The latest medical research on Medical Administration

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medical administration gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Understanding reliever overuse in patients purchasing over-the-counter short-acting beta2 agonists: an Australian community pharmacy-based survey.

BMJ Open

Overuse of asthma relievers is associated with significant adverse consequences. This study aimed to better understand the population purchasing and using short-acting beta agonists (SABA) over the counter (OTC); and compare the demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of those who overuse SABA with those who do not.

Reliever use, Global Initiative for Asthma-defined control, healthcare utilisation, patterns of preventer use.

70.1% of participants were classified as SABA overusers, that is, reporting SABA use more than twice a week within the last 4 weeks, 73.6% reported not using a preventer daily and only 81.6% reported a doctor diagnosis of asthma. SABA overusers were more likely to have moderate-severe nasal symptoms (80.8% vs 63.0%, p<0.001) and a diagnosis of depression (11.1% vs 5.7%, p<0.001), when compared with SABA non-overusers. A higher proportion of SABA overusers had uncontrolled asthma (59.0% vs 15.4%, p<0.001), were more likely to use oral corticosteroids to manage worsening asthma symptoms (26.2% vs 13.5%, p<0.01) and visit the doctor for their asthma in the past 12 months (74.5% vs 62.5%, p<0.01), when compared to SABA non-overusers.

This study uncovers a hidden population of people who can only be identified in pharmacy with suboptimal asthma, coexisting rhinitis, poor preventer adherence and, in some cases, no asthma diagnosis.

Effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine xuanbi antong granules for the treatment of borderline coronary lesions: study protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial.

BMJ Open

ChiCTR-IOR-17013189; Pre-results.

This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 300 participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and the placebo group. Based on routine medications, the intervention group will be treated with XAG and the placebo group will be treated with XAG placebo. All participants will receive a 6-month treatment and then be followed-up for another 6 months. The primary outcomes are the changes of target plaque characteristics (including target plaque volume, degree of stenosis, CT value and calcification score) measured by dual source CT angiography. The secondary outcomes include blood lipid indicators, efficacy of angina symptoms, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. All the data will be recorded in electronic case report forms and analysed by SPSS V.20.0.

This study has been approved by Research Ethics Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in Beijing, China (No. 2017-083-KY-01). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated to the public through academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals.

Prognostic impact of alkaline phosphatase for in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a prospective cohort study in China.

BMJ Open

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can promote vascular calcification, but the association between ALP and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not well defined.

In-hospital mortality was used in this study.

ALP was analysed both as a continuous variable and according to three categories. After multivariable adjustment, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in Tertile 3 group (ALP>85 U/L) (OR: 2.399, 95% CI 1.080 to 5.333, p=0.032), compared with other two groups (Tertile 1: <66 U/L; Tertile 2: 66-85 U/L). When ALP was evaluated as a continuous variable, after multivariable adjustment, the ALP level was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.011, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.020, p=0.014). C-statistic of ALP for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.630 (95% CI 0.618 to 0.642, p=0.001). The cut-off value was 72 U/L with a sensitivity of 0.764 and a specificity of 0.468. However, ALP could not significantly improve the prognostic performance of Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score (GRACE score+ALP vs GRACE score: C-statistic: z=0.485, p=0.628; integrated discrimination improvement: 0.014, p=0.056; net reclassification improvement: 0.020, p=0.630).

In patients with ACS undergoing PCI, ALP was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. But it could not improve the prognostic performance of GRACE score.

Glutathione infusion before primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomised controlled pilot study.

BMJ Open

In the setting of reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to reperfusion injury. Among ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showed toxic effects on human cardiomyocytes and may induce microcirculatory impairment. Glutathione (GSH) is a water-soluble tripeptide with a potent oxidant scavenging activity. We hypothesised that the infusion of GSH before acute reoxygenation might counteract the deleterious effects of increased H2O2 generation on myocardium.

Fifty consecutive patients with STEMI, scheduled to undergo primary angioplasty, were randomly assigned, before intervention, to receive an infusion of GSH (2500 mg/25 mL over 10 min), followed by drug administration at the same doses at 24, 48 and 72 hours elapsing time or placebo. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the procedure, as well as after 5 days. H2O2 production, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) formation, H2O2 breakdown activity (HBA) and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability were determined. Serum cardiactroponin T (cTpT) was measured at admission and up to 5 days.

Following acute reperfusion, a significant reduction of H2O2 production (p=0.0015) and 8-iso-PGF2α levels (p=0.0003), as well as a significant increase in HBA (p<0.0001)and NO bioavailability (p=0.035), was found in the GSH group as compared with placebo. In treated patients, attenuated production of H2O2 persisted up to 5 days from the index procedure (p=0.009) and these changes was linked to those of the cTpT levels (r=0.41, p=0.023).

The prophylactic and prolonged infusion of GSH seems to determine a rapid onset and persistent blunting of H2O2 generation improving myocardial cell survival. Nevertheless, a larger trial, adequately powered for evaluation of clinical endpoints, is ongoing to confirm the current finding.

EUDRACT 2014-00448625; Pre-results.

Global patterns in price elasticities of sugar-sweetened beverage intake and potential effectiveness of tax policy: a cross-sectional study of 164 countries by sex, age and global-income decile.

BMJ Open

To quantify global relationships between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and prices and examine the potential effectiveness of tax policy.

A consumer demand modelling framework was used to estimate the relationship between SSB intake and prices and derive own-price elasticities (measures of percentage changes in intake from a 1% price change) globally by age and sex. We simulated how a 20% tax would impact SSB intake globally. Tax policy outcomes were examined across countries by global income decile for representative age and sex subgroups.

Own-price responsiveness was highest in lowest income countries, ranging from -0.70 (p<0.100) for women, age 50, to -1.91 (p<0.001) for men, age 80. In the highest income countries, responsiveness was as high as -0.49 (p<0.001) (men, age 20), but was mostly insignificant for older adults. Overall, elasticities were strongest (more negative) at the youngest and oldest age groups, and mostly insignificant for middle-aged adults, particularly in middle-income and high-income countries. Sex differences were mostly negligible. Potential intake reductions from a 20% tax in lowest income countries ranged from 14.5% (95% CI: 29.5%, -0.4%) in women, 35 ≤ age < 60, to 24.9% (44.4%, 5.3%) in men, age ≥60. Intake reductions decreased with country income overall, and were mostly insignificant for middle-aged adults.

These findings estimate the global price-responsiveness of SSB intake by age and sex, informing ongoing policy discussions on potential effects of taxes.

Better evidence: prospective cohort study assessing the utility of an evidence-based clinical resource at the University of Rwanda.

BMJ Open

Evidence-based clinical resources (EBCRs) have the potential to improve diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy. The majority of US teaching medical institutions have incorporated them into clinical training. Many EBCRs are subscription based, and their cost is prohibitive for most clinicians and trainees in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to determine the utility of EBCRs in an East African medical school.

We offered medical students and faculty at UR free access to UpToDate, a leading EBCR and conducted a cohort study to assess its uptake and usage. Students completed two surveys on their study habits and gave us permission to access their activity on UpToDate and their grades.

Of the 980 medical students invited to enrol over 2 years, 547 did (56%). Of eligible final year students, 88% enrolled. At baseline, 92% of students reported ownership of an internet-capable device, and the majority indicated using free online resources frequently for medical education. Enrolled final year students viewed, on average, 1.24 topics per day and continued to use UpToDate frequently after graduation from medical school. Graduating class exam performance was better after introduction of UpToDate than in previous years.

Removal of the cost barrier was sufficient to generate high uptake of a leading EBCR by senior medical students and habituate them to continued usage after graduation.

Implementation strategies for interventions to improve the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by primary care clinicians: protocol for a systematic review.

BMJ Open

There is a considerable implementation gap in managing early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care despite the high prevalence and risk for increased morbidity and mortality associated with CKD. This systematic review aims to synthesise the evidence of efficacy of implementation interventions aimed at primary care practitioners (PCPs) to improve CKD identification and management. We further aim to describe the interventions' behavioural change components.

We will conduct a systematic review of studies from 2000 to October 2017 that evaluate implementation interventions targeting PCPs and which include at least one clinically meaningful CKD outcome. We will search several electronic data bases and conduct reference mining of related systematic reviews and publications. An interdisciplinary team will independently and in duplicate, screen publications, extract data and assess the risk of bias. Clinical outcomes will include all clinically meaningful medical management outcomes relevant to CKD management in primary care such as blood pressure, chronic heart disease and diabetes target achievements. Quantitative evidence synthesis will be performed, where possible. Planned subgroup analyses include by (1) study design, (2) length of follow-up, (3) type of intervention, (4) type of implementation strategy, (5) whether a behavioural or implementation theory was used to guide study, (6) baseline CKD severity, (7) patient minority status, (8) study location and (9) academic setting or not.

Approval by research ethics board is not required since the review will only include published and publicly accessible data. Review findings will inform a future trial of an intervention to promote uptake of CKD diagnosis and treatment guidelines in our primary care setting and the development of complementary tools to support its successful adoption and implementation. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal and develop accessible summaries of the results.


Adaptation of the DEMQOL-Proxy for routine use in care homes: a cross-sectional study of the reliability and validity of DEMQOL-CH.

BMJ Open

To investigate the routine use of a measure of quality of life (QoL) in care homes and assess its psychometric properties when used by care staff.

Phase I: The ability of care staff from two care homes to use the DEMQOL-Proxy without interviewer administration was assessed using agreement analysis between a self-administered and interviewer-administered version of the instrument. Based on these findings, DEMQOL-Proxy was adapted into a new version, DEMQOL-CH, for use as a self-administered instrument in care homes. We assessed agreement between the new DEMQOL-CH and DEMQOL-Proxy to ensure DEMQOL-CH was used correctly. Phase II: A preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of DEMQOL-CH when used routinely was completed in a further five care homes.

Phase I: Nineteen care staff from two care homes completed QoL measurements for residents. Systematic error was identified when staff self-completed the DEMQOL-Proxy without an interviewer. We modified the DEMOoL-Proxy to create DEMQOL-CH; this reduced the error, producing a version that could be used more accurately by care staff. Phase II: Eleven care staff from five care homes rated resident QoL routinely. DEMQOL-CH showed acceptable psychometric properties with satisfactory reliability and validity and a clear factor structure.

The research presents positive preliminary data on the acceptability, feasibility and performance of routine QoL measurement in care homes using an adapted version of DEMQOL-Proxy, the DEMQOL-CH. Results provide evidence to support the concept that routine measurement of QoL may be possible in care homes. Research is needed to refine and test the methodology and instrument further and to explore the potential for benefits to residents, staff and care homes in larger and more representative populations.

VOC biomarkers identification and predictive model construction for lung cancer based on exhaled breath analysis: research protocol for an exploratory study.

BMJ Open

ChiCTR-DOD-17011134; Pre-results.

The study will recruit 389 lung cancer patients in one cancer centre and 389 healthy subjects in two lung cancer screening centres. Bio-VOC breath sampler and Tedlar bag will be used to collect breath samples. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase microextraction technique will be used to analyse VOCs in exhaled breath. VOC biomarkers with statistical significance and showing abilities to discriminate lung cancer patients from healthy subjects will be selected for the construction of predictive model for lung cancer.

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sichuan Cancer Hospital on 6 April 2017 (No. SCCHEC-02-2017-011). The results of this study will be disseminated in presentations at academic conferences, publications in peer-reviewed journals and the news media.

Maternal adherence to micronutrient supplementation before and during pregnancy in Northwest China: a large-scale population-based cross-sectional survey.

BMJ Open

To report the situation of maternal micronutrient supplementation before and during pregnancy in Northwest China and to examine the rates of and factors related to the adherence to micronutrient supplementation among pregnant women in this region, where dietary micronutrient intake is commonly insufficient.

Maternal adherence to micronutrient supplementation (high and low) were the outcomes. They were determined by the start time and duration of use according to Chinese guidelines (for folic acid (FA) supplements) and WHO recommendations (for iron, calcium and multiple-micronutrient (MMN) supplements).

In total, 83.9% of women took at least one kind of micronutrient supplement before or during pregnancy. FA (67.6%) and calcium (57.5%) were the primarily used micronutrient supplements; few participants used MMN (14.0%) or iron (5.4%). Adherence to supplementation of all micronutrients was low (7.4% for FA, 0.6% for iron, 11.7% for calcium and 2.7% for MMN). Higher educational levels, higher income levels, urban residence and better antenatal care (including pregnancy consultation and a higher frequency of antenatal visits) were associated with high adherence to micronutrient supplementation.

Maternal micronutrient supplementation before and during pregnancy in Northwest China was way below standards recommended by the Chinese guidelines or WHO. Targeted health education and future nutritional guidelines are suggested to improve this situation, especially in pregnant women with disadvantaged sociodemographic conditions.

Measuring coordination between women's self-help groups and local health systems in rural India: a social network analysis.

BMJ Open

To assess how the health coordination and emergency referral networks between women's self-help groups (SHGs) and local health systems have changed over the course of a 2-year learning phase of the Uttar Pradesh Community Mobilization Project, India.

Social network analysis measured degree centrality, density and centralisation to assess changes in health services coordination networks at the village and block levels.

The health services coordination and emergency referral networks increased in density and the number of connections between respondents as measured by average degree centrality have increased, along with more diversity of interaction between groups. The network expanded relationships at the village and block levels, reflecting the rise of bridging social capital. The accredited social health activist, a village health worker, occupied the central position in the network, and her role expanded to sharing information and coordinating services with the SHG members.

The creation of new partnerships between traditionally under-represented communities and local government can serve as vehicle for building social capital that can lead to a more accountable and accessible community health delivery system.

Motivation, challenges and realities of volunteer community cardiac arrest response: a qualitative study of 'lay' community first responders.

BMJ Open

To explore the reasons why lay community first responders (CFRs) volunteer to participate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest response and the realities of their experience in providing this service to the community.

Twelve experienced CFRs.

CFRs were motivated to participate based on a variety of factors. These included altruistic, social and pre-existing emergency care interest. A proportion of CFRs may volunteer because of experience of cardiac arrest or illness in a relative. Sophisticated structures and complex care appear to underpin CFR involvement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Strategic and organisational issues, multifaceted cardiac arrest care and the psychosocial impact of participation were considered.

Health systems that facilitate CFR out-of-hospital cardiac arrest response should consider a variety of relevant issues. These issues include the suitability of those that volunteer, complexities of resuscitation/end-of-life care, responder psychological welfare as well as CFRs' core role of providing early basic life support and defibrillation in the community.