The latest medical research on Medical Administration

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medical administration gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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How do delirium motor subtypes differ in phenomenology and contributory aetiology? a cross-sectional, multisite study of liaison psychiatry and palliative care patients.

BMJ Open

To investigate whether delirium motor subtypes differ in terms of phenomenology and contributory aetiology.

1757 patients diagnosed with delirium using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM IV).

Hyperactive, mixed and hypoactive delirium subtypes were identified using the abbreviated version of the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale. Phenomenology was assessed using the Delirium Rating Scale Revised. Contributory aetiologies were assessed using the Delirium Aetiology Checklist (DEC), with a score >2 indicating that the aetiology was likely or definitely contributory.

Hypoactive delirium was associated with dementia, cerebrovascular and systemic infection aetiologies (p<0.001) and had a lower overall burden of delirium symptoms than the other motor subtypes. Hyperactive delirium was associated with younger age, drug withdrawal and the DEC category other systemic aetiologies (p<0.001). Mixed delirium showed the greatest symptom burden and was more often associated with drug intoxication and metabolic disturbance (p<0.001). All three delirium motor subtypes had similar levels of impairment in attention and visuospatial functioning but differed significantly when compared with no subtype (p<0.001).

This study indicates a pattern of aetiology and symptomatology of delirium motor subtypes across a large international sample that had previously been lacking. It serves to improve our understanding of this complex condition and has implications in terms of early detection and management of delirium.

Efficacy of the iDBT-Pain skills training intervention to reduce emotional dysregulation and pain intensity in people with chronic pain: protocol for a single-case experimental design with multiple baselines.

BMJ Open


A single-case experimental design (SCED) with multiple baselines will be used to examine the efficacy of a 4-week iDBT-Pain skills training intervention (iDBT-Pain intervention) to reduce emotional dysregulation and pain intensity in individuals with chronic pain. The iDBT-Pain intervention encompasses two components: (1) iDBT-Pain skills training sessions (iDBT-Pain sessions) and (2) the iDBT-Pain skills training web application (iDBT-Pain app). Three individuals with chronic pain will be recruited and randomly allocated to different baseline phases (5, 9 or 12 days). Following the baseline phase, participants will receive six 60-90 min iDBT-Pain sessions approximately 4 or 5 days apart, delivered by a psychologist via Zoom. To reinforce learnings from the iDBT-Pain sessions, participants will have unlimited use of the iDBT-Pain app. A 7-day follow-up phase (maintenance) will follow the intervention, whereby the iDBT-Pain sessions cease but the iDBT-Pain app is accessible. Emotional regulation, as the primary outcome measure, will be assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Pain intensity, as the secondary outcome measure, will be assessed using a visual analogue scale. Generalisation measures will assess psychological state factors (depression, anxiety and coping behaviour), alongside sleep quality, well-being and harm avoidance. SCEDs are increasingly considered effective designs for internet-delivered psychological interventions because SCED enables the investigation of interindividual variability in a heterogeneous population such as chronic pain.

This trial was approved by the University of New South Wales (HC200199). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

Comparison of care utilisation and medical institutional death among older adults by home care facility type: a retrospective cohort study in Fukuoka, Japan.

BMJ Open

We compared the care services use and medical institutional deaths among older adults across four home care facility types.

We included 18 347 residents of Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, who received home care during the period, and aged ≥75 years with certified care needs of at least level 3. Participants were categorised based on home care facility use (ie, general clinics, Home Care Support Clinics/Hospitals (HCSCs), enhanced HCSCs with beds and enhanced HCSCs without beds).

We used generalised linear models (GLMs) to estimate care utilisation and the incidence of medical institutional death, as well as the potential influence of sex, age, care needs level and Charlson comorbidity index as risk factors.

The results of GLMs showed the inpatient days were 54.3, 69.9, 64.7 and 75.0 for users of enhanced HCSCs with beds, enhanced HCSCs without beds, HCSCs and general clinics, respectively. Correspondingly, the numbers of home care days were 63.8, 51.0, 57.8 and 29.0. Our multivariable logistic regression model estimated medical institutional death rate among participants who died during the study period (n=9919) was 2.32 times higher (p<0.001) for general clinic users than enhanced HCSCs with beds users (relative risks=1.69, p<0.001).

Participants who used enhanced HCSCs with beds had a relatively low inpatient utilisation, medical institutional deaths, and a high utilisation of home care and home-based end-of-life care. Findings suggest enhanced HCSCs with beds could reduce hospitalisation days and medical institutional deaths. Our study warrants further investigations of home care as part of community-based integrated care.

Estimation of overdiagnosis in colorectal cancer screening with sigmoidoscopy and faecal occult blood testing: comparison of simulation models.

BMJ Open

To estimate overdiagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) for screening with sigmoidoscopy and faecal occult blood testing (FOBT).

We estimated overdiagnosis using long-term data from two randomised trials: the Nottingham trial comparing FOBT screening every other year to no-screening, and the NORCCAP trial comparing once-only sigmoidoscopy screening to no-screening. To estimate the natural growth of adenomas to CRC, we used the following microsimulation models: (i) the Microsimulation Screening Analysis; (ii) the CRC Simulated Population model for Incidence and Natural history; (iii) the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer; (iv) a model derived by the German Cancer Research Center. We defined overdiagnosed cancers as the difference between the observed number of CRCs in the no-screening arm and the expected number of cancers in screening arm (sum of observed and prevented by adenoma removal). The amount of overdiagnosis is defined as the number of overdiagnosed cancers over the number of cancers observed in the no-screening arm.

Overdiagnosis estimates were highly dependent on model assumptions. For FOBT screening with 2354 cancers observed in control arm, four out of five models predicted overdiagnosis, range 2.0% (2400 cancers expected in screening) to 7.6% (2533 cancers expected in screening). For sigmoidoscopy screening with 452 cancers observed in control arm, all models predicted overdiagnosis, range 25.2% (566 cancers expected in screening) to 128.1% (1031 cancers expected in screening).

The amount of overdiagnosis estimated based on the microsimulation models varied substantially. Microsimulation models may not give reliable estimates of the preventive effect of adenoma removal, and should be used with caution to inform guidelines.

Current smoking status as a predictor of cerebral infarction in men: a retrospective cohort study in South Korea.

BMJ Open

We examined the relationship between duration (pack-year) of smoking and the risk of developing cerebral infarction in Korean men.

Of 125 743 male participants from the National Health Insurance System undergoing medical health check-up in 2009, 114 377 were included in the final analysis.

Development of cerebral infarction according to smoking duration after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, γ-glutamyltransferase, estimated glomerular filtration rate, alcohol intake and physical activity.

During 495 827.3 person-years of follow-up, 1450 incident cases of cerebral infarction developed between 2009 and 2013. The multivariate adjusted HRs (95% CI) for cerebral infarction between groups 2, 3 and 4 by duration of smoking were 1.02 (0.88 to 1.19), 1.36 (1.19 to 1.56) and 1.49 (1.28 to 1.74), respectively. In our secondary analysis by smoking status, the HR (95% CI) of former smokers showed a significant relationship in the unadjusted model but did not show statistically significant associations in the multivariate adjusted model. The HR (95% CI) of current smokers showed significant relationship in both the unadjusted and multivariate adjusted models (p for trend <0.001).

The study indicates that the prolonged duration of smoking (pack-year) increases the risk of cerebral infarction. Current smoking poses a higher risk for the development of cerebral infraction than former smoking among Korean men, indicating that current smoking cessation would be more protective.

Use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical diabetes consultations: the DiaPROM randomised controlled pilot trial.

BMJ Open

To pilot test the proposed DiaPROM trial components and address uncertainties associated with conducting a full-scale randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate whether such a trial is feasible.

Adults aged ≥18-39 years, with minimum 1 year type 1 diabetes duration, attending outpatient follow-up. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, severe cognitive, somatic or psychiatric conditions and impaired vision.

All participants completed electronic Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) prior to the annual diabetes consultation. Using computer-generated block-randomisation without blinding, we assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio stratified by sex to receive standard care or an intervention. Physicians reviewed diabetes distress scores (Problem Areas In Diabetes scale) and referred individuals with scores ≥30 or single item(s) ≥3 to minimum two diabetes nurse consultations where reported problems were reviewed and discussed.

We randomised 80 participants to the control or intervention arm (one participant was later excluded). 23/39 intervention arm participants qualified for additional consultations and 17 attended. 67/79 attended the 12-month follow-up (15.2% attrition); 5/17 referred to additional consultations were lost to follow-up (29.4% attrition). Participants reported PROMs as relevant (84.6%) and acceptable (97.4%) but rated the usefulness of consultations as moderate to low. Baseline mean±SD DDS score was 2.1±0.69; DDS SD was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.86) at follow-up; correlation between baseline and follow-up DDS scores was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9).

The pilot trial revealed need for intervention modifications ahead of a full-scale trial to evaluate use of PROMs in diabetes consultations. Specifically, participant acceptability and intervention implementation need further investigation.

Peripherally Inserted Central catheter iNnovation to reduce Infections and Clots (the PICNIC trial): a randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMJ Open


A multicentre, parallel group, superiority randomised controlled trial with two experimental arms ((1) hydrophobic PICC (with pressure-activated valve); (2) chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated PICC (with external clamp)) and one control group ((3) conventional polyurethane PICC (with external clamp)). Recruitment of 1098 adult and paediatric patients will take place over 2 years at three tertiary-referral hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Patients are eligible for inclusion if their PICC is to be inserted for medical treatment, with a vascular size sufficient to support a 4-Fr PICC or larger, and with informed consent. The primary outcome is PICC failure, a composite of thrombotic (venous thrombosis, breakage and occlusion) and infective complications (PICC-associated bloodstream infection and local infection). Secondary outcomes include: all-cause PICC complication; thrombotic complications; infective complications; adverse events (local or systemic reaction); PICC dwell time; patient/parent satisfaction; and healthcare costs. Differences between both intervention groups and the control group will be compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. Effect estimates will be presented as HRs with corresponding 95% CI.

Ethical approval from Queensland Health (HREC/QCHQ/48682) and Griffith University (Ref. No. 2019/094). Results will be published.

Towards a middle-range theory of 'Stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia' (SoCA-Dem): findings from a meta-study on mixed research.

BMJ Open

Most people with dementia and their informal carers live at home and strive to create a stable care situation for as long as possible. This preference of dyads is consistent with the global policy of ageing in place. Therefore, we aimed to develop a middle-range theory of stability guided by two research questions: How is stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia constituted? What are the essential factors influencing stability?

Within the 'Stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia' project (SoCA project) at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), we conducted a meta-study on mixed research. The analytical steps of meta-data analysis, meta-method and meta-theory are merged in an integrative synthesis. Eligible publications were identified through systematic database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO; last searched on 3 January 2017), backward/forward citation tracking and snowballing. All publications were screened against predefined inclusion criteria and evaluated through a quality appraisal. The analytical approach was thematic synthesis.

99 publications were included. The middle-range theory conceptualises stability as a complex phenomenon comprising three components including eight concepts that are dynamically inter-related. The conceptual model visualises: (1) the trajectory of the dementia care arrangement, which involves a cyclic process of change and balancing over time; (2) the characteristics of the care arrangement, including needs, the carer role, the dyadic relationship and resources; and (3) the context, which is determined by society and culture and the respective healthcare system. The relevance of each concept in relation to stability changes over time. The forming of each concept is actively shaped by the informal carer.

This middle-range theory provides a thorough understanding of the stability of home-based care arrangements for people living with dementia and can be used to guide future research and practice.

This meta-study was funded by the DZNE and registered in PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016041727).

Short-term morbidity and mortality following radical cystectomy: a systematic review.

BMJ Open

To study short-term (<90 days) morbidity and mortality following radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer and identify modifiable risk factors associated with these.

The systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant papers on 11 June 2019 and rerun on 27 May 2020. Studies reporting complications, reoperations, length of stay and mortality within 90 days were included. Studies were reviewed according to criteria from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine and the quality of evidence was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

The search retrieved 1957 articles. Sixty-six articles were included. The quality of evidence was poor to good. Most studies were retrospective, and no randomised clinical trials were identified. Of included studies a median of 6 Martin criteria for reporting complications after surgery were fulfilled. The Clavien-Dindo classification for grading complications was most frequently used. The weighted overall complication rate after RC was 34.9% (range 28.8-68.8) for in-house complications, 39.0% (range 27.3-80.0) for 30-day complications and 58.5% (range 36.1-80.5) for 90-day complications. The most common types of complications reported were gastrointestinal (29.0%) and infectious (26.4%). The weighted mortality rate was 2.4% (range 0.9-4.7) for in-house mortality, 2.1% (0.0-3.7) for 30-day mortality and 4.7% (range 0.0-7.0) for 90-day mortality. Age and comorbidity were identified as the best predictors for complications following RC.

Short-term morbidity and mortality are high following RC. Reporting of complications is heterogeneous and the quality of evidence is generally low. There is a continuous need for randomised studies to address any intervention that can reduce morbidity and mortality following RC.


Contributions of treatment centre and patient characteristics to patient-reported experience of haemodialysis: a national cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open

To examine the relative importance of patient and centre level factors in determining self-reported experience of care in patients with advanced kidney disease treated by maintenance haemodialysis (HD).

The Kidney PREM has 38 questions in 13 subscales. Responses were captured using a 7-point Likert scale (never 1, always 7). The primary outcome of interest was the mean PREM score calculated across all questions. Multilevel modelling was used to determine the proportion of variation of the mean PREM score across centres due to patient-related and centre-related factors.

There were records for 8253 HD patients (61% men, 77% white) from 69 renal centres (9-710 patients per centre). There was significant variation in mean PREM score across centres (5.35-6.53). In the multivariable analysis there was some variation in relation to both patient- and centre-level factors but these contributed little to explaining the overall variation. However, multilevel modelling showed that the overwhelming proportion of the explained variance (45%) was explained by variation between centres (40%), only a small proportion of which is identified by measured factors. Only 5% of the variation was related to patient-level factors.

Centre rather than patient characteristics determine the experience of care of patients receiving HD. Further work is required to define the characteristics of the treating centre which determine patient experience.

Determinants of childhood vaccination in Nagaland, India: a cross-sectional study with multilevel modelling.

BMJ Open

Childhood vaccination coverage in Nagaland has lagged almost all states in India for more than two decades. This study aims to find drivers and barriers of childhood vaccination in Nagaland from the perspective of demand, supply and local health governance.

285 children aged under 2 years with vaccination cards and data on households, health centres and health committees were included.

Antenatal care at least three times was significantly associated with BCG, DTP3, OPV3 and full vaccination with adjusted ORs ranging from 2.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.1) to 3.3 (1.1 to 9.9). The availability of bus to health centre was slightly significant for BCG and OPV3 with the adjusted ORs of 2.0 (0.9 to 4.5) and 2.1 (0.9 to 4.8), respectively. Health committees' budget provision to health centres was significant for OPV3 and full vaccination with the respective adjusted ORs of 15.7 (1.0 to 234.1) and 15.9 (1.2 to 214.7), the wide 95% CIs of which were driven by a small sample size. Health committees' review of expenditure of health centres was significant for measles and full vaccination with the adjusted ORs of 4.0 (1.4 to 11.4) and 5.2 (1.4 to 19.4), respectively.

This study suggests that enhancing the utilisation of antenatal care and providing reliable transportation between villages and health centres are required to improve childhood vaccination coverage. Also, the significant association of budget administration of health committees suggests that supporting local health committees for effective financial management is important.

Cluster randomised controlled trial of a menu box delivery service for Australian long day care services to improve menu guideline compliance: a study protocol.

BMJ Open

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12620000296932).

This study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial and will recruit eight long day care centres, randomly allocated to the intervention or comparison groups. The intervention group will trial the delivery of a weekly menu box service that includes all ingredients and recipes required to provide morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack. The menu boxes are underpinned by a 4-week menu developed by dietitians and meet menu planning guidelines. The comparison group will receive access to online menu planning training and a menu assessment tool for cooks. The primary outcomes are child dietary intake and menu guideline compliance. Secondary outcomes include within-trial cost-effectiveness and process evaluation measures including intervention acceptability, usability and fidelity. If effective, the menu box delivery will provide an easy strategy for childcare cooks to implement a centre menu that meets menu planning guidelines and improves child intake of five food group foods, including vegetables.

This study was approved by the Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee. Study outcomes will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications, via local, national and international presentations. Non-traditional outputs including evidence summaries and development of a business case will be used to disseminate study findings to relevant stakeholder groups. Data will be used in a doctoral thesis.