The latest medical research on General Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Accelerated wound healing and its promoting effects of topical codeine on the healing of full-thickness cutaneous wound, evidences for modulating cytokines involved in pain, inflammation and collagen biosynthesis.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg

The inflammation and pain occur in all the wounds. Opioids drugs decrease pain and may act as an anti-inflammation. The current study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of the topical uses of Codeine on full-thickness excision wound models by focusing on relationship between pain mediators, inflammation and wound healing rate.

Following the induction of anesthesia, a skin wound with a size of 7-mm punch was induced on the dorsal surfaces of each mouse. The mice were divided into five categories: groups I-III were daily administered 2.5%, 5%, and 10% Codeine gel; those in group IV were administered phenytoin cream, and group V (controls) received base ointment. To assess the effects of Codeine gel on the wound healing process, the wound area, histological parameters, and the relative protein expression of CXCR1, CXCR2, IL-6, IL-6R, PDGF, PDGFR, and COL1A along with the plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were investigated on days 3, 7, and 14.

On days 7 and 14, the wound area was significantly lower in the treated mice compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and epithelium thickness were significantly higher in the treatment groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The relative protein expressions of CXCR1, CXCR2, IL-6, and IL-6R and the plasma concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly lower in the treated groups. Meanwhile, the relative protein expressions of PDGF, PDGFR, and COL1A and the plasma concentration of IL-10 were significantly higher in the treated mice (P < 0.05).

Administration of Codeine gel accelerated wound healing through decreasing the pain mediators, inflammation and promoting proliferative phase.

Risks for donors associated with living kidney donation: meta-analysis.

Br J Surg

Living kidney donation risk is likely to differ according to donor's demographics. We aimed to analyse the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and ethnicity.

A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken of the effects of preoperative patient characteristics on donor kidney function outcomes, surgical complications, and hypertension.

5129 studies were identified, of which 31 met the inclusion criteria, mainly from the USA and Europe. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in donors aged over 60 years was a mean of 9.54 ml per min per 1.73 m2 lower than that of younger donors (P < 0.001). Female donors had higher relative short- and long-term survival. BMI of over 30 kg/m2 was found to significantly lower the donor's eGFR 1 year after donation: the eGFR of obese donors was lower than that of non-obese patients by a mean of -2.70 (95 per cent c.i. -3.24 to -2.15) ml per min per 1.73 m2 (P < 0.001). Obesity was also associated with higher blood pressure both before and 1 year after donation, and a higher level of proteinuria, but had no impact on operative complications. In the long term, African donors were more likely to develop end-stage renal disease than Caucasians.

Obesity and male sex were associated with inferior outcomes. Older donors (aged over 60 years) have a larger eGFR decline than younger donors, and African donors have a higher incidence of ESRD than Caucasians.

Adverse events following robotic surgery: population-based analysis.

Br J Surg

Robotic surgery was integrated into some healthcare systems despite there being few well designed, real-world studies on safety or benefit. This study compared the safety of robotic with laparoscopic, thoracoscopic, and open approaches in common robotic procedures.

This was a population-based, retrospective study of all adults who underwent prostatectomy, hysterectomy, pulmonary lobectomy, or partial nephrectomy in Ontario, Canada, between 2008 and 2018. The primary outcome was 90-day total adverse events using propensity score overlap weights, and secondary outcomes were minor or major morbidity/adverse events.

Data on 24 741 prostatectomy, 75 473 hysterectomy, 18 252 pulmonary lobectomy, and 6608 partial nephrectomy operations were included. Relative risks for total adverse events in robotic compared with open surgery were 0.80 (95 per cent c.i. 0.74 to 0.87) for radical prostatectomy, 0.44 (0.37 to 0.52) for hysterectomy, 0.53 (0.44 to 0.65) for pulmonary lobectomy, and 0.72 (0.54 to 0.97) for partial nephrectomy. Relative risks for total adverse events in robotic surgery compared with a laparoscopic/thoracoscopic approach were 0.94 (0.77 to 1.15), 1.00 (0.82 to 1.23), 1.01 (0.84 to 1.21), and 1.23 (0.82 to 1.84) respectively.

The robotic approach is associated with fewer adverse events than an open approach but similar to a laparoscopic/thoracoscopic approach. The benefit of the robotic approach is related to the minimally-invasive approach rather than the platform itself.

Combined endoscopic and radiologic intervention for management of acute perforated peptic ulcer: a randomized controlled trial.

World J Emerg Surg

Peptic ulcer perforation is a common life-threatening surgical emergency. Graham omental patch is performed for plugging of perforated peptic ulcer. Many endoscopic methods have been used to treat acute perforated peptic ulcer such as over the scope clips, standard endoscopic clips, endoscopic sewing and metallic stents. The main idea in endoscopic management of acute perforated peptic ulcer is early decontamination and decrease sepsis by interventional radiologic drainage.

This is a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. This study included patients who were developed acute perforated peptic ulcer manifestations and were admitted to our hospital between December 2019 and August 2021. Sample size was 100 patients divided into 2 equal groups. Endoscopic group (EG): included 50 patients who were subjected to endoscopic management. Surgical group (SG): included 50 patients who were subjected to surgical management.

One hundred patients were randomized into 2 groups: SG (50) and EG (50). Median age of patients was 36 (range 27:54) and 47 (range 41:50) years-old in SG and EG, respectively. Males constituted 72% and 66% in SG and EG, respectively. Median length of postoperative hospital stay was 1 (range: 1-2) days in EG, while in SG was 7 (range 6-8) days. Postoperative complications in SG patients were 58% in form of fever, pneumonia, leak, abdominal abscess, renal failure and incisional hernia (11%, 5%, 5%, 3%, 2% and 3%, respectively). Postoperative complications in EG patients were 24% in form of fever, pneumonia, leak, abdominal abscess, renal failure and incisional hernia (10%, 0%, 2%, 0%, 0% and 0%, respectively).

Combined endoscopic and interventional radiological drainage can effectively manage acute perforated peptic ulcer without the need for general anesthesia, with short operative time, in high risk surgical patients with low incidence of morbidity & mortality.

Management of Acutely Symptomatic Hernia (MASH) study.

Br J Surg

Acutely symptomatic abdominal wall and groin hernias are a common reason for acute surgical hospital admissions. There are limited data to guide the treatment of these patients. This study aimed to assess outcomes of emergency hernia surgery and identify common management strategies, to improve care for these high-risk patients.

A 20-week, national multicentre, collaborative, prospective cohort study (NCT04197271) recruited adults with acutely symptomatic abdominal wall and groin hernias across the UK. Data on patient characteristics, inpatient management, quality of life, complications, and wound healing were collected. Follow-up telephone calls at 30 and 90 days were used to assessed complications and quality of life. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to describe the population and outcomes.

Twenty-three hospitals recruited 272 eligible patients. Inguinal (37.8 per cent) and umbilical (37.1 per cent) hernias were the most common. Some 13.9 per cent were awaiting elective surgery and 12.8 per cent had previously declined intervention. CT was performed in 47.1 per cent and 81.3 per cent underwent surgical management. Open repairs were carried out in 93.5 per cent, and 92.5 per cent of these were performed under general anaesthesia. Four of 13 laparoscopic procedures were converted to open surgery. Mesh was used in 55.1 per cent of repairs, typically synthetic non-absorbable (87.4 per cent). Complications were infrequent; surgical-site infection (9.4 per cent), delirium (3.2 per cent), and pneumonia (2.3 per cent) were the most common. The 90-day mortality rate was 4.9 per cent. Immediate surgical management was associated with a significant improvement in quality of life at 30 days (median score 0.73-0.82).

There is variation in the investigation, management, and surgical technique used to treat acutely symptomatic abdominal wall and groin hernias in the UK. The optimal management strategy for specific acute presentations remains to be established. Presented to the Association of Surgeons in Training Conference, Birmingham, UK, March 2021, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland Congress, May 2021, the World Society of Emergency Surgery, Edinburgh, UK, September 2021, and the European Hernia Society Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, October 2021.

Complications and Their Association with Mortality Following Emergency Gastrointestinal Surgery-an Observational Study.

Gastrointestinal Surgery

Emergency gastrointestinal surgery is followed by a high risk of major complications and death. This study aimed to investigate which complications showed the strongest association with death following emergency surgery for gastrointestinal obstruction or perforation.

We retrospectively included adults who had undergone emergency gastrointestinal surgery for radiologically verified obstruction or perforation at three Danish hospitals between 2014 and 2015. The exposure variables comprised 16 predefined Clavien-Dindo-graded complications. Cox regression with delayed entry was used to analyze the association of these complications with 90-day mortality. We adjusted for hospital, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, pre-operative Sepsis-2 score, cardiac comorbidity, renal comorbidity, hypertension, active cancer, bowel obstruction or perforation, and the surgical procedure. Subgroup analyses were done for patients with gastrointestinal obstruction or perforation.

Of the 349 included patients, 281 (80.5%) experienced at least one complication. The risk of death was 20.6% (14) for patients with no complications and varied between 21 and 57% for patients with complications. Renal impairment (hazard ratio (HR): 6.8 (95%CI: 3.7-12.4)), arterial thromboembolic events (HR 4.8 (2.3-9.9)), and atrial fibrillation (HR 4.4 (2.8-6.8)) showed the strongest association with 90-day mortality. Atrial fibrillation was the only complication significantly associated with death in patients with gastrointestinal obstruction as well as perforation.

This study of patients undergoing emergency gastrointestinal surgery revealed that renal impairment, arterial thromboembolic events, and atrial fibrillation had the strongest association with death. Atrial fibrillation may serve as an in-situ marker of patients needing escalation of care.

Microcirculation-guided treatment improves tissue perfusion and hemodynamic coherence in surgical patients with septic shock.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg

Severe sepsis and septic shock may impair microcirculatory perfusion and cause organ dysfunction. The aim of this pilot study was to assess a new microcirculation-guided resuscitation strategy in patients with septic shock undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

A microcirculation-guided treatment algorithm was developed and applied intraoperatively following restoration of systemic hemodynamics. Sublingual microcirculation was monitored with Sidestream DarkField (SDF +) imaging technique. The primary objective was to investigate the change in De Backer score, Consensus Proportion of Perfused Vessels (Consensus PPV), and Consensus PPV (small) and its association with venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (v-aPCO2).

Thirteen consecutive patients were included in the study. Microcirculation-guided resuscitation resulted in an increase of 0.49 mm-1 in the De Backer score (p < 0.001), an increase of 2.28% in the Consensus PPV (p < 0.001), and an increase of 2.26% in the Consensus PPV (small) (p < 0.001) for every 30 min of additional intraoperative time. All microcirculation variables were negatively correlated with v-aPCO2 (rho = - 0.656, adj-p < 0.001; rho = - 0.623; adj-p < 0.001; rho = - 0.597, adj-p < 0.001, respectively) at each intraoperative time point. Lactate levels were negatively correlated with Consensus PPV (rho = - 0.464; adj-p = 0.002) and Consensus PPV (small) (rho = - 0.391, adj-p < 0.001). Survival at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year were 76.9%, 76.9%, and 61.5%, respectively.

The intraoperative use of microcirculation-guided resuscitation strategy may improve tissue perfusion and hemodynamic coherence in patients with septic shock.

Falls from Ladders: Injury Patterns and Outcomes.

J Trauma Acute Care

Our contemporary understanding of the impact of falls from ladders remains limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the injury patterns and outcomes of falls from ladders. Our hypothesis was that age affects both injury type and outcomes.


A total of 168,227 patients were included for analysis. Median age was 56 years (IQR: 45-66), 86.1% were male, and median ISS was 9 (IQR: 4-13). Increasing age was associated with a higher risk of severe trauma (ISS > 15: 8.8% vs 13.7% vs 17.5% vs 22.0%, p < 0.001). Head injuries followed a U-shaped distribution with pediatric and elderly patients representing the most vulnerable groups. Overall, fractures were the most common type of injury, in the following order: lower extremity 27.3%, spine 24.9%, rib 23.1%, upper extremity 20.1%, and pelvis 10.3%. The overall ICU admission rate was 21.5%; however, it was significantly higher in the elderly (29.1%). In-hospital mortality was 1.8%. The risk of death progressively increased with age with a mortality rate of 0.3%, 0.9%, 1.5%, and 3.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). Strong predictors of mortality were GCS ≤8 on admission (OR 29.80, 95% CI 26.66-33.31, p < 0.001) and age > 65 years (OR 4.07, 95% CI 3.535-4.692, p < 0.001). Only 50.8% of elderly patients were discharged home without health services, 16.5% were discharged to nursing homes and 15.2% to rehabilitation centers.

Falls from ladders are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Head injuries and fractures are common and often severe. An intensified approach to safe ladder use in the community is warranted.

Factors associated with limitation of care after fatal injury.

J Trauma Acute Care

There is variability in end-of-life care of trauma patients. Many survive resuscitation but die after limitation of care (LoC). This study investigated LoC at a level I center.

Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level III.

A total of 173 patients were included; 15 patients (8%) died full code and 158 (91%) died after LoC. Seventy-seven patients (48%) underwent incremental LoC. Age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; p = 0.0010) and female sex (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.01-13.64; p = 0.0487) increased the odds of LoC; number of anatomic injuries (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98; p = 0.0146), chest injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score chest, >3) (OR, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.26; p = 0.0021), extremity injury (AIS score, >3) (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.64; p = 0.0170), and hospital complications equal to 1 (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06-0.78; p = 0.0201) or ≥2 (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.87; p = 0.0319) decreased the odds of LoC. For those having LoC, final limitations were implemented in <14 days for 83% of patients; markers of injury severity (e.g., Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and AIS score) increased the odds of early LoC implementation.

Most patients died after LoC was implemented in a timely fashion. Significant head injury increased the odds of LoC. The number of injuries, severe chest and extremity injuries, and increasing number of complications decreased the odds of LoC, presumably because patients died before LoCs were initiated. Understanding factors contributing to end-of-life care could help guide discussions regarding LoCs.

AAST multicenter prospective analysis of prehospital tourniquet use for extremity trauma.

J Trauma Acute Care

Tourniquet use for extremity hemorrhage control has seen a recent increase in civilian usage. Previous retrospective studies demonstrated that tourniquets improve outcomes for major extremity trauma (MET). No prospective study has been conducted to date. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes in MET patients with prehospital tourniquet use. We hypothesized that prehospital tourniquet use in MET decreases the incidence of patients arriving to the trauma center in shock.

Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.

A total of 1,392 injured limbs were enrolled with 1,130 tourniquets, including 962 prehospital tourniquets. The control group consisted of 262 limbs without prehospital tourniquets and 88 with tourniquets placed upon hospital arrival. Prehospital improvised tourniquets were placed in 42 patients. Tourniquets effectively controlled bleeding in 87.7% of limbs. Tourniquet and control groups were similarly matched for demographics, Injury Severity Score, and prehospital vital signs (p > 0.05). Despite higher limb injury severity, patients in the tourniquet group were less likely to arrive in shock compared with the control group (13.0% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.04). The incidence of limb complications was not significantly higher in the tourniquet group (p > 0.05).

This study is the first prospective analysis of prehospital tourniquet use for civilian extremity trauma. Prehospital tourniquet application was associated with decreased incidence of arrival in shock without increasing limb complications. We found widespread tourniquet use, high effectiveness, and a low number of improvised tourniquets. This study provides further evidence that tourniquets are being widely and safely adopted to improve outcomes in civilians with MET.

Firearm trauma: Race and insurance influence mortality and discharge disposition.

J Trauma Acute Care

Health insurance and race impact mortality and discharge outcomes in the general trauma population. It remains unclear if disparities exist by race and/or insurance in outcomes following firearm injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in mortality and discharge based on race and insurance status following firearm injuries.

Prognostic and epidemiologic, Level IV.

The average age was 31 years, 88.6% were male, and 50% non-Hispanic Blacks. Overall mortality was 11.5%. Self-pay insurance was associated with a significant increase in mortality rates in all racial groups compared with non-Hispanic Whites with commercial insurance. Hispanic commercial, Medicaid, and self-pay patients were significantly less likely to discharge with posthospital care compared with commercially insured non-Hispanic Whites. When examining racial differences in mortality and discharge by individual insurance types, commercially insured non-Hispanic Black and other race patients were significantly less likely to die compared with similarly insured non-Hispanic White patients. Regardless of race, no significant differences in mortality were observed in Medicaid or self-pay patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients.

Victims of firearm injuries with a self-pay insurance status have a significantly higher rate of mortality. Hispanic patients regardless of insurance status were significantly less likely to discharge with posthospital care compared with non-Hispanic Whites with commercial insurance. Continued efforts are needed to understand and address the relationship between insurance status, race, and outcomes following firearm violence.

Intensive physical therapy after emergency laparotomy: Pilot phase of the Incidence of Complications following Emergency Abdominal surgery Get Exercising randomized controlled trial.

J Trauma Acute Care

Postoperative pneumonia and delayed physical recovery are significant problems after emergency laparotomy. No randomized controlled trial has assessed the feasibility, safety, or effectiveness of intensive postoperative physical therapy in this high-risk acute population.

Therapeutic/Care Management; Level II.

Interventions were provided exactly as per protocol in 35% (78 of 221 patients) of planned treatment sessions. Main barriers to protocol delivery were physical therapist unavailability on weekends (59 of 221 patients [27%]), awaiting patient consent (18 of 99 patients [18%]), and patient fatigue (26 of 221 patients [12%]). Despite inhibitors to treatment delivery, the intervention group still received twice as many breathing exercise sessions and four times the amount of physical therapy over the first 5 postoperative days (23 minutes [interquartile range, 12-29 minutes] vs. 86 minutes [interquartile range, 53-121 minutes]; p < 0.001). One adverse event was reported from 78 rehabilitation sessions (1.3%), which resolved fully on cessation of activity without escalation of medical care.

Intensive postoperative physical therapy can be delivered safely and successfully to patients in the first week after emergency laparotomy. The ICEAGE trial protocol resulted in intervention group participants receiving more coached breathing exercises and spending significantly more time physically active over the first 5 days after surgery compared with standard care. It was therefore recommended to progress into the multicenter phase of ICEAGE to definitively test the effect of intensive physical therapy to prevent pneumonia and improve physical recovery after emergency laparotomy.