quality and safe healthcare services. The requirement for valid quality measurement to gauge improvements and monitor performance is echoed in the Australian prehospital care setting. The aim of this study was to use an evidence-informed expert consensus process to identify valid quality indicators (QIs) for Australian prehospital care provided by ambulance services.

A modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was conducted with a panel of Australian prehospital care experts from February to May 2019. The proposed QIs stemmed from a scoping review and were systematically prepared within a clinical and non-clinical classification system, and a structure/process/outcome and access/safety/effectiveness taxonomy. Rapid reviews were performed for each QI to produce evidence summaries for consideration by the panellists. QIs were deemed valid if the median score by the panel was 7-9 without disagreement.

Of 117 QIs, the expert panel rated 84 (72%) as valid. This included 26 organisational/system QIs across 7 subdomains and 58 clinical QIs within 10 subdomains.Most QIs were process indicators (n=62; 74%) while QIs describing structural elements and desired outcomes were less common (n=13; 15% and n=9; 11%, respectively). Non-exclusively, 18 (21%) QIs addressed access to healthcare, 21 (25%) described safety aspects and 64 (76%) specified elements contributing to effective services and care. QIs on general time intervals, such as response time, were not considered valid by the panel.

This study demonstrates that with consideration of best available evidence a substantial proportion of QIs scoped and synthesised from the international literature are valid for use in the Australian prehospital care context.

External validation of simplified out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiac arrest hospital prognosis scores in a Japanese population: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

Emergency Medicine Journal

The novel simplified out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (sOHCA) and simplified cardiac arrest hospital prognosis (sCAHP) scores used for prognostication of hospitalised patients have not been externally validated. Therefore, this study aimed to externally validate the sOHCA and sCAHP scores in a Japanese population.

We retrospectively analysed data from a prospectively maintained Japanese database (January 2012 to March 2013). We identified adult patients who had been resuscitated and hospitalised after intrinsic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) (n=2428, age ≥18 years). We validated the sOHCA and sCAHP scores with reference to the original scores in predicting 1-month unfavourable neurological outcomes (cerebral performance categories 3-5) based on the discrimination and calibration measures of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test with a calibration plot, respectively.

In total, 1985/2484 (82%) patients had a 1-month unfavourable neurological outcome. The original OHCA, sOHCA, original cardiac arrest hospital prognosis (CAHP) and sCAHP scores were available for 855/2428 (35%), 1359/2428 (56%), 1130/2428 (47%) and 1834/2428 (76%) patients, respectively. The AUCs of simplified scores did not differ significantly from those of the original scores, whereas the AUC of the sCAHP score was significantly higher than that of the sOHCA score (0.88 vs 0.81, p<0.001). The goodness of fit was poor in the sOHCA score (ν=8, χ2=19.1 and Hosmer-Lemeshow test: p=0.014) but not in the sCAHP score (ν=8, χ2=13.5 and Hosmer-Lemeshow test: p=0.10).

The performances of the original and simplified OHCA and CAHP scores in predicting neurological outcomes in successfully resuscitated OHCA patients were acceptable. With the highest availability, similar discrimination and good calibration, the sCAHP score has promising potential for clinical implementation, although further validation studies to evaluate its clinical acceptance are necessary.

Head home: implementation during COVID-19 pandemic.

Emergency Medicine Journal

Recent research suggests that between 20% and 50% of paediatric head injuries attending our emergency department (ED) could be safely discharged soon after triage, without the need for medical review, using a 'Head Injury Discharge At Triage' tool (HIDAT). We sought to implement this into clinical practice.

Paediatric ED triage staff underwent competency-based assessments for HIDAT with all head injury presentations 1 May to 31 October 2020 included in analysis. We determined which patients were discharged using the tool, which underwent CT of the brain and whether there was a clinically important traumatic brain injury or representation to the ED.

Of the 1429 patients screened; 610 (43%) screened negative with 250 (18%) discharged by nursing staff. Of the entire cohort, 32 CTs were performed for head injury concerns (6 abnormal) with 1 CT performed in the HIDAT negative group (normal). Of those discharged using HIDAT, four reattended, two with vomiting (no imaging or admission) and two with minor scalp wound infections. Two patients who screened negative declined discharge under the policy with later medical discharge (no imaging or admission). Paediatric ED attendances were 29% lower than in 2018.

We have successfully implemented HIDAT into local clinical practice. The number discharged (18%) is lower than originally described; this is likely multifactorial. The relationship between COVID-19 and paediatric ED attendances is unclear but decreased attendances suggest those for whom the tool was originally designed are not attending ED and may be accessing other medical/non-medical resources.

Diagnostic yield of bacteriological tests and predictors of severe outcome in adult patients with COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department.

Emergency Medicine Journal

Guidelines recommend maximal efforts to obtain blood and sputum cultures in patients with COVID-19, as bacterial coinfection is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of bacteriological tests, including blood and sputum cultures, and the association of multiple biomarkers and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department (ED).

This is a substudy of a large observational cohort study (PredictED study). The PredictED included adult patients from whom a blood culture was drawn at the ED of Haga Teaching Hospital, The Netherlands. For this substudy, all patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR in March and April 2020 were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of bacterial coinfection. We used logistic regression analysis for associations of procalcitonin, C reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lymphocyte count and PSI score with a severe disease course, defined as intensive care unit admission and/or 30-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) quantified the discriminatory performance.

We included 142 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. On presentation, the median duration of symptoms was 8 days. 41 (29%) patients had a severe disease course and 24 (17%) died within 30 days. The incidence of bacterial coinfection was 2/142 (1.4%). None of the blood cultures showed pathogen growth while 6.3% was contaminated. The AUCs for predicting severe disease were 0.76 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.84), 0.70 (0.61 to 0.79), 0.62 (0.51 to 0.74), 0.62 (0.51 to 0.72) and 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) for procalcitonin, CRP, ferritin, lymphocyte count and PSI score, respectively.

Blood cultures appear to have limited value while procalcitonin and the PSI appear to be promising tools in helping physicians identify patients at risk for severe disease course in COVID-19 at presentation to the ED.

Mobilisation of emergency services for chemical incidents in Sweden - a multi-agency focus group study.

Trauma,Resuscitation,Emergency Medicine

In chemical incidents, infrequent but potentially disastrous, the World Health Organization calls for inter-organizational coordination of actors involved. Multi-organizational studies of chemical response capacities are scarce. We aimed to describe chemical incident experiences and perceptions of Swedish fire and rescue services, emergency medical services, police services, and emergency dispatch services personnel.

Eight emergency service organizations in two distinct and dissimilar regions in Sweden participated in one organization-specific focus group interview each. The total number of respondents was 25 (7 females and 18 males). A qualitative inductive content analysis was performed.

Three types of information processing were derived as emerging during acute-phase chemical incident mobilization: Unspecified (a caller communicating with an emergency medical dispatcher), specified (each emergency service obtaining organization-specific expert information), and aligned (continually updated information from the scene condensed and disseminated back to all parties at the scene). Improvable shortcomings were identified, e.g. randomness (unspecified information processing), inter-organizational reticence (specified information processing), and downprioritizing central information transmission while saving lives (aligned information processing).

The flow of information may be improved by automation, public education, revised dispatcher education, and use of technical resources in the field. Future studies should independently assess these mechanism's degree of impact on mobilisation of emergency services in chemical incidents.

You'll see it when you know it: granulomatous mastitis.

Emergency Radiology

Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an under-recognized and under-diagnosed disease. Patients with GM often present to the emergency room with a painful...

A first-aid fast track channel for rescuing critically ill children with airway foreign bodies: our clinical experience.

BMC Emergency Medicine

To explore the role of a first-aid fast track channel in rescuing children with airway foreign bodies and to analyse and summarize the experience and lessons of the first-aid fast track channel in rescuing airway foreign bodies from patients in critical condition.

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with airway foreign bodies rescued by first-aid fast track channels admitted to our hospital from January 2017 to December 2020. The corresponding clinical features, treatments, and prognoses were summarized.

Clinical data from 21 cases of first-aid fast track channel patients were retrospectively collected, including 12 males and 9 females aged 9-18 months. Cough was the most frequently exhibited symptom (100.0%), followed by III inspiratory dyspnoea (71.4%). Regarding the location of foreign bodies, 5 cases (23.8%) had glottic foreign bodies, 10 cases (47.6%) had tracheal foreign bodies, and 6 cases (28.6%) had bilateral bronchial foreign bodies. The most common type of FB was organic. FB removal was performed by rigid bronchoscopy in every case, and there were no complications of laryngeal oedema, subcutaneous emphysema, or pneumothorax. No tracheotomy was performed in any of the children.

The first-aid fast track channel for airway foreign bodies saves a valuable time for rescue, highlights the purpose of rescue, improves the success rate of rescue and the quality of life of children, and is of great value for the treatment of critical tracheal foreign bodies. It is necessary to regularly summarize the experience of the first-aid fast track channel of airway foreign bodies and further optimize the setting of the first-aid fast track channel.

Problem-solving with MRI in acute abdominopelvic conditions, part 2: gynecological, obstetric, vascular, and renal diseases.

Emergency Radiology

The purpose of this article is to illustrate the benefits of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the setting of abdominopelvic emergencies. Owing t...

Effect of early hyperoxemia on mortality in mechanically ventilated septic shock patients according to Sepsis-3 criteria: analysis of the MIMIC-III database.

European Journal of Emergency Medicine

Hyperoxemia may be associated with increased mortality in emergency room or ICU patients. However, its effect during septic shock is still debated.

To evaluate the effect of hyperoxemia on ICU mortality, during the first 24 h of ICU stay, in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock according to SEPSIS-3 criteria.

A retrospective cohort study of ICU admissions recorded in the medical information mart for intensive care-III, a retrospective ICU database, was performed.

Two oxygen exposures during the first 24 h were compared: average PaO2 (TWA-PaO2) between 70 and 120 mmHg in the normoxemia group and above 120 mmHg in the hyperoxemia group.

The primary outcome was mortality during ICU stay.

Four hundred eighty-eight ICU admissions met the inclusion criteria: 214 in the normoxemia group and 274 in the hyperoxemia group. The median TWA-PaO2 was 99.1 (88.9-107.6) mmHg in the normoxemia group and 151.5 (133.6-180.2) mmHg in the hyperoxemia group. ICU mortality was lower in the hyperoxemia group than in the normoxemia group in univariate analysis [29.6 vs. 39.7%, respectively; OR 0.64 (0.44-0.93); P = 0.024], but not in multivariate analysis [OR 0.98 (0.62-1.56); P = 0.93]. There was no difference between the two groups in ICU length of stay [8.0 (4.3-15.0) vs. 8.4 (4.7-15.0) days; P = 0.82].

We did not find any impact of early hyperoxemia on mortality in this population of mechanically ventilated patients with SEPSIS-3 septic shock criteria.

Need for recovery and physician well-being in emergency departments: national survey findings.

European Journal of Emergency Medicine

Need for recovery (NFR) describes an individual's need to physically and psychologically recuperate following a period of work. Physicians working in emergency departments (EDs) have higher NFR scores than other occupational groups. Increased NFR may precede occupational burnout and identification provides opportunities for early interventions.

To identify the incidence of well-being characteristics for ED physicians and to determine if NFR score is associated with these characteristics, whilst adjusting for potential confounders.

Physicians working within 112 EDs in the UK and Ireland were surveyed in June-July 2019.

The outcome measure was self-perceptions of well-being including; current burnout, risk of future burnout and feeling overwhelmed at work. Descriptive statistics are presented alongside findings of a multiple regression analysis.

In 4365 participants, the self-perceived incidence of current burnout, high risk of future burnout and feeling overwhelmed at work more than once a week was 24.8, 62.7 and 45.1%, respectively. For every unfavourable response of the NFR scale there was an increase in odds of 34.0% (95% CI, 31.0-37.1) for frequency of feeling overwhelmed; 53.8% (95% CI, 47.5-60.4) for current burnout; 56.2% (95% CI, 51.1-61.6) for high risk of future burnout.

This study confirms an association between increased NFR score and self-perceived well-being characteristics. Factors previously reported to reduce NFR could therefore be important initiatives to improve well-being of the ED workforce.

Safer Hospital Infrastructure Assessments for Socio-Natural Disaster - A Scoping Review.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

The aim of this review was to explore hospital socio-natural disaster resilience by identifying: studies assessing structural and non-structural aspects of building resilience; components required to maintain a safe and functional health facility; and if the checklists used were comprehensive and easily performed.

A review systemic approach using PRISMA was taken to search the literature. The search focused on articles that discuss hospital disaster resilience. This includes assessments and checklists for facility structural and non-structural components.

This review identified 22 articles describing hospital assessments using checklists containing structural and non-structural elements of resilience. These studies identified assessments undertaken in ten countries, with eight occurring across Iran. A total of seven differing checklists were identified as containing aspects of structural or non-structural aspects of building resilience. The World Health Organization (WHO) has authored three checklists and four others were developed independently.The structural resilience domain includes building integrity, building materials, design standards, and previous event damages as important elements to determine resilience. Within the internal safety and resilience domains, 11 differing elements were identified as important to non-structural or internal infrastructure resilience. These included the safety of power, water, telecommunication, medical gas supply, and medical equipment resupply systems.Independent evaluation methods were reported in the majority of articles, with a small number highlighting the benefits of both self-evaluation and independent review processes. Implementation of training programs to evaluators was mentioned in three papers with the assessor's knowledge and understanding of all checklist elements being highlighted as important to the validity of the evaluation.

The review identified the assessment of hospital resilience as important for management to determine areas of vulnerability within the hospital's infrastructure and to inform improvement strategies. Assessment criteria must be comprehensive, highlighting structural and non-structural aspects of facility infrastructure. These assessments are best done as a multi-disciplinary collective of experts, involving hospital employees in the journey. This collaborative approach provides a key educational tool for developing disaster capacity, engaging ownership of the process, and the resulting improvements.The on-going development of health facility and wider health system resilience must remain a key strategic focus of national governments and health authorities. The development of standardized procedures and guidelines must be embedded into daily practice.

Effects of Maryland's Global Budget Revenue Model on Emergency Department Utilization and Revisits.

Academic Emergency Medicine

In 2014, Maryland (MD) implemented a "global budget revenue" (GBR) program that prospectively sets hospital budgets. This program introduced incentives for hospitals to tightly control volume and meet budget targets. We examine GBR's effects on emergency department (ED) visits, admissions, and returns.

We performed an interrupted time series analysis with difference-in-differences (DiD) comparisons using 2012 to 2015 Healthcare Cost Utilization and Project data from MD, New York (NY), and New Jersey (NJ). We examined GBR's effects on ED visits/1,000 population, admissions from the ED, and ED returns at 72-hours and 9-days. We also examined rates of admission, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and in-hospital mortality among returns. To evaluate racial/ethnic and payer outcome disparities among ED returns, we performed a triple differences analysis.

ED visits decreased with GBR adoption in MD relative to NY and NJ, by 5 and 6 visits/1,000 population respectively. ED admissions declined relative to NY and NJ, by 0.6% and 1.8% respectively. There was also a post-GBR decline in ED returns by 0.7%. Admissions among returns declined by 2%, while ICU and in-hospital mortality among returns remained relatively stable. ED return outcomes varied by racial/ethnic and payer group. Non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks experienced a similar decline in returns, while returns remained unchanged among Hispanics/Latinos, widening the disparity gap. Payer group disparities between privately insured and Medicare, Medicaid, and uninsured individuals improved, with the disparity reduction most pronounced among the uninsured.

GBR adoption was associated with lower ED utilization and admissions. ED returns and admissions among returns also decreased, while mortality and ICU stays among returns remained stable, suggesting that GBR has not led to adverse patient outcomes from fewer admissions. However, changes in ED return disparities varied by subgroup, indicating that improvements in care transitions may be uneven across patient populations.