The latest medical research on Medical Administration

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medical administration gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Prehospital time and mortality in patients requiring a highest priority emergency medical response: a Danish registry-based cohort study.

BMJ Open

To examine the association between time from emergency medical service vehicle dispatch to hospital arrival and 1-day and 30-day mortality.

1-day and 30-day mortality.

Among 93 167 individuals with highest priority ambulances dispatched, 1948 (2.1%) were dead before the ambulance arrived and 19 968 (21.4%) were transported to the hospital under highest priority (median total prehospital time from dispatch to hospital arrival 47 min (25%-75%: 35-60 min); 95th percentile 84 min). Among 18 709 with population data, 1-day mortality was 10.9% (n=2038), and was highest for patients with dyspnoea (20.4%) and lowest for patients with traffic accidents (2.8%). Thirty-day mortality was 18.3% and varied between 36.6% (patients with dyspnoea) and 3.7% (traffic accidents). One-day mortality was not associated with total prehospital time, except for presumed heart conditions, where longer prehospital time was associated with decreased mortality: adjusted OR for >60 min vs 0-30 min was 0.61 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.91). For patients with dyspnoea, OR for >60 min vs 0-30 min was 0.90 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.45), for presumed cerebrovascular conditions OR 1.41 (95% CI 0.53 to 3.78), for other presumed medical conditions OR 0.84 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.02), for traffic accidents OR 0.65 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.48) and for other accidents OR 0.84 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.51). Similar findings were found for 30-day mortality.

In this study, where time from emergency dispatch to hospital arrival mainly was <80 min, there was no overall relation between this prehospital time measure and mortality.

Effects of supervised exercise training during pregnancy on psychological well-being among overweight and obese women: secondary analyses of the ETIP-trial, a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open

Women with high body mass index (BMI) have increased risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and postpartum. In this prespecified secondary analysis from the exercise training in pregnancy trial, our aim was to examine effects of supervised exercise during pregnancy on psychological well-being in late pregnancy and postpartum among women with a prepregnancy BMI ≥28 kg/m2.

The exercise group was offered 3 weekly supervised exercise sessions (35 min of moderate intensity walking/running and 25 min of resistance training), until delivery.

Primary analyses were based on intention to treat, with secondary perprotocol analyses. To assess psychological well-being, we used the 'Psychological General Well-Being Index' (PGWBI) at inclusion (gestational week 12-18), late pregnancy (gestational week 34-37) and 3 months postpartum. We assessed postpartum depression using the 'Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale' (EPDS).

Numbers completed data collection: late pregnancy 72 (exercise 38, control 36), postpartum 70 (exercise 36, control 34). In the exercise group, 50% adhered to the exercise protocol. Baseline PGWBI for all women was 76.4±12.6. Late pregnancy PGWBI; exercise 76.6 (95% CI 72.2 to 81.0), control 74.0 (95% CI 69.4 to 78.5) (p=0.42). Postpartum PGWBI; exercise 85.4 (95% CI 81.9 to 88.8), control 84.6 (95% CI 80.8 to 88.4) (with no between-group difference, p=0.77). There was no between-group difference in EPDS; exercise 2.96 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.2), control 3.48 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.7) (p=0.55).

We found no effect of supervised exercise during pregnancy on psychological well-being among women with high BMI. Our findings may be hampered by low adherence to the exercise protocol.

NCT01243554.

Motivating factors on performance of primary care workers in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open

Although China has made remarkable progress in strengthening its primary healthcare system, lack of well-performed primary health workforce is still the bottleneck of deepening the reform. The objective of this review is to understand the current profile of Chinese primary care workers (PCWs) and their motivating factors of performance and propose targeted policy suggestions on improving their work performance.

A systematic search of PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted to identify articles published from January 1, 2000, to June 2, 2018. Quality assessment and data extraction for the studies closely relevant to performance of PCWs in China were conducted by two reviewers independently. A preliminary framework containing different levels of factors influencing PCWs' motivation based on existence, growth and relatedness (ERG) theory guided the synthesis analysis. In addition, we used a random-effects model to pool individual studies on job satisfaction and estimate the overall job satisfaction of PCWs.

A total of 36 articles were included; 16 (23 882 participants) in the meta-analysis. Regarding the individual level of motivation, 3 overarching themes and 12 subthemes were developed. The subthemes of financial incentives, career advancement and work itself were frequently mentioned and have more influences on PCWs' performance. Moreover, the healthcare system reform policies have inevitable and complex impacts on different levels of human needs, and then influences on the motivation and performance of PCWs. Meta-analysis showed that the overall job satisfaction score among PCWs was 3.30, just reaching a satisfied rating and varied in different regions.

This study suggests low work satisfaction among PCWs in China, with financial incentives and career advancement being two most important motivating factors. Efforts to improve the work performance in PCWs should give priority to these motivating factors and systematically take into account the health policy's impacts on performance of PCWs.

At the grassroots of home and community-based aged care: strategies for successful consumer engagement.

BMJ Open

(1) To describe the processes used to plan and conduct a stakeholder forum in aged care as a means of informing future uptake of consumer participatory research. (2) To discuss how capturing and drawing on stakeholders' experiences of aged care can generate new research ideas and inform the delivery of more person-centred aged care services.

A stakeholder forum was conducted as part of Ageing Well, a 2-year project evaluating the value and impact of social participation and quality of life tools as part of routine community aged care assessments at a large Australian provider. The forum was codesigned with community aged care clients and care coordinators and aimed to coproduce implementation strategies with a targeted representation of stakeholders. The stakeholder forum was developed using five key principles of consumer engagement activities: purposeful, inclusive, timely, transparent and respectful. The forum fostered an environment of mutual respect and collective inquiry to encourage contributions from all participants. This article outlines practical guidance on using a consumer engagement framework and the lessons learnt.

The stakeholder forum facilitated an understanding of consumers' needs and existing gaps in aged care services and the circumstances that can enable or hinder the delivery and implementation of these services. This collective information can guide future research and policy at institutional, regional and national committees that relate to aged care.

ACTRN12617001212347.

Arts for ageing well: a propensity score matching analysis of the effects of arts engagements on holistic well-being among older Asian adults above 50 years of age.

BMJ Open

To assess the frequency and intensity of arts engagement inclusive of active and passive engagements in arts, culture and heritage activities among Singaporean adults aged 50 and above, and examine the relationships between participatory art and holistic well-being.

1067 community-dwelling, Singaporean older adults between the ages of 50 and 95 years were recruited.

Respondents completed a self-reported questionnaire, consisting of standardised ad hoc items assessing the frequencies and durations of active and passive participatory arts engagement, as well as validated psychometric assessments on psychosociospiritual health including the primary outcome measure on quality of life, and the secondary outcome measures on physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual, and social well-being. sociodemographic information, as well as frequency and intensity of physical activity were also collected.

Passive engagement (60%) and active engagement (17%) in the arts were associated with better holistic wellness and social support. Specifically, findings from the propensity score matching and independent t-test analyses revealed that adults aged 50 and above who passively engaged in arts and culture-related events experienced higher quality of life (t(728)=3.35, p=0.0008, d=0.25), perceived health (t(728)=2.21, p=0.0277, d=0.16) and sense of belonging (t(728)=2.17, p=0.03, d=0.16), as compared with those who did not. Moreover, those who actively engaged in participatory arts experienced greater quality of life (t(442)=3.68, p=0.0003, d=0.36), self-rated health (t(442)=2.59, p=0.0099, d=0.25), spiritual well-being (t(442)=3.75, p=0.0002, d=0.37), meaning in life (t(442)=5.03, p<0.0001, d=0.50) and sense of peace (t(442)=3.72, p=0.0002, d=0.36), as compared with those who did not actively engaged in the arts.

This study provided robust evidence to support a significant causal relationship between arts engagements and holistic well-being. Recommendations for art-based public health and elderly care research, practice and policy are discussed.

Understanding and addressing the challenges of conducting quantitative evaluation at a local level: a worked example of the available approaches.

BMJ Open

In the context of tightening fiscal budgets and increased commissioning responsibility, local decision-makers across the UK healthcare sector have found themselves in charge of the implementation and evaluation of a greater range of healthcare interventions and services. However, there is often little experience, guidance or funding available at a local level to ensure robust evaluations are conducted. In this paper, we evaluate the possible scenarios that could occur when seeking to conduct a quantitative evaluation of a new intervention, specifically with regards to the availability of evidence.

We outline the full set of possible data scenarios that could occur if the decision-maker seeks to explore the impact of the launch of a new intervention on some relevant quantifiable outcomes. In each case we consider the implicit assumptions associated with conducting an evaluation, exploring possible situations where such scenarios may occur. We go on to apply the scenarios to a simulated dataset to explore how each scenario can result in different conclusions as to the effectiveness of the new intervention.

We demonstrate that, across the full set of scenarios, differences in the scale of the estimated effectiveness of a new intervention and even the direction of effect are possible given different data availability and analytical approaches.

When conducting quantitative evaluations of new interventions, the availability of data on the outcome of interest and the analytical approach can have profound effects on the conclusions of the evaluation. Although it will not always be possible to obtain a complete set of data and conduct extensive analysis, it is vital to understand the implications of the data used and consider the implicit assumptions made through its use.

Effects of physical activity interventions on the body mass index of children and adolescents in Latin America: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open

In Latin America, the number of children and adolescents who are overweight or obese has significantly increased in recent decades, and this situation has become a major public health concern. To address this problem, several intervention programmes, based on factors such as physical activity and nutrition, have been implemented, and body mass index (BMI) has been widely used as a means of measuring the impact of such interventions. Although some Latin America-based systematic reviews have been performed, there have been no previous meta-analyses of findings regarding the effect of physical activity interventions on BMI. Thus, the objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the effects of physical activity interventions on BMI of Latin American children and adolescents aged 4-18 years.

This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol is based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols statement. The literature search will involve MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scielo for articles published up to July 2019. This search will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised experimental studies and single-arm pre-post studies. Further, the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for RCT studies and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies for non-randomised experimental and single-arm pre-post studies will be used to assess the risk of bias among the studies included in the systematic review. For the meta-analysis, the statistical program STATA V.14 will be used, and standardised mean differences are calculated as the primary outcomes. Subgroup analyses will then be performed based on the characteristics of the interventions and populations included in the studies examined.

This systematic review protocol is designed to provide updated evidence regarding the effects of physical activity interventions on the Latin American population; such evidence may be useful for institutions responsible for the development of public health policies and for those tasked with implementing such interventions among children and adolescents in Latin America. The results should be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Since the data used in systematic reviews of this type will be extracted exclusively from published studies, approval from an ethics committee will not be required.

CRD42019077702.

Temporal variation in the diagnosis of resolved atrial fibrillation and the influence of performance targets on clinical coding: cohort study.

BMJ Open

To investigate whether the introduction of performance targets for anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF) was associated with a change in use of the 'resolved AF' code.

Annual and monthly incidence of 'resolved AF' from 2000 to 2016. Among patients with 'resolved AF', for each year we calculated median duration of the preceding AF diagnosis and the proportion prescribed anticoagulants prior to 'resolved AF'.

Incidence of 'resolved AF' increased from 5.7 to 26.3 per 1000 person-years between 2005 and the introduction of AF performance targets in 2006. Compared with the years prior to the introduction of the performance targets, incidence has remained higher in every year since their implementation. Since 2007, monthly incidence has been highest between January and March. Between 2005 and 2006, median duration between AF and 'resolved AF' diagnoses increased from 276 days (9 months) to 1343 days (3 years 8 months). Among 'resolved AF' patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1, 81.9% (95% CI 81.1 to 82.6) had no current anticoagulant prescription, and 62.3% (95% CI 61.4 to 63.2) had no record of any anticoagulant prescription.

The introduction of AF performance targets was followed by a large increase in use of the 'resolved AF' code, particularly in the months immediately before practices make their anticoagulant performance target submissions. Although most AF patients are prescribed anticoagulants, few patients diagnosed with 'resolved AF' are prescribed anticoagulants and most have never been prescribed them. Untreated patients are much more likely to be coded as having 'resolved AF'.

Experiences among firefighters and police officers of responding to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a dual dispatch programme in Sweden: an interview study.

BMJ Open

The objective of this study was to explore firefighters' and police officers' experiences of responding to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in a dual dispatch programme.

Police officers (n=10) and firefighters (n=12) participating in a dual dispatch programme with emergency medical services in case of suspected OHCA of cardiac or non-cardiac origin.

Analysis of 60 critical incidents was performed resulting in three consecutive time sequences (preparedness, managing the scene and the aftermath) with related categories, where first responders described the complexity of the cardiac arrest situation. Detailed information about the case and the location was crucial for the preparedness, and information deficits created stress, frustration and incorrect perceptions about the victim. The technical challenges of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation and managing the airway was prominent and the need of regular team training and education in first aid was highlighted.

Participating in dual dispatch in case of suspected OHCA was described as a complex technical and emotional process by first responders. Providing case discussions and opportunities to give, and receive feedback about the case is a main task for the leadership in the organisations to diminish stress among personnel and to improve future OHCA missions.

Risk of aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with clinical vertebral fracture: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

BMJ Open

Studies on the association between clinical vertebral fractures (CVFs) and the subsequent risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, including aortic dissection (AD), congestive heart failure (CHF), pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are scarce. Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate whether patients with CVF have a heightened risk of subsequent AD, CHF, pneumonia and ARDS.

This cohort study comprised patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of CVF and were hospitalised at any point during 2000-2010 (n=1 08 935). Each CVF patient was frequency-matched to a no-CVF hospitalised patients based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities (n=1 08 935). The Cox proportional hazard regressions model was used to estimate the adjusted effect of CVF on AD, CHF, pneumonia and ARDS risk.

The overall incidence of AD, CHF, pneumonia and ARDS was higher in the CVF group than in the no-CVF group (4.85 vs 3.99, 119.1 vs 89.6, 283.3 vs 183.5 and 9.18 vs 4.18/10 000 person-years, respectively). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities and Charlson comorbidity index score, patients with CVF had a 1.23-fold higher risk of AD (95% CI=1.03-1.45), 1.35-fold higher risk of CHF (95% CI=1.30-1.40), 1.57-fold higher risk of pneumonia (95% CI=1.54-1.61) and 2.21-fold higher risk of ARDS (95% CI=1.91-2.57) than did those without CVF. Patients with cervical CVF and SCI were more likely to develop pneumonia and ARDS.

Our study demonstrates that CVFs are associated with an increased risk of subsequent cardiopulmonary diseases. Future investigations are encouraged to delineate the mechanisms underlying this association.

Protocol for the first large-scale emergency care-based longitudinal cohort study of recovery after sexual assault: the Women's Health Study.

BMJ Open

Worldwide, an estimated 10%-27% of women are sexually assaulted during their lifetime. Despite the enormity of sexual assault as a public health problem, to our knowledge, no large-scale prospective studies of experiences and recovery over time among women presenting for emergency care after sexual assault have been performed.

Women ≥18 years of age who present for emergency care within 72 hours of sexual assault to a network of treatment centres across the USA are approached for study participation. Blood DNA and RNA samples and brief questionnaire and medical record data are obtained from women providing initial consent. Full consent is obtained at initial 1 week follow-up to analyse blood sample data and to perform assessments at 1 week, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. These assessments include evaluation of survivor life history, current health and recovery and experiences with treatment providers, law enforcement and the legal system.

This study is approved by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the IRB of each participating study site. We hope to present the results of this study to the scientific community at conferences and in peer-reviewed journals.

Assessing the feasibility and impact of specially adapted exercise interventions, aimed at improving the multi-dimensional health and functional capacity of frail geriatric hospital inpatients: protocol for a feasibility study.

BMJ Open

NCT03141866.

This study will use a 2-week, interventional, independent measures research design in order to assess the feasibility and impact of two specially adapted exercise training interventions (a specially adapted resistance training intervention, and Move It Or Lose It: an established community-based exercise intervention for older adults) aimed at improving the multidimensional health and functional capacity of frail geriatric hospital inpatients.

This study has received a favourable ethical opinion by the Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Research Ethics Committee and sponsorship by the University of Birmingham after review by the sponsors research governance office. The findings will be disseminated through publication in open access scientific journals, public engagement events, online via social media, conference presentations and directly to study participants on request.