The latest medical research on Emergency Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about emergency medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis in critically ill patients: a pilot trial.

Internal and emergency medicine

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in critically ill patients still represents a clinical challenge. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a syst...

Gamification of graduate medical education in an emergency medicine residency program.

International Journal of Emergency Medicine

Our program implemented East EMWars, a year-long, longitudinal game that added competition to our existing curricular content. We surveyed residents to investigate the impact of gamification in emergency medicine residency training. We hypothesized that residents would report higher levels of motivation, engagement, and challenge with gamification compared to traditional didactics. Furthermore, we hypothesized that residents would exhibit generally positive perceptions about gamification as a learning tool and that it would translate to improved performance on the annual in-training examination.

This was a single-center, prospective pre- and post-intervention survey study at a community-based emergency medicine residency program. Given the multiplicity of research questions and inherent nature of educational research, a mixed methods approach was utilized. We utilized nonparametric testing for quantitative data with paired responses pre- and post-intervention. We solicited comments on the post-intervention that were categorized under thematic approach and presented in complete and unedited form in the results.

Eighteen (100%) of eligible residents in our program participated in both surveys. There were statistically significant increases in reported levels of motivation, engagement, and challenge with gamification compared to traditional didactic methods. Residents also reported overwhelmingly positive general perceptions about gamification and its broader generalizability and applicability. We did not reach statistical significance in determining if in-training exam scores were associated with our gamification initiative.

This study was a first-of-its-kind look into a longitudinal game in an emergency medicine residency program. Although our results are encouraging, medical educators need further research to determine if this increase in motivation, engagement, and challenge will be associated with an increase in examination scores or, more importantly, healthcare outcomes. Theory-based, broader-scale, prospective studies are needed to further explore and help establish these associations and outcomes.

Relationship among Child Maltreatment, Parental Conflict, and Mental Health of Children during the COVID-19 Lockdown in China.

Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma

Children are more likely to experience maltreatment and parental conflict in a pandemic context, which can exacerbate their vulnerability to psycho...

Establishing the International Research Priorities for Pediatric Emergency Medicine Point-of-Care Ultrasound: A Modified Delphi Study.

Academic Emergency Medicine

The Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) Point-of-care Ultrasound (POCUS) Network (P2Network) was established in 2014 to provide a platform for international collaboration among experts, including multicenter research. The objective of this study was to use expert consensus to identify and prioritize PEM POCUS topics, to inform future collaborative multicenter research.

Online surveys were administered in a two-stage, modified Delphi study. A Steering Committee of 16 PEM POCUS experts was identified within the P2Network, with representation from the United States of America, Canada, Italy, and Australia. We solicited the participation of international PEM POCUS experts through professional society mailing lists, research networks, social media, and 'word of mouth'. After each round, responses were refined by the Steering Committee before being reissued to participants to determine the ranking of all the research questions based on means and to identify the high-level consensus topics. The final stage was a modified Hanlon Process of Prioritization round (HPP), which emphasized relevance, impact, and feasibility.

Fifty-four eligible participants (16.6%) provided 191 items to Survey 1 (Round 1). These were refined and consolidated into 52 research questions by the Steering Committee. These were issued for rating in Survey 2 (Round 2), which had 45 participants. At the completion of Round 2, all questions were ranked with 6 research questions reaching high-level consensus. Thirty-one research questions with mean ratings above neutral were selected for the HPP round. Highly ranked topics included clinical applications of POCUS to evaluate and manage children with shock, cardiac arrest, thoraco-abdominal trauma, suspected cardiac failure, atraumatic limp, and intussusception.

This consensus study has established a research agenda to inform future international multicenter PEM POCUS trials. This study has highlighted the ongoing need for high-quality evidence for PEM POCUS applications to guide clinical practice.

Does the definition of preventable emergency department visit matter? An empirical analysis using 20 million visits in Ontario and Alberta.

Academic Emergency Medicine

This study had two objectives: (1) to estimate the prevalence of preventable emergency department (ED) visits during the 2016-2020 time-period among those living in 19 large urban centres in Alberta and Ontario, Canada; and (2) to assess if the definition of preventable ED visits matters in estimating the prevalence.

A retrospective, population-based study of ED visits that were reported to the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) from April 1, 2016 to March 31, 2020 was conducted. Preventable ED visits were operationalized based on the following approaches: (1) Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), (2) Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC), (3) Family Practice Sensitive Conditions (FPSC), and (4) Sentinel Non-Urgent Conditions (SNC). The overall proportion of ED visits that were preventable was estimated. We also estimated the adjusted relative risks (RRs) of preventable ED visits by patients' sex and age, fiscal year (FY), province of residence, and census metropolitan area (CMA) of residence.

There were 20,171,319 ED visits made by 8,919,618 patients ages 1 to 74 who resided in one of the 19 CMAs in Alberta or Ontario. On average, there were 2.26 visits per patient over the period of four fiscal years; most patients made one (44.22%) or two ED visits (20.72%). The overall unadjusted prevalence of preventable ED visits varied by definition; 35.33% of ED visits were defined as preventable based on CTAS, 12.88% based on FPSC, 3.41% based on SNC, and 2.33% based on ACSC.

There is a substantial level of variation in prevalence estimates across definitions of preventable ED visits, and care should be taken when interpreting these estimates as each has a different meaning and may lead to different conclusions. The conceptualization and measurement of preventable ED visits is complex, multi-faceted, and may not be adequately captured by a single definition.

Characteristics of First Nations patients who take their own leave from an inner-city emergency department, 2016-2020.

EMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia

Using a strength-based framework, we aimed to describe and compare First Nations patients who completed care in an ED to those who took their own leave.

Routinely collected adult patient data from a metropolitan ED collected over a 5-year period were analysed.

A total of 6446 presentations of First Nations patients occurred from 2016 to 2020, constituting 3% of ED presentations. Of these, 5589 (87%) patients waited to be seen and 857 (13%) took their own leave. Among patients who took their own leave, 624 (73%) left not seen and 233 (27%) left at own risk after starting treatment. Patients who were assigned a triage category of 4-5 were significantly more likely to take their own leave (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.67-3.77, P < 0.001). Patients were significantly less likely to take their own leave if they were >60 years (adjusted OR 0.69, 95% CI 1.01-1.36, P = 0.014) and had private health insurance (adjusted OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, P < 0.001). Patients were more likely to leave if they were women (adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.36, P = 0.04), had an unknown housing status (adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.44-2.15, P < 0.001), were homeless (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.93, P < 0.001) or had a safety alert (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.35-1.90, P < 0.001).

A lower triage category is a strong predictor of First Nations patients taking their own leave. It has been documented that First Nations patients are under-triaged. One proposed intervention in the metropolitan setting is to introduce practices which expediate the care of First Nations patients. Further qualitative studies with First Nations patients should be undertaken to determine successful approaches to create equitable access to emergency healthcare for this population.

Changes in biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of potential harm after 360 days in smokers who either continue to smoke, switch to a tobacco heating product or quit smoking.

Internal and emergency medicine

The aim of this study was to investigate whether biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and potential harm (BoPH) are modified when smokers either continue t...

Progress in the management of acute colchicine poisoning in adults.

Internal and emergency medicine

Colchicine is a tricyclic, lipid-soluble alkaloid which has long been used to treat gout and many immunological diseases. Due to its narrow therape...

Serum estradiol level predicts acute kidney injury in medical intensive care unit patients.

Internal and emergency medicine

Previous studies have shown that serum estradiol (E2) levels can predict mortality in intensive care unit patients. Our study investigated the pred...

Cognitive biases encountered by physicians in the emergency room.

BMC Emergency Medicine

Diagnostic errors constitute an important medical safety problem that needs improvement, and their frequency and severity are high in emergency room settings. Previous studies have suggested that diagnostic errors occur in 0.6-12% of first-time patients in the emergency room and that one or more cognitive factors are involved in 96% of these cases. This study aimed to identify the types of cognitive biases experienced by physicians in emergency rooms in Japan.

We conducted a questionnaire survey using Nikkei Medical Online (Internet) from January 21 to January 31, 2019. Of the 159,519 physicians registered with Nikkei Medical Online when the survey was administered, those who volunteered their most memorable diagnostic error cases in the emergency room participated in the study. EZR was used for the statistical analyses.

A total of 387 physicians were included. The most common cognitive biases were overconfidence (22.5%), confirmation (21.2%), availability (12.4%), and anchoring (11.4%). Of the error cases, the top five most common initial diagnoses were upper gastrointestinal disease (22.7%), trauma (14.7%), cardiovascular disease (10.9%), respiratory disease (7.5%), and primary headache (6.5%). The corresponding final diagnoses for these errors were intestinal obstruction or peritonitis (27.3%), overlooked traumas (47.4%), other cardiovascular diseases (66.7%), cardiovascular disease (41.4%), and stroke (80%), respectively.

A comparison of the initial and final diagnoses of cases with diagnostic errors shows that there were more cases with diagnostic errors caused by overlooking another disease in the same organ or a disease in a closely related organ.

A modified Delphi approach to determine current treatment advances for the development of a resuscitation program for maternal cardiac arrest.

BMC Emergency Medicine

Maternal cardiac arrest is a rare and complex process requiring pregnancy-specific responses and techniques. The goals of this study were to (1) identify, evaluate, and determine the most current best practices to treat this patient population and (2) establish a standardized set of guidelines to serve as a foundation for a future educational simulation-based curriculum.

We used a three-step modified Delphi process to achieve consensus. Twenty-two healthcare experts from across North America agreed to participate in the expert panel. In round 1, 12 pregnancy-specific best practice statements were distributed to the expert panel. Panelists anonymously ranked these using a 7-point Likert scale and provided feedback. Round 2 consisted of a face-to-face consensus meeting where statements that had not already achieved consensus were discussed and then subsequently voted upon by the panelists.

Through two rounds, we achieved consensus on nine evidence-based pregnancy-specific techniques to optimize response to maternal cardiac arrest. Round one resulted in one of the 12 best practice statements achieving consensus. Round two resulted in six of the remaining 12 gaining consensus. Best practice techniques involved use of point-of care ultrasound, resuscitative cesarean delivery, cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, and the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

The results of this study provide the foundation to develop an optimal, long-term strategy to treat cardiac arrest in pregnancy. We propose these nine priorities for standard practice, curricula, and guidelines to treat maternal cardiac arrest and hope they serve as a foundation for a future educational curriculum.