The latest medical research on HIV / AIDS

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about hiv / aids gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Using Behavioral Economics to Support PrEP Adherence for HIV Prevention.

Current HIV/AIDS Reports

We explored different behavioral economics (BE) mechanisms through which pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) initiation and adherence could be impacted and examined recent work using BE principles to further HIV prevention efforts. We also generated new intervention ideas based on existing HIV testing and ART adherence literature.

There is limited work that uses BE principles to design interventions to increase PrEP initiation and adherence, mostly involving financial incentives. The recent works highlighted involve financial incentives and demonstrate that key populations are open to accepting monetary incentives to increase PrEP initiation and improve adherence. However, there are mixed results on the long-term impacts of using incentives to modify behavior. While there are a few ongoing studies that utilize BE principles to increase PrEP use, there is need to develop studies that test these concepts, to promote PrEP initiation and adherence. We suggest methods of exploring non-incentives-based ideas to increase PrEP use in key populations.

Splenomegaly is a marker of advanced chronic liver disease and portal hypertension in HIV infection.

HIV Medicine

To evaluate the clinical significance of splenomegaly as a marker of underlying liver disease in people with HIV (PWH).

We included consecutive PWH from a prospective cohort from 2010 to 2020 with available liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and liver imaging to define splenomegaly (> 13 cm) within 1 year. Cut-offs of LSM > 10 kPa and > 21 kPa were used to identify advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) and portal hypertension, respectively. Logistic regression multivariable analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of ACLD.

In all, 331 PWH were included, 76% of them men, with a median (interquartile range) age of 51.3 (45-58) years, all receiving antiretroviral treatment, and 53% were HIV monoinfected. The PWH with splenomegaly exhibited a higher prevalence of ACLD compared with those with normal spleen size, as per LSM (26% vs. 9%; p = 0.009). Portal hypertension diagnosed by LSM was also more prevalent in PWH with splenomegaly than in those without (15% vs. 2%; p < 0.001). Independent predictors of ACLD were viral hepatitis coinfection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-6.0], lower platelets (aOR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.99-0.99) and splenomegaly (aOR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.17-4.99). In patients with available oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, splenomegaly was also associated with higher prevalence of oesophageal varices and other endoscopic findings of portal hypertension (38% vs. 17%; p = 0.027).

Splenomegaly identified on routine imaging may have utility as a marker of ACLD and portal hypertension, prompting further investigations.

Client-Perpetrated Violence Experience Among Female Sex Worker in Guangdong, South China: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

AIDS and Behavior

Client-perpetrated violence (CPV) can lead to worse health consequences. However, little attention is paid to the CPV experience among Chinese fema...

Determinants of Willingness to Use PrEP Among Gay and Bisexual Men in China Before Implementation: A Structural Equation Modeling Assessment.

AIDS and Behavior

With the recent endorsement of PrEP by the Chinese government, research is urgently needed to better understand factors impacting PrEP uptake among...

VG161 activates systemic anti-tumor immunity in pancreatic cancer models as a novel oncolytic herpesvirus expressing multiple immunomodulatory transgenes.

Journal of Medical Genetics

The VG161 represents the first recombinant oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 carrying multiple synergistic anti-tumor immuno-modulating factors...

Are bladder washing samples suitable for investigation of HPV infection in urinary bladder? Comparison in HPV prevalence between urine and washing samples.

Journal of Medical Genetics

Although urine and bladder washing samples are commonly used for the cytological evaluation of the bladder mucosa, it has been unknown whether these samples are likely suitable to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the urinary bladder. The present study aimed to elucidate the appropriateness of spontaneously voided urine or bladder washing in screening HPV infection in the urinary bladder.

Urine and bladder washing samples were obtained from 201 patients who underwent transurethral bladder tumor resection. After extracting DNA from both samples, HPV-DNA was examined using a nested polymerase chain reaction with GP5+/6+ and MY09/11 primers. HPV genotyping was performed in the HPV-positive samples. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed to observe the HPV-DNA localization in urothelial cells among cytological samples and paraffin-embedded tumor tissues in HPV-positive washing samples.

HPV prevalence in urine and washing samples were 9.5% and 7.0%, respectively. High-risk HPV prevalence in urine and washing samples was 7.5% and 4.0%, respectively. The most common HPV type was HPV16, followed by HPV52 and HPV18 in both samples. HPV type distribution in both samples was not in agreement (κ = -0.431). The ISH analysis revealed that HPV-DNA signal was observed in urothelial cells of 5 (55.7%) of 9 detectable HPV-positive cytological samples. Six (66.7%) of 9 HPV-positive cases had HPV-DNA signals in tumor tissue.

The use of washing samples was likely applicable for investigating HPV prevalence in the urinary bladder. HPV-DNA detected in washing samples might be frequently derived from the urinary bladder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Virome analysis provides new insights into the association between viruses and Parkinson's disease.

Journal of Medical Genetics

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a kind of neurodegenerative disease that causes a huge burden to society. Previous studies have suggested the associati...

Route of monkeypox viral inoculum as a determinant of atypical clinical presentation.

Journal of Medical Genetics

our speculation is that the unusual prominent involvement of the anogenital region combined with an atypical or even absent invasive phase could di...

A Significant Predictor of In-Hospital and Long-term Mortality and Progression In COVID-19 Patients: The End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) Score Model.

Journal of Medical Genetics

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between MELD score and disease progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients.

The files of 4213 patients over the age of 18 who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 between 20.03.2020 and 01.05.2021 were retrospectively scanned. Sociodemographic characteristics, chronic diseases, hemogram and biochemical parameters at the time they were diagnosed with COVID-19 of the patients, duration of hospitalization, duration of intensive care unit (ICU), duration of intubation, in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 and outside-hospital mortality for another reason (within the last 1 year) and recurrent hospitalization (within the last 1 year) were recorded. The MELD scores of the patients were calculated. Two groups were formed as MELD score<10 and MELD score≥ 10.

The rate of ICU, in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 and outside-hospital mortality from other causes, intubation rate, recurrent hospitalization were significantly higher in the MELD≥10 group. The duration of ICU, hospitalization, intubation were significantly higher in the MELD≥10 group (p<0.001). As a result of Univariate and Multivariate analysis, MELD score was found to be the independent predictors of ICU, in-hospital mortality, intubation and recurrent hospitalization (p<0.001). MELD score 18.5 predicted ICU with 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC:0.740, 95%CI 0.717-0.763, p<0.001) also MELD score 18.5 predicted in-hospitale mortality with 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC:0.797, 95%CI 0.775-0.818, p<0.001).

The MELD score was found to be the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission and intubation in COVID-19 patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Association of viral load with TRAIL, IP-10, CRP biomarker signature and disease severity in children with respiratory tract infection or fever without source: a prospective, multicentre cohort study.

Journal of Medical Genetics

To investigate the association of viral load (VL) with (i) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon-gamma induced protein-10, C-reactive protein and a combinatorial score (BV score); and (ii) clinical severity.

In this prospective, multicentre cohort sub-study, children with respiratory tract infection or fever without source were enrolled. VL for influenza virus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were measured from nasopharyngeal swabs. The reference standard diagnosis was established based on expert panel adjudication.

Of 1140 recruited patients, 333 had a virus mono-detection. VL for the aggregated dataset correlated with TRAIL and IP-10 levels, with length of oxygen therapy, and inversely with the BV score. On single viral level, only influenza virus yielded a correlation with TRAIL, IP-10 levels, and the BV score. Children with a viral reference standard diagnosis had significantly higher VL than those with bacterial infection (p = 0.0005). Low TRAIL (incidence rate ratio, IRR 0.6, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.39-0.91) and young age (IRR 0.62, 95%CI 0.49-0.79) were associated with longer hospital stay, while young age (IRR 0.33, 95%CI 0.18-0.61), low TRAIL (IRR 0.25, 95%CI 0.08-0.76), and high VL (IRR 1.16, 95%CI 1.00-1.33) were predictive of longer oxygen therapy.

These findings indicate that VL correlates with biomarkers and may serve as a complementary tool pertaining to disease severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Black Women Living with HIV: A Latent Profile Analysis of Intersectional Adversities, Resilience, and Mental Health.

AIDS Patient Care and STDs

Black women living with HIV (BWLWH) face adversities, including discrimination (race, HIV, and gender related) and trauma. This study examines whic...

Genetic predisposition to blood cell indices in relation to severe COVID-19.

Journal of Medical Genetics

Despite of considerable variation in disease manifestations observed among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients infected with severe acute ...