The latest medical research on Medical Administration

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medical administration gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Persistence with opioids post discharge from hospitalisation for surgery in Australian adults: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open

To determine time to opioid cessation post discharge from hospital in persons who had been admitted to hospital for a surgical procedure and were previously naïve to opioids.

The outcome of interest was time to cessation of opioids, with follow-up occurring over 12 months. Cessation was defined as a period without an opioid prescription that was equivalent to three times the estimated supply duration. The proportion who became chronic opioid users was defined as those who continued taking opioids for greater than 90 days post discharge. Cumulative incidence function with death as a competing event was used to determine time to cessation of opioids post discharge.

In 2014-2015, 24 854 persons were admitted for a surgical admission. In total 3907 (15.7%) were discharged on opioids. In total 3.9% of those discharged on opioids became chronic users of opioids. The opioid that the patients were most frequently discharged with was oxycodone; oxycodone alone accounted for 43%, while oxycodone with naloxone accounted for 8%.

Opioid initiation post-surgical hospital admission leads to chronic use of opioids in a small percentage of the population. However, given the frequency at which surgical procedures occur, this means that a large number of people in the population may be affected. Post-discharge assessment and follow-up of at-risk patients is important, particularly where psychosocial elements such as anxiety and catastrophising are identified.

Diabetes in pregnancy in associations with perinatal and postneonatal mortality in First Nations and non-Indigenous populations in Quebec, Canada: population-based linked birth cohort study.

BMJ Open

Both pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM, GDM) occur more frequently in First Nations (North American Indians) pregnant women than their non-Indigenous counterparts in Canada. We assessed whether the impacts of PGDM and GDM on perinatal and postneonatal mortality may differ in First Nations versus non-Indigenous populations.

Relative risks (RR) of perinatal and postneonatal death. Perinatal deaths included stillbirths and neonatal (0-27 days of postnatal life) deaths; postneonatal deaths included infant deaths during 28-364 days of life.

PGDM and GDM occurred much more frequently in First Nations (3.9% and 10.7%, respectively) versus non-Indigenous (1.1% and 4.8%, respectively) pregnant women. PGDM was associated with an increased risk of perinatal death to a much greater extent in First Nations (RR=5.08[95% CI 2.99 to 8.62], p<0.001; absolute risk (AR)=21.6 [8.6-34.6] per 1000) than in non-Indigenous populations (RR=1.76[1.17, 2.66], p=0.003; AR=4.2[0.2, 8.1] per 1000). PGDM was associated with an increased risk of postneonatal death in non-Indigenous (RR=3.46[1.71, 6.99], p<0.001; AR=2.4[0.1, 4.8] per 1000) but not First Nations (RR=1.16[0.28, 4.77], p=0.35) infants. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, the associations were similar. GDM was not associated with perinatal or postneonatal death in both groups.

The study is the first to reveal that PGDM may increase the risk of perinatal death to a much greater extent in First Nations versus non-Indigenous populations, but may substantially increase the risk of postneonatal death in non-Indigenous infants only. The underlying causes are unclear and deserve further studies. We speculate that population differences in the quality of glycaemic control in diabetic pregnancies and/or genetic vulnerability to hyperglycaemia's fetal toxicity may be contributing factors.

What enables older people to continue with their falls prevention exercises? A qualitative systematic review.

BMJ Open

To review the qualitative literature that explores the barriers and facilitators to continued participation in falls prevention exercise after completion of a structured exercise programme.

Key characteristics including aim, participant characteristics, method of data collection, underpinning qualitative methodology and analytical approach were extracted and independently checked. Thematic synthesis was used to integrate findings.

Qualitative or mixed methods studies exploring experiences of community-dwelling older adults (65 years and over) participation in a falls prevention exercise programme including their experience of ongoing participation in exercise after the completion of a structured exercise programme.

From 14 studies involving 425 participants, we identified three descriptive themes: identity, motivators/deterrents and nature of the intervention and one overarching analytical theme: agency.

Older people have their own individual and meaningful rationale for either continuing or stopping exercise after completion of a structured falls prevention exercise programme. Exploring these barriers and facilitators to continued exercise is key during the intervention phase. It is important that health care professionals get to know the older person's rationale and offer the best evidence-based practice and support to individuals, to ensure a smooth transition from their structured intervention towards longer-term exercise-related behaviour.

CRD42017082637.

Quantitative examination of the bone health status of older adults with intellectual and developmental disability in Ireland: a cross-sectional nationwide study.

BMJ Open

(1) To investigate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and (2) to examine alternative optimal bone screening techniques.

Participants underwent health assessments consisting of eight objective health measures including the standardised QUS of the calcaneus bone using a GE Lunar Achilles. A preinterview questionnaire and face-to-face interview were also completed.

Objectively QUS identified poorer rates of bone health in people with ID overall with 74% indicating evidence of osteopenia (33.2%) or osteoporosis (41%). Females scored lower than males in the QUS t-scores -2.208 (±1.77) versus -1.78(±1.734). Bone status was stratified by gender (p=0.114), age (p=0.003), level of ID (p<0.0001) and living circumstance (p<0.0001).

This study has shown the prevalence of poor bone health in people with ID is substantial implying an increased risk of fracture due to reduced skeletal integrity. QUS screening has been shown to be useful when combined with clinical risk factors.

International normative data for paediatric foot posture assessment: a cross-sectional investigation.

BMJ Open

The foot posture index (FPI) is an observational tool designed to measure the position of the foot. The objective of this study was to establish international reference data for foot posture across childhood, and influence of body mass index (BMI) on paediatric foot posture.

Foot posture was described by means and z-score of the FPI and the height and weight of each subject was measured and the BMI was calculated.

The foot posture of 3217 children were reviewed. A pronated (FPI ≥+6) foot posture was found in 960 (29.8%) children, a normal (FPI 0 to +6) foot posture in 1776 (55.2%) and a highly pronated (FPI +10) foot posture was found in 127 children (3.9%) (range -4 to +12 FPI). Less than 11% were found to have a supinated foot type (n=354). Approximately 20% of children were overweight/obese, but correlation between BMI and FPI was weak and inverse (r=-0.066, p<0.01), refuting the relationship between increased body mass and flatfeet.

This study confirms that the 'flat' or pronated foot is the common foot posture of childhood, with FPI score of +4 (3) the average finding. Trend indicated a less flatfoot with age, although non-linear. A wide normal range of foot posture across childhood is confirmed.

Co-prescription patterns of cardiovascular preventive treatments: a cross-sectional study in the Aragon worker' health study (Spain).

BMJ Open

To identify cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive treatments combinations, among them and with other drugs, and to determine their prevalence in a cohort of Spanish workers.

5577 workers belonging to AWHS cohort. From these subjects, we selected those that had, at least, three prescriptions of the same therapeutic subgroup in 2014 (n=4605).

Drug consumption was obtained from the Aragon Pharmaceutical Consumption Registry (Farmasalud). In order to know treatment utilisation, prevalence analyses were conducted. Frequent item set mining techniques were applied to identify drugs co-prescription patterns. All the results were stratified by sex and age.

42.3% of men and 18.8% of women in the cohort received, at least, three prescriptions of a CVD preventive treatment in 2014. The most prescribed CVD treatment were antihypertensives (men: 28.2%, women 9.2%). The most frequent association observed among CVD preventive treatment was agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system and lipid-lowering drugs (5.1% of treated subjects). Co-prescription increased with age, especially after 50 years old, both in frequency and number of associations, and was higher in men. Regarding the association between CVD preventive treatments and other drugs, the most frequent pattern observed was lipid-lowering drugs and drugs used for acid related disorders (4.2% of treated subjects).

There is an important number of co-prescription patterns that involve CVD preventive treatments. These patterns increase with age and are more frequent in men. Mining techniques are a useful tool to identify pharmacological patterns that are not evident in the individual clinical practice, in order to improve drug prescription appropriateness.

Exploring the impacts of the 2012 Health and Social Care Act reforms to commissioning on clinical activity in the English NHS: a mixed methods study of cervical screening.

BMJ Open

Explore the impact of changes to commissioning introduced in England by the Health and Social Care Act 2012 (HSCA) on cervical screening activity in areas identified empirically as particularly affected organisationally by the reforms.

Qualitative followed by quantitative methods. Qualitative: semi-structured interviews (with NHS commissioners, managers, clinicians, senior administrative staff from Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), local authorities, service providers), observations of commissioning meetings in two metropolitan areas of England. Quantitative: triple-difference analysis of national administrative data. Variability in the expected effects of HSCA on commissioning was measured by comparing CCGs working with one local authority with CCGs working with multiple local authorities. To control for unmeasured confounders, differential changes over time in cervical screening rates (among women, 25-64 years) between CCGs more and less likely to have been affected by HSCA commissioning organisational change were compared with another outcome-unassisted birth rates-largely unaffected by HSCA changes.

Interviewees identified that cervical screening commissioning and provision was more complex and 'fragmented', with responsibilities less certain, following the HSCA. Interviewees predicted this would reduce cervical screening rates in some areas more than others. Quantitative findings supported these predictions. Areas where CCGs dealt with multiple local authorities experienced a larger decline in cervical screening rates (1.4%) than those dealing with one local authority (1.0%). Over the same period, unassisted deliveries decreased by 1.6% and 2.0%, respectively, in the two groups.

Arrangements for commissioning and delivering cervical screening were disrupted and made more complex by the HSCA. Areas most affected saw a greater decline in screening rates than others. The fact that this was identified qualitatively and then confirmed quantitatively strengthens this finding. The study suggests large-scale health system reforms may have unintended consequences, and that complex commissioning arrangements may be problematic.

Does exercise impact gut microbiota composition in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer? A single-blinded, two-armed, randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open

ANZCTR12618000280202.

A single-blinded, two-armed, randomised controlled trial will explore the influence of a 3-month exercise programme (3 days/week) for men with high-risk localised PCa receiving ADT. Sixty patients will be randomly assigned to either exercise intervention or usual care. The primary endpoint (gut health and function assessed via feacal samples) and secondary endpoints (self-reported quality of life via standardised questionnaires, blood biomarkers, body composition and physical fitness) will be measured at baseline and following the intervention. A variety of statistical methods will be used to understand the covariance between microbial diversity and metabolomics profile across time and intervention. An intention-to-treat approach will be utilised for the analyses with multiple imputations followed by a secondary sensitivity analysis to ensure data robustness using a complete cases approach.

Ethics approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee of Edith Cowan University (ID: 19827 NEWTON). Findings will be reported in peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences in addition to working with national support groups to translate findings for the broader community. If exercise is shown to result in favourable changes in gut microbial diversity, composition and metabolic profile, and reduce gastrointestinal complications in PCa patients receiving ADT, this study will form the basis of a future phase III trial.

Walk, Talk and Listen: a pilot randomised controlled trial targeting functional fitness and loneliness in older adults with hearing loss.

BMJ Open

Age-related hearing loss (HL) is a prevalent disability associated with loneliness, isolation, declines in cognitive and physical function and premature mortality. Group audiological rehabilitation (GAR) and hearing technologies address communication and cognitive decline. However, the relationship between loneliness, physical function and GAR among older adults with HL has not been studied.

Explore the impact of a group exercise and socialisation/health education intervention and GAR on physical function and loneliness among older adults with HL.

Seventy-one participants were screened. Thirty-five were randomised to intervention (strength and resistance exercise, socialisation/health education) and GAR (hearing education, communication strategies, psychosocial support) or control (n=31): GAR only.

Ninety-five per cent of eligible participants were randomised. GAR and exercise adherence rates were 80% and 85%, respectively. 88% of participants completed the study. Intervention group functional fitness improved significantly (gait speed: effect size: 0.57, 30 s Sit to Stand Test: effect size: 0.53). Significant improvements in emotional and social loneliness (effect size: 1.16) and hearing-related quality of life (effect size: 0.76) were related to GAR attendance and poorer baseline hearing-related quality of life. Forty-two per cent of participants increased social contacts outside the study.

This pilot trial provides key information on the sample size required for a larger, longer term RCT to determine the enduring effects of this holistic intervention addressing the negative psychosocial and musculoskeletal downstream effects of HL among older adults.

Involving the general practitioner during curative cancer treatment: a systematic review of health care interventions.

BMJ Open

The role of primary care providers (PCP) in the cancer care continuum is expanding. In the post-treatment phase, this role is increasingly recognised by policy makers and healthcare professionals. During treatment, however, the role of PCP remains largely undefined. This systematic review aims to map the content and effect of interventions aiming to actively involve the general practitioner (GP) during cancer treatment with a curative intent.

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series focusing on interventions designed to involve the GP during curative cancer treatment were systematically identified from PubMed and EMBASE and were subsequently reviewed. Risk of bias was scored according to the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group risk of bias criteria.

Five RCTs and one CCT were included. Interventions and effects were heterogeneous across studies. Four studies implemented interventions focussing on information transfer to the GP and two RCTs implemented patient-tailored GP interventions. The studies have a low-medium risk of bias. Three studies show a low uptake of the intervention. A positive effect on patient satisfaction with care was found in three studies. Subgroup analysis suggests a reduction of healthcare use in elderly patients and reduction of clinical anxiety in those with higher mental distress. No effects are reported on patients' quality of life (QoL).

Interventions designed to actively involve the GP during curative cancer treatment are scarce and diverse. Even though uptake of interventions is low, results suggest a positive effect of GP involvement on patient satisfaction with care, but not on QoL. Additional effects for vulnerable subgroups were found. More robust evidence for tailored interventions is needed to enable the efficient and effective involvement of the GP during curative cancer treatment.

CRD42018102253.

Cost-effectiveness of faecal calprotectin used in primary care in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

BMJ Open

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, autoimmune, gastrointestinal disorder. Canada has one of the highest prevalence and incidence rates of IBD in the world. Diagnosis is challenging due to the similarity of symptoms to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Faecalcalprotectin (FC) is a biomarker for active mucosal inflammation and has proven effective in the diagnosis of IBD. Our study objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding an FC test compared with standard practice (blood test) in primary care among adult patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms.

Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of FC test expressed as cost per QALY gained compared with blood test and time to IBD diagnosis.

FC testing is expected to cost more ($C295.1 vs $C273.9) than standard practice but yield little higher QALY (0.751vs0.750). The ICER of FC test was $C20 323 per QALY. Probabilistic analysis demonstrated that at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $C50 000 per QALY, there was 81.3% probability of FC test being cost-effective. The use of FC test in primary care reduced the time to IBD diagnosis by 40.0 days (95% CI 16.3 to 65.3 days), compared with blood testing alone.

Based on this analysis of short-term outcomes, screening adult patients in primary care using FC test at a cut-off level of 100 µg/g is expected to be cost-effective in Canada.

Real-world persistence and adherence with oral bisphosphonates for osteoporosis: a systematic review.

BMJ Open

This study examined patient adherence and persistence to oral bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis in real-world settings.

A systematic review was completed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database NHS EED) databases were searched for studies published in English language up to April 2018. Prospective and retrospective observational studies that used prescription claim databases or hospital medical records to examine patient adherence and persistence to oral bisphosphonate treatment among adults with osteoporosis were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of included studies.

The search yielded 540 published studies, of which 89 were deemed relevant and were included in this review. The mean age of patients included within the studies ranged between 53 to 80.8 years, and the follow-up varied from 3 months to 14 years. The mean persistence of oral bisphosphonates for 6 months, 1 year and 2 years ranged from 34.8% to 71.3%, 17.7% to 74.8% and 12.9% to 72.0%, respectively. The mean medication possession ratio ranged from 28.2% to 84.5%, 23% to 50%, 27.2% to 46% over 1 year, 2 years and 3 years, respectively. All studies included scored between 6 to 8 out of 9 on the NOS. The determinants of adherence and persistence to oral bisphosphonates included geographic residence, marital status, tobacco use, educational status, income, hospitalisation, medication type and dosing frequency.

While a number of studies reported high levels of persistence and adherence, the findings of this review suggest that patient persistence and adherence with oral bisphosphonates medications was poor and reduced notably over time. Overall, adherence was suboptimal. To maximise adherence and persistence to oral bisphosphonates, it is important to consider possible determinants, including characteristics of the patients.