The latest medical research on Medical Administration

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medical administration gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Differences in scapular upward rotation, pectoralis minor and levator scapulae muscle length between the symptomatic, the contralateral asymptomatic shoulder and control subjects: a cross-sectional study in a Spanish primary care setting.

BMJ Open

To determine the potential differences in both scapular positioning and scapular movement between the symptomatic and asymptomatic contralateral shoulder, in patients with unilateral subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS), and when compared with participants free of shoulder pain.

The scapular upward rotation (SUR), the pectoralis minor and the levator scapulae muscles length tests were carried out.

When symptomatic shoulders and controls were compared, an increased SUR at all positions (45°, 90° and 135°) was obtained in symptomatic shoulders (2/3,98/8,96°, respectively). These differences in SUR surpassed the minimal detectable change (MDC95) (0,91/1,55/2,83° at 45/90/135° of shoulder elevation). No differences were found in SUR between symptomatic and contralateral shoulders. No differences were found in either pectoralis minor or levator scapulae muscle length in all groups.

SUR was greater in patients with chronic SAPS compared with controls at different angles of shoulder elevation.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring body composition in adulthood: Results from two birth cohort studies.

BMJ Open

To evaluate the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body composition in adulthood and explore the causality of this association.

Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index, android to gynoid fat ratio, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, lean mass index and height.

Prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy was 35.1% and 32.6%, in 1982 and 1993 cohorts, respectively. Offspring of smoking mothers showed higher mean BMI (β: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.12 kg/m2), fat mass index (β: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.64 kg/m2), android to gynoid fat ratio (β: 0.016; 95% CI: 0.010 to 0.023), waist circumference (β: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.33 cm), waist to height ratio (β: 0.013; 95% CI: 0.010 to 0.017) and lean mass index (β: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.42 kg/m2), whereas height was lower (β: -0.95; -1.26 to -0.65). Weight gain in the first 2 years captured most of the association of maternal smoking with BMI (96.2%), waist circumference (86.1%) and fat mass index (71.7%).

Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with offspring body composition measures in adulthood.

Smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in young men: the Korean Life Course Health Study.

BMJ Open

To examine the effect of smoking on risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in Korean young men and to examine whether serum total cholesterol levels could modify the effect of smoking on ASCVD.

To assess the independent effects of smoking on the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke and ASCVD, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used, controlling for age, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia and alcohol drinking.

The total number of current smokers was 78 455 (66.2%), and 94 113 (79.7%) of the sample recorded a total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL measured at baseline. Between 1993 and 2015, 2786 cases of IHD (53/100 000 person year), 2368 cases of stroke (45.4/100 000 person year) and 6368 ASCVD (122.7/100 000 person year) occurred. The risk of IHD, stroke and total ASCVD events was found to increase for current smokers, with a HR with 95% CI of 1.5 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.6), 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5), respectively. Furthermore, the risks above were also found throughout the range of serum levels of cholesterol.

Smoking among Korean young adult men was independently associated with increased risk of IHD, stroke and ASCVD. The concentration of cholesterol in Korean men did not modify the effect of smoking on ASCVD.

'People have started to deliver in the facility these days': a qualitative exploration of factors affecting facility delivery in Ethiopia.

BMJ Open

To understand the recent rise in facility deliveries in Ethiopia.

12 narrative, 12 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with recently delivered women; and four focus group discussions with each of grandmothers, fathers and community health workers.

We found that several interwoven factors led to the increase in facility deliveries, and that respondents reported that the importance of these factors varied over time. The initial catalysts were a saturation of messages around facility delivery, improved accessibility of facilities, the prohibition of traditional birth attendants, and elders having less influence on deciding the place of delivery. Once women started to deliver in facilities, the drivers of the behaviour changed as women had positive experiences. As more women began delivering in facilities, families shared positive experiences of the facilities, leading to others deciding to deliver in a facility.

Our findings highlight the need to employ strategies that act at multiple levels, and that both push and pull families to health facilities.

Chewing gum to treat postoperative nausea and emesis in female patients (CHEWY): rationale and design for a multicentre randomised trial.

BMJ Open

ACTRN12618000429257; Pre-results.

This is a prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. 272 female patients aged ≥12 years having volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthesia for breast or laparoscopic surgery will be randomised. Patients experiencing nausea, retching or vomiting in PACU will be randomised to 15 min of chewing gum or 4 mg intravenous ondansetron. The primary outcome (complete response) is cessation of PONV within 2 hours of administration, with no recurrence nor rescue medication requirement for 2 hours after administration.

The Chewy Trial has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees at all sites. Dissemination will be via international and national anaesthesia conferences, and publication in the peer-reviewed literature.

Barriers to the psychological well-being of Australian junior doctors: a qualitative analysis.

BMJ Open

To explore factors associated with the psychological well-being of junior doctors in Australia.

Fifteen de-identified interviews were analysed. Four key themes emerged-workplace issues impacting on health and well-being; experiences of bullying and harassment; strategies to improve health and well-being; and barriers to seeking healthcare.

Underlying system and cultural factors affect the health of junior doctors. Self-stigma particularly affects junior doctors and impacts on their healthcare seeking behaviours.

Trends in kidney function testing in UK primary care since the introduction of the quality and outcomes framework: a retrospective cohort study using CPRD.

BMJ Open

To characterise serum creatinine and urinary protein testing in UK general practices from 2005 to 2013 and to examine how the frequency of testing varies across demographic factors, with the presence of chronic conditions and with the prescribing of drugs for which kidney function monitoring is recommended.

The rate of serum creatinine and urinary protein testing per year and the percentage of patients with isolated and repeated testing per year.

The rate of serum creatinine testing increased linearly across all age groups. The rate of proteinuria testing increased sharply in the 2009-2010 financial year but only for patients aged 60 years or over. For patients with established chronic kidney disease (CKD), creatinine testing increased rapidly in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, and proteinuria testing in 2009-2010, reflecting the introduction of Quality and Outcomes Framework indicators. In adjusted analyses, CKD Read codes were associated with up to a twofold increase in the rate of serum creatinine testing, while other chronic conditions and potentially nephrotoxic drugs were associated with up to a sixfold increase. Regional variation in serum creatinine testing reflected country boundaries.

Over a nine-year period, there have been increases in the numbers of patients having kidney function tests annually and in the frequency of testing. Changes in the recommended management of CKD in primary care were the primary determinant, and increases persist even after controlling for demographic and patient-level factors. Future studies should address whether increased testing has led to better outcomes.

Facilitators for using data from a quality registry in local quality improvement work: a cross-sectional survey of the Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

BMJ Open

To investigate use of data from a clinical quality registry for cardiac rehabilitation in Denmark, considering the extent to which data are used for local quality improvement and what facilitates the use of these data, with a particular focus on whether there are differences between frontline staff and managers.

Cross-sectional nationwide survey study.

A previously validated, Swedish questionnaire regarding use of data from clinical quality registries was translated and emailed to frontline staff, mid-level managers and heads of departments (n=175) in all 30 hospital departments participating in the Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database. Data were analysed descriptively and through multiple linear regression.

Survey response rate was 58% (101/175). Reports of registry use at department level (measured through an index comprising seven items; score min 0, max 7, where a low score indicates less use of data) varied significantly between groups of respondents: frontline staff mean score 1.3 (SD=2.0), mid-level management mean 2.4 (SD=2.3) and heads of departments mean 3.0 (SD=2.5), p=0.006. Overall, department level use of data was positively associated with higher perceived data quality and usefulness (regression coefficient=0.22, p=0.019), management request for data (regression coefficient=0.40, p=0.008) and personal motivation of the respondent (regression coefficient=1.63, p<0.001). Among managers, use of registry data was associated with data quality and usefulness (regression coefficient=0.43, p=0.027), and among frontline staff, reported data use was associated with management involvement in quality improvement work (regression coefficient=0.90, p=0.017) and personal motivation (regression coefficient=1.66, p<0.001).

The findings suggest relatively sparse use of data in local quality improvement work. A complex interplay of factors seem to be associated with data use with varying aspects being of importance for frontline staff and managers.

Nash-wo-Numa (childhood growth & development) study protocol: factors that impact linear growth in children 9 to 15 years of age in Matiari, Pakistan.

BMJ Open

NCT03647553; Pre-results.

This cross-sectional study will include girls (n= 738) 9.0 to 14.9 years of age and boys (n=687) 10.0 to 15.9 years of age who live in the rural district of Matiari, Pakistan. Participants will be assessed for anthropometrical measures, puberty development, nutritional biomarkers as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma using validated scales.

The proposed study aims to complete the picture of child and adolescent health concerning linear growth and mental health by including puberty indicators. Ethics approval has been granted by the Ethics Review Committee at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan, #5251-WCH-ERC-18 and Research Ethics Board at SickKids Hospital, Toronto, Canada, #:1000060684. Study results will be presented at relevant conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.

Vaping cannabis among adolescents: prevalence and associations with tobacco use from a cross-sectional study in the USA.

BMJ Open

Previous research suggests that some adolescents are using e-cigarette devices to vaporise ('vaping') cannabis in the form of hash oil, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax or oil, or dried cannabis buds or leaves. However, it is unclear how adolescents who vape cannabis use other tobacco products. This study examined the extent to which adolescents reported ever vaping cannabis and investigated how demographic variables and tobacco behaviours were associated with use.

Adolescents in high school (n=2835).

Adolescents were asked to indicate whether they had ever used an e-cigarette device with marijuana, THC or hash oil, or THC wax.

Approximately 1 in 10 high school students reported ever vaping cannabis in the overall sample (9.6%). In multivariable models, adolescents who reported using cigars (adjusted OR (aOR) 3.76, 95% CI 2.33 to 6.07), waterpipe (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.93) or e-cigarettes (aOR 3.18, 95% CI 2.38 to 4.25) in the past 30 days had higher odds of reporting ever vaping cannabis compared with their counterparts. There was no significant association between use of smokeless tobacco (aOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.91) or use of cigarettes (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.29) in the past 30 days and odds of reporting ever vaping cannabis.

These findings provide evidence that large numbers of high school students who use tobacco products have vaped cannabis. As tobacco control policies-such as communication campaigns or smoke-free laws-increasingly focus on e-cigarettes, attention to understanding how adolescents use e-cigarettes to vape substances other than nicotine is essential.

Recorded poor insight as a predictor of service use outcomes: cohort study of patients with first-episode psychosis in a large mental healthcare database.

BMJ Open

To investigate recorded poor insight in relation to mental health and service use outcomes in a cohort with first-episode psychosis.

We applied the algorithm to characterise a cohort of 2026 patients with first-episode psychosis attending an early intervention service.

Recorded poor insight within 1 month of registration was investigated in relation to (1) incidence of psychiatric hospitalisation, (2) odds of legally enforced hospitalisation, (3) number of days spent as a mental health inpatient and (4) number of different antipsychotic agents prescribed; outcomes were measured over varying follow-up periods from 12 months to 60 months, adjusting for a range of sociodemographic and clinical covariates.

Recorded poor insight, present in 48.9% of the sample, was positively associated with youngest and oldest age groups, unemployment and schizophrenia (compared with bipolar disorder) and was negatively associated with Asian ethnicity, married status, home ownership and recorded cannabis use. It was significantly associated with higher levels of all four outcomes over the succeeding 12 months. Associations with hospitalisation incidence and number of antipsychotics remained independently significant when measured over 60 and 48 months, respectively.

Recorded poor insight in people with recent onset psychosis predicted higher subsequent inpatient mental healthcare use. Improving insight might benefit patients' course of illness as well as reduce mental health service use.

Three contaminated sites in southern Italy. The Neonatal Environment and Health Outcomes cohort: protocol for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

BMJ Open

Exposure to environmental contaminants during pregnancy is one of the determinants of child's future health outcomes. The effect of environmental pollution on pregnant women living in heavily polluted areas is of special interest and, in this context, the Neonatal Environment and Health Outcomes (NEHO) cohort will focus on the investigation of (1) toxicants transferred from the environment to the mother and from the mother to the developing fetus and (2) the influence of toxicants on pregnancy outcomes, fetal development and health status during infancy. Because the human placenta is positioned at the interface between the maternal/external environment and the embryo, it can be considered a highly informative matrix regarding many key pregnancy events that can shape infant's future health.

The NEHO cohort will enrol an estimated total of 800 pregnant women in three selected National Priority Contaminated Sites in southern Italy. Epidemiological data, concerning maternal health status, lifestyle and pregnancy, are obtained through questionnaires provided to the mother starting from the last 2 months of pregnancy. At delivery, maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and placenta tissue are collected to assess contaminant levels and to clarify how toxicants interact with the placental domain. Furthermore, placental transcriptome is studied in order to explore the interferences of toxicants on the role of the placenta in maternal/fetal interplay. Regular follow-up is planned at 6, 12 and 24 months.

The study has been approved by all the Ethics Committees of the three National Priority Contaminated Sites involved: the Ethics Committee of the University Hospitals of Messina (18 September 2017, n. 9/2017); the Ethics Committee 'Catania 2' (11 July 2017, n. 38/2017/CECT2); the Ethics Committee of the Region of Calabria (20 July 2017, n. 173). Findings will be disseminated in the scientific community and on a regional basis for appropriate policy actions.