The latest medical research on Emergency Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about emergency medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Intimate partner violence screening and response in New South Wales emergency departments: A multi-site feasibility study.

EMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia

To test feasibility of a systematic approach to routine screening and response for intimate partner violence among women presenting to three New South Wales EDs.

This prospective feasibility study was conducted over 6 months in two rural and one major tertiary metropolitan ED in New South Wales. Women aged 16-45 years triaged category 3-5 (treat within 30 min/1 h/2 h), who could be approached privately, were screened for intimate partner violence using the validated HITS (Hurts, Insults, Threatens and Screams or Swears) tool. The follow-up protocol for patients who disclosed abuse, specified a social work/psychology (psychosocial) response within 1 h. Outcomes of interest were screening rates of eligible presentations, disclosures of abuse, psycho-social referral and responses. Interviews conducted with ED medical directors and nurse unit managers at each site explored barriers and facilitators.

A total of 1047 women (11.4% of eligible presentations) completed screening at their first or subsequent presentation. Of 868 women screened on first presentation, 18% (n = 154) disclosed intimate partner violence, with no significant differences by age group, country of birth, triage category or time/day of arrival. Key barriers to screening were high patient volume, absence of electronic prompts and lack of privacy. Of those who screened positive 49% (n = 75) received an immediate, on-site psycho-social response.

The present study demonstrates that it is both possible and relevant, given the 18% disclosure rate, to screen women in relation intimate partner violence in EDs and provide a psycho-social response within 1 h. More needs to be done to address barriers to screening to provide opportunities for early intervention.

Comprehensive identification of medication-related problems occurring prior to, during and after emergency department presentation: An Australian multicentre, prospective, observational study.

EMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia

Patients present to EDs with various medication-related problems (MRPs). MRPs are also associated with ED care, occurring during ED presentation or shortly afterwards. The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence and nature of MRPs that occur prior to, during or shortly after leaving ED.

We undertook a prospective, observational study in nine Australian EDs. Blocks of 10 consecutive adult patients who were not seen by a pharmacist in ED and who presented at pre-specified times were identified. Within 1 week of ED discharge, a pharmacist interviewed patients and undertook a medical record review to determine their medication history, patients' understanding of treatment, potential MRP risk factors and manage any identified MRPs.

A total of 904 patients were recruited: 14.8% aged ≥80 years, 18.9% taking more than eight regular medications; 581 MRPs were identified; 287 (49.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 45.3-53.5%) of moderate-high significance. Most highly significant MRPs involved high-risk medications, particularly strong opioids, insulin and anti-coagulants. The most common types of MRPs were prescribing errors (46.8%), patient adherence/knowledge issues (31.2%) and adverse drug reactions (7.4%). Of all patients, 381 (42.1%, 95% CI 38.9-45.5%) had at least one MRP; 31.4% (95% CI 28.4-34.6%) had MRPs that could be identified or managed by screening at ED presentation and 12.4% (95% CI 10.4-14.8%) had MRPs that could be identified or managed by screening at ED discharge.

Patients experienced a range of MRPs throughout the ED continuum of care. From these data, screening tools will be developed so that ED clinicians may identify patients at greatest risk of MRPs.

Lung ultrasound for diagnosis of pneumonia in children.

Academic Emergency Medicine

The diagnosis of pneumonia remains a diagnostic challenge without an acceptable gold standard. Chest X-ray has poor test performance and only moder...

Randomized Controlled Trial of Adult Therapeutic Coloring for the Management of Significant Anxiety in the Emergency Department.

Academic Emergency Medicine

Anxiety and acute distress are significant concerns in the emergency department (ED). Adult coloring books are often utilized as an effective means of relaxation in waiting rooms and newsstands, but there are no reported randomized trials examining their effectiveness as a treatment for anxiety.

We set out to examine the effectiveness of adult coloring books using a randomized placebo-controlled trial at a university-affiliated tertiary ED. Anxiety was measured using a validated self-reporting score, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A), with a range of 0 to 21. Patients with HADS-A ≥ 7 were randomly assigned to either an adult coloring pack (n = 26) or placebo pack (n = 27). The primary outcome measure was the within-patient change in HADS-A scores following 2 hours of exposure.

A convenience sample of 117 patients were screened, and 53 patients were randomized. Characteristics of allocated groups were similar in terms of sex, diagnosis, and ethnicity. A higher proportion of intervention subjects spent ≥1 hour engaged with their activity (46.2% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.01). For the primary outcome measure, the mean within-patient decrease in HADS-A score at 2 hours for intervention subjects was 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4 to 5.1, p < 0.001) versus a decrease of 0.3 (95% CI = -0.6 to 1.2, p = 0.51) in the placebo group.

Among ED patients, exposure to adult coloring books resulted in lower self-reported levels of anxiety at 2 hours compared to placebo.

Video Laryngoscopy Compared to Augmented Direct Laryngoscopy in Adult Emergency Department Tracheal Intubations: A National Emergency Airway Registry (NEAR) Study.

Academic Emergency Medicine

The objective was to compare first-attempt intubation success using direct laryngoscopy augmented by laryngeal manipulation, ramped patient positioning, and use of a bougie (A-DL) with unaided video laryngoscopy (VL) in adult emergency department (ED) intubations.

This study was a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective observational database of ED intubations from the National Emergency Airway Registry (NEAR). We compared all VL procedures to seven exploratory permutations of A-DL using multivariable regression models. We further stratified by blade shape into hyperangulated VL (HA-VL) and standard-geometry VL (SG-VL). We report differences in first-attempt intubation success and peri-intubation adverse events with cluster-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We report univariate comparisons in patient characteristics, difficult airway attributes, and intubation methods using descriptive statistics and OR with 95% CI.

We analyzed 11,714 intubations performed from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2017. Of these encounters, 6,938 underwent orotracheal intubation with either A-DL or unaided VL on first attempt. A-DL was used first in 3,936 (56.7%, 95% CI = 46.9 to 66.5) versus unaided VL in 3,002 (43.3%, 95% CI = 33.5 to 53.1). Of the A-DL first intubations 1,787 (45.4%) employed ramped positioning alone, 1,472 (37.4%) had external laryngeal manipulation (ELM), and 365 (9.3%) used a bougie. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) was the most common method used in 5,602 (80.8%, 95% CI = 77.0 to 84.5) cases. First-attempt success was significantly higher with all VL (90.9%, 95% CI = 88.7 to 93.1) versus all A-DL (81.1%, 95% CI = 78.7 to 83.5) despite the VL group having more patients with reduced mouth opening, neck immobility, and an initial impression of airway difficult. Multivariable regression analyses controlling for indication, method, operator specialty and year of training, center clustering, and all registry-recorded difficult airway predictors revealed first-attempt success was higher with all unaided VL compared with any A-DL (adjusted OR [AOR] = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.3), DL with bougie (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1 to 3.5), DL with ELM (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.2), DL with ramped positioning (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.3 to 3.3), or DL with ELM plus bougie (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.3 to 3.3). Subgroup analyses of HA-VL and SG-VL compared with any A-DL yielded similar results (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.0; and AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.9 to 3.0, respectively). The propensity score-adjusted odds for first-attempt success with VL was also 2.8 (95% CI = 2.4 to 3.3). Fewer esophageal intubations were observed in the VL cohort (0.4% vs. 1.3%, AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1 to 0.5).

Video laryngoscopy used without any augmenting maneuver, device, or technique results in higher first-attempt success than does DL that is augmented by use of a bougie, ELM, ramping, or combinations thereof.

Emergency Providers' Familiarity with Firearms: A National Survey.

Academic Emergency Medicine

Emergency providers (EPs) are uniquely placed to advocate for firearm safety and have been shown to be at risk of exposure to firearms in the emergency department (ED). We sought to characterize EPs' knowledge of firearms, frequency of encountering firearms in the ED and level of confidence with safely removing firearms from patient care settings.

This was a survey study of EPs representing medical centers in 22 states. A 15-item questionnaire was e-mailed to all EPs at all included institutions. Questions pertained to EPs' knowledge of firearms, experience with handling firearms, and exposure to firearms while at work. We calculated response proportions with p-values and conducted association analyses among survey items.

Of 2,192 survey recipients, 1,074 (49.0%) completed the survey. A total of 635 (59.1%) reported encountering firearms in the ED or its immediate environment at least once per year, and 582 (54.2%) were not confident in their ability to safely handle a firearm found in a patient's possession. Frequency of handling firearms was significantly higher in states in the top quartile for firearm ownership, with 21.5% of respondents reporting handling firearms daily or weekly, compared to 10.9% in bottom-quartile states. Level of firearms training also differed significantly: 42.1% of respondents in top-quartile states reported formal training compared to 33.0% in bottom-quartile states. Increased regional firearm ownership rates were associated with decreased rates of feeling unsafe at work.

The majority of surveyed EPs reported little experience with handling firearms. Firearm experience was associated with comfort with managing firearms found in patients' possession. Regional differences were found regarding personal firearm experience and perceptions of workplace safety, both of which were associated with regional variations in firearm ownership. Despite this, no regional differences were found in encountering firearms in or around the ED. EPs may benefit from training on safely handling firearms.

Successful Medication for Opioid Use Disorder (MOUD) Program at a Community Hospital Emergency Department.

Academic Emergency Medicine

The United States is in the midst of an opioid epidemic claiming more than 130 lives per day. The annual economic burden of prescription opioid mis...

Hot off the Press: Video for Acute Otitis Media Discharge Instructions.

Academic Emergency Medicine

Acute otitis media (AOM) in children is a common illness that results in numerous visits to health care providers for the management of pain and fe...

Proenkephalin Compared to Conventional Methods to Assess Kidney Function in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients.

Shock

The assessment of renal function in clinical practice remains challenging. Using creatinine to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is notoriously inaccurate, and determination of the true GFR, e.g. using inulin or iohexol, is laborious and not feasible in daily practice. Proenkephalin (PENK) is a novel candidate biomarker for kidney function that is filtrated in the glomerulus, shown to represent steady-state GFR in patients with different severities of renal insufficiency. In this pilot study in non-steady-state critically ill patients, we compared plasma PENK concentrations with creatinine-based GFR assessments and validated both against the 'true GFR' measured using a gold standard method: iohexol plasma clearance.

Twenty-three critically ill patients with septic shock were included. Kidney function was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (eGFRMDRD), Endogenous Creatinine Clearance (GFRECC), and iohexol plasma clearance (GFRiohexol) during a 6-hour window. Plasma PENK concentrations were measured using the penKid immunoassay.

The eGFRMDRD and GFRECC correlated with the GFRiohexol (R = 0.82, p < 0.0001 and R = 0.82, p < 0.0001 respectively), however bias and variability were considerable: the eGFRMDRD overestimated the true GFR with 31 ± 35% (95% limits of agreement: -37 to 100%) and the GFRECC with 37 ± 49% (95% limits of agreement: -59 to 133%). Plasma PENK concentrations showed a very strong inverse correlation with the GFRiohexol (R = 0.90, p < 0.0001) which tended to be better compared to the correlation of eGFRMDRD (p = 0.06) and GFRECC (p = 0.08) with the GFRiohexol.

In this pilot study in non-steady state critically ill sepsis patients, GFR appears to be more accurately reflected by plasma PENK concentrations compared to conventional creatinine-based methods. Therefore, PENK holds promise as an accurate and feasible biomarker to determine kidney function during non-steady-state conditions in the critically ill.

The Colombian Experience in Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA): The Progression from a Large Caliber to a Low-Profile Device at a Level I Trauma Center.

Shock

REBOA is now performed in many trauma centers, it is used at more than 250 hospitals in the United States and there is an increase rate of publications with the experience in these centers, but there is a gap of knowledge regarding the use of REBOA in Latin-America. This paper endeavour to describe the utilization of REBOA at a high level Latin-American Trauma Center and the transition from a large caliber to a low-profile device with the concomitant reduction in the groin access complications.

a prospective, observational, single-center study was conducted. We included all trauma patients who underwent REBOA. Data from admission parameters, complications and clinical outcomes we recorded.

50 patients were included. Most of the REBOA catheters were inserted in the Operating Room (OR) [47 (94%)], and the arterial access was done by surgical cutdown [40 (80%)]. All the complications were associated to the catheter of 11 Fr Sheath used in 36 patients [n = 8/36 (22%) vs. n = 0/14 (0%); p = 0.05].

REBOA can be used safely in blunt or penetrating thoracic, abdominal and pelvic trauma. The insertion of a 7 Fr Sheath was associated with lower complications, so its use should be preferred over larger calibers.

Inverse Correlation Between Incidence and Mortality of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review.

Shock

The protocol was registered in PROSPERO database (CRD 42019129322).

We systematically reviewed clinical studies regarding adult ICU patients with AKI using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes-equivalent criteria from 2004 to May 1, 2018. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to investigate the correlation between the incidence and mortality of patients with AKI in each cohort. Studies with small number of participants (less than 500) were excluded. The correlation between the incidence of AKI and mortality of patients was evaluated using a regression model.

Our review yielded 76 cohorts, comprising 564,455 patients in ICU (median age, 60.5 years; men, 59.5%). The mortality of all patients did not correlate with the incidence of AKI in each cohort; however, the mortality of patients with AKI significantly decreased [squared correlation coefficient (R) = 0.18, regression coefficient (β) = -0.25, P < 0.001] as the incidence of AKI increased. This correlation was also observed in a subgroup analysis limited to the clinical setting of general ICUs, and among patients with mild or severe AKI.

An inverse correlation between the incidence of AKI and the mortality of patients with AKI may indicate an advantage of frequent AKI occurrence, possibly because of increased awareness and larger exposure to AKIs; further study is needed, however, to confirm the causality.

Exploring Clinically-Relevant Experimental Models of Neonatal Shock and Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Shock

Neonatal shock and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. NEC is a life-threatening ga...