The latest medical research on General Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Utility of a Benchmarking Report for Balancing Infection Prevention and Antimicrobial Stewardship in Children with Complicated Appendicitis.

Annals of Surgery

To develop a severity-adjusted, hospital-level benchmarking comparative performance report for postoperative organ space infection and antibiotic utilization in children with complicated appendicitis.

No benchmarking data exist to aid hospitals in identifying and prioritizing opportunities for infection prevention or antimicrobial stewardship in children with complicated appendicitis.

This was a multicenter cohort study using NSQIP-Pediatric data from 16 hospitals participating in a regional research consortium, augmented with antibiotic utilization data obtained through supplemental chart review. Children with complicated appendicitis who underwent appendectomy from 07/01/2015 to 06/30/2020 were included. Thirty-day postoperative OSI rates and cumulative antibiotic utilization were compared between hospitals using observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios after adjusting for disease severity using mixed effects models. Hospitals were considered outliers if the 95% confidence interval for O/E ratios did not include 1.0.

1790 patients were included. Overall, the OSI rate was 15.6% (hospital range: 2.6-39.4%) and median cumulative antibiotic utilization was 9.0 days (range: 3.0-13.0). Across hospitals, adjusted O/E ratios ranged 5.7-fold for OSI (0.49-2.80, P=0.03) and 2.4-fold for antibiotic utilization (0.59-1.45, P<0.01). Three (19%) hospitals were outliers for OSI (1 high and 2 low performers), and eight (50%) were outliers for antibiotic utilization (5 high and 3 low utilizers). Ten (63%) hospitals were identified as outliers in one or both measures.

A comparative performance benchmarking report may help hospitals identify and prioritize quality improvement opportunities for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship, as well as identify exemplar performers for dissemination of best practices.

The Effect of Perioperative Dexamethasone on Postoperative Complications after Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Annals of Surgery

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of perioperative dexamethasone on postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

The glucocorticoid dexamethasone has been shown to improve postoperative outcomes in surgical patients, but its effects on postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy are unclear.

This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in four Chinese high-volume pancreatic centers. Adults undergoing elective pancreaticoduodenectomy were randomized to receive either 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone or a saline placebo as an intravenous bolus within 5 minutes after anesthesia induction. The primary outcome was the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) score within 30 days after the operation, analyzed using the modified intention-to-treat principle.

Among 428 patients for eligibility, 300 participants were randomized and 265 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analyses. 134 patients received dexamethasone and 131 patients received a placebo. The mean (SD) CCI score was 14.0 (17.5) in the dexamethasone group and 17.9 (20.3) in the placebo group (mean difference, -3.8; 95% CI, -8.4 to 0.7; P=0.100). The incidence of major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III) (12.7% vs. 16.0%, risk ratio 0.79; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.43; P=0.439) and postoperative pancreatic fistula (25.4% vs. 31.3%, risk ratio 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.19; P=0.286) were not significantly different between the two groups. In the stratum of participants with a main pancreatic duct ≤3 mm (n=202), the CCI score was significantly lower in the dexamethasone group (mean difference, -6.4; 95% CI, -11.2 to -1.6; P=0.009).

Perioperative dexamethasone did not significantly reduce postoperative complications within 30 days after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Anatomic Lung Resection Outcomes After Implementation of a Universal Thoracic ERAS Protocol Across a Diverse Healthcare System.

Annals of Surgery

We sought to evaluate how implementing a thoracic Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol impacted surgical outcomes after elective anatomic lung resection.

The effect of implementing the ERAS Society/European Society of Thoracic Surgery (ESTS) thoracic ERAS protocol on postoperative outcomes throughout an entire healthcare system has not yet been reported.

This was a prospective cohort study within one healthcare system (1/2019-3/2023). A thoracic ERAS protocol was implemented on 5/1/2021 for elective anatomic lung resections, and postoperative outcomes were tracked using the electronic health record and Vizient data. The primary outcome was overall morbidity; secondary outcomes included individual complications, length of stay (LOS), opioid use, chest tube duration, and total cost. Patients were grouped into pre- and post-ERAS cohorts. Bivariable comparisons were performed using independent t-test, chi-square, or Fisher's exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for confounders.

There were 1,007 patients in the cohort; 450 (44.7%) were in the post-ERAS group. Mean age was 66.2 years; most patients were female (65.1%), white (83.8%), had a BMI between 18.5-29.9 (69.7%), and were ASA class 3 (80.6%). Patients in the post-implementation group had lower risk-adjusted rates of any morbidity, any respiratory complication, pneumonia, surgical site infection, arrhythmias, infections, opioid usage, ICU use, and shorter postoperative LOS (all P<0.05).

Postoperative outcomes were improved after implementation of an evidence-based thoracic ERAS protocol throughout the healthcare system. This study validates the ERAS Society/ESTS guidelines and demonstrates that simultaneous multihospital implementation can be feasible and effective.

Impact of near-infrared fluorescence imaging plus indocyanine green fluorescence on postoperative hypoparathyroidism rates after total thyroidectomy and central neck lymph node dissection.

Br J Surg

Patients with thyroid carcinoma often undergo cervical lymph node dissection, which is associated with high rates of both transient and permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism. The impact of near-infrared fluorescence imaging + indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence on postoperative hypoparathyroidism rates after total thyroidectomy and central neck lymph node dissection was evaluated.

All patients undergoing surgery between January 2019 and March 2023 were included and divided into three groups: a control group (parathyroid glands identified visually), a near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone group, and a near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group. The primary outcome was the transient and permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism rates. Secondary outcomes were: length of surgery and number of parathyroid glands identified, inadvertently resected, and autotransplanted.

A total of 131 patients were included in the study (47 in the control group, 45 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone group, and 39 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group). The transient hypoparathyroidism rate was 48.9% in the control group, 37.8% in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone, and 5.1% in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group (P < 0.0001), while the permanent hypoparathyroidism rate was 8.5% in the control group, 2.2% in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone group, and 0% in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group (P = 0.096). The number of parathyroid glands identified was 159 of 188 in the control group, 165 of 180 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone group, and 149 of 156 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group (P = 0.002). Inadvertent resection of parathyroid glands occurred for 29 of 188 in the control group, 15 of 180 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone group, and 7 of 156 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group (P = 0.002), with subsequent parathyroid gland autotransplantation for 2 of 29 in the control group, 2 of 15 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging alone group, and 3 of 7 in the near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence group (P = 0.040). There was no difference in the median operating time between groups.

The use of near-infrared fluorescence imaging + ICG fluorescence decreased both transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism rates in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and central neck lymph node dissection.

Survival and safety after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or upfront surgery for locally advanced colon cancer: meta-analysis.

Br J Surg

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly used to treat locally advanced (T3-4 Nx-2 M0) colon cancer due to its potential advantages over the standard approach of upfront surgery. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyse data from comparative studies to assess the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on oncological outcomes.

A systematic review was conducted by searching the MEDLINE and Scopus databases. The search encompassed RCTs, propensity score-matched studies, and controlled prospective studies published up to 1 April 2023. As a primary objective, overall survival and disease-free survival were compared. As a secondary objective, perioperative morbidity, mortality, and complete resection were compared using the DerSimonian and Laird models.

A total of seven studies comprising a total of 2120 patients were included. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a reduction in the hazard of recurrence (HR 0.73, 95% c.i. 0.59 to 0.90; P = 0.003) and death (HR 0.67, 95% c.i. 0.54 to 0.83; P < 0.001) compared with upfront surgery. Additionally, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with higher 5-year overall survival (79.9% versus 72.6%; P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (73.1% versus 64.5%; P = 0.028) rates. No significant differences were observed in perioperative mortality (OR 0.97, 95% c.i. 0.28 to 3.33), overall complications (OR 0.95, 95% c.i. 0.77 to 1.16), or anastomotic leakage/intra-abdominal abscess (OR 0.88, 95% c.i. 0.60 to 1.29). However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a lower risk of incomplete resection (OR 0.70, 95% c.i. 0.49 to 0.99).

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with a reduced hazard of recurrence and death, as well as improved overall survival and disease-free survival rates, compared with upfront surgery in patients with locally advanced colon cancer.

Recurrence-free survival as a surrogate endpoint for overall survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Br J Surg

Overall survival is considered as one of the most important endpoints of treatment efficacy but often requires long follow-up. This study aimed to determine the validity of recurrence-free survival as a surrogate endpoint for overall survival in patients with surgically resectable advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Patients with OSCC who received neoadjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, or docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, at 58 Japanese oesophageal centres certified by the Japan Esophageal Society were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation between recurrence-free and overall survival was assessed using Kendall's τ.

The study included 3154 patients. The 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 56.6 and 47.7% respectively. The primary analysis revealed a strong correlation between recurrence-free and overall survival (Kendall's τ 0.797, 95% c.i. 0.782 to 0.812) at the individual level. Subgroup analysis showed a positive relationship between a more favourable pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and a higher τ value. In the meta-regression model, the adjusted R2 value at the institutional level was 100 (95% c.i. 40.2 to 100)%. The surrogate threshold effect was 0.703.

There was a strong correlation between recurrence-free and overall survival in patients with surgically resectable OSCC who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and this was more pronounced in patients with a better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Quality assessment of online patient information on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using the modified Ensuring Quality Information for Patients tool.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Websites and online resources are increasingly becoming patients' main source of healthcare information. It is paramount that high quality information is available online to enhance patient education and improve clinical outcomes. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is the gold standard investigation for UGI symptoms and yet little is known regarding the quality of patient orientated websites. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of online patient information on UGI endoscopy using the modified Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP) tool.

Ten search terms were employed to conduct a systematic review. for each term, the top 100 websites identified via a Google search were assessed using the modified EQIP tool. High scoring websites underwent further analysis. Websites intended for professional use by clinicians as well as those containing video or marketing content were excluded.

A total of 378 websites were eligible for analysis. The median modified EQIP score for UGI endoscopy was 18/36 (interquartile range: 14-21). The median EQIP scores for the content, identification and structure domains were 8/18, 1/6 and 9/12 respectively. Higher modified EQIP scores were obtained for websites produced by government departments and National Health Service hospitals (p=0.007). Complication rates were documented in only a fifth (20.4%) of websites. High scoring websites were significantly more likely to provide balanced information on risks and benefits (94.6% vs 34.4%, p<0.001).

There is an immediate need to improve the quality of online patient information regarding UGI endoscopy. The currently available resources provide minimal information on the risks associated with the procedure, potentially hindering patients' ability to make informed healthcare decisions.

Safety of Same-Day Discharge after Bariatric Operation: A Retrospective 6-Year North American Analysis.

Journal of the

With increasing implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols and rising demand for inpatient hospital beds accentuated by COVID, there has been interest in same day discharge (SDD) for bariatric operation. The aim of this study was to determine the national trends, safety profile, and risk factors for complications of SDD for minimally invasive bariatric operation.

We analyzed the MBSAQIP database from 2016-2021 to characterize trends in SDD for minimally invasive bariatric operation. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on preoperative patient characteristics predictive of increased complications associated with SDD. A comparative analysis of postoperative outcomes within 30 days was performed for SDD and admission after 1:1 nearest neighbor propensity score matching for patient demographics and preoperative comorbidities.

SDD increased from 2.4% in 2016 to 7.4% in 2021. Major preoperative factors associated with increased complications for SDD included Black/African American race, history of myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, DVT and smoking. SDD for RYGB had 72% increased risk of postoperative complications compared with SG. The overall major complications were lower in SDD cohort vs admission cohort (OR 0.62, p<0.01). However, there was a significant increase in deaths within 30 days (OR 2.11, p=0.01), cardiac arrest (OR 2.73; p<0.01), and dehydration requiring treatment (OR 1.33; p<0.01) in SDD cohort compared with admission cohort.

Nationally, there has been rise in SDD for bariatric operation from 2016-2021. Matched analysis demonstrates that SDD is associated with a significantly higher mortality rate. Additionally, the risk of complications with SDD is higher for RYGB compared with SG. Therefore, further studies are required to appropriately select patients for whom bariatric operation can be safely performed as an outpatient.

Do children with Osteosarcoma benefit from Pulmonary Metastasectomy? - A Systematic Review Of Published Studies and 'Real world' Outcomes.

Annals of Surgery

To critically examine the evidence-base for survival benefit of Pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) for Osteosarcoma (OS) in the paediatric population.

PM for OS is recommended as standard of care in both paediatric and adult treatment protocols. Recent results from the PulMiCC trial demonstrate no survival benefit from Pulmonary Metastasectomy (PM) in Colorectal Cancer in adults.

A systematic review was undertaken according to PRISMA guidelines. Medline, Embase and 2 clinical trials registers were searched for ALL STUDIES detailing paediatric OS patients (<18 y) undergoing PM with a comparison cohort group that did not receive PM.

Eleven studies met inclusion criteria dating from 1984 - 2017. All studies were retrospective and none directly compared PM versus No PM in paediatric patients as its main objective(s). Three-year survival rates ranged from 0-54% for PM and 0-16% for no PM. No PM patients were usually those with unresectable disease and/or considered to have a poor prognosis. All studies were at high risk of bias and there was marked heterogeneity in the patient selection.

There is a weak evidence-base (Level IV) for a survival benefit of PM for OS in paediatric patients likely due to selection bias of 'favourable cases'. The included studies many of which detailed outdated treatment protocols were not designed in their reporting to specifically address the questions directly. A randomised controlled trial - whilst ethically challenging in a paediatric population - incorporating modern OS chemotherapy protocols is needed to crucially address any 'survival benefit'.

Looking Across the Drape: A Novel Quality Improvement Approach to Understanding Surgeon and Anesthesiologist Burnout.

Annals of Surgery

To identify well-being threats for surgeons and anesthesiologists and develop interventions using the Quality of Life Improvement (QOLI) approach.

Developing feasible perioperative well-being interventions requires identifying shared and specialty-specific well-being needs. The QOLI framework integrates human-centered design, implementation science, and quality improvement to address well-being needs.

Anesthesia and surgery faculty in eight perioperative departments at an academic medical center completed cross-sectional surveys containing validated measures of well-being and workplace satisfaction, and open-ended questions about professional motivations, pain points, strategies for improvement, and well-being priorities. Using template analysis, we analyzed open-ended survey data and presented resulting themes at a joint-specialty town hall for live-voting to identify well-being priorities.

104 perioperative faculty completed the survey. Across specialties, higher MHC-SF scores (representative of individual global well-being) were associated with higher satisfaction with workplace control, values, decision latitude, and social support. Anesthesiologists reported lower satisfaction and control than surgeons across multiple domains. Template analysis yielded five areas for intervention: (1) Work culture, (2) Work environment/resources, (3) Sources of fulfillment, (4) Work/life harmony, (5) Financial compensation. Surgeons and anesthesiologists both prioritized high-quality patient care but differed in their other top priorities. The most frequently cited well-being threats for surgeons were OR inefficiencies/delays and excessive workload, while anesthesiologists cited understaffing and unpredictable work hours.

Surgeons and anesthesiologists share many needs and priorities, with pain points that are often negatively synergistic. Applying the QOLI approach across specialties allows for well-being interventions that honor complexity and promote the development of feasible solutions.

Body Contouring Surgery after Bariatric Surgery Improves Long-term Health-related Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Appearance: An International Longitudinal Cohort Study Using the BODY-Q.

Annals of Surgery

To examine health-related quality of life (HRQL) and satisfaction with appearance in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery (BS) with or without subsequent body contouring surgery (BCS) in relation to the general population normative for the BODY-Q.

The long-term impact of BS with or without BCS has not been established using rigorously developed and validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROM). The BODY-Q is a PROM developed to measure changes in HRQL and satisfaction with appearance in patients with BS and BCS.

Prospective BODY-Q data were collected from six European countries (Denmark, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Italy, and Poland) from June 2015 to February 2022 in a cohort of patients who underwent BS. Mixed effects regression models were used to analyze changes in HRQL and appearance over time between patients who did and did not receive BCS and to examine the impact of patient-level covariates on outcomes.

This study included 24,604 assessments from 5,620 patients. BS initially led to improved HRQL and appearance scores throughout the first post-bariatric year, followed by a gradual decrease. Patients who underwent subsequent BCS after BS experienced a sustained improvement in HRQL and appearance or remained relatively stable for up to 10-years postoperatively.

Patients who underwent BCS maintained the improvement in HRQL and satisfaction with appearance in contrast to patients who only underwent BS, who reported a decline in scores 1-2 years postoperatively. Our results emphasize the pivotal role that BCS plays in the completion of the weight loss trajectory.

Assessment of Laparoscopic Indocyanine Green Tracer-Guided Lymphadenectomy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Annals of Surgery

To assess the effectiveness of indocyanine green (ICG)-guided lymph node (LN) dissection during laparoscopic radical gastrectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with LAGC.

Studies on ICG imaging use in patients with LAGC on NAC are rare.

Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (clinical T2-4NanyM0) who received NAC were randomly assigned to receive ICG-guided laparoscopic radical gastrectomy or laparoscopic radical gastrectomy alone. Here, we reported the secondary endpoints including the quality of lymphadenectomy (total retrieved LNs and LN noncompliance) and surgical outcomes.

Overall, 240 patients were randomized. Of whom, 236 patients were included in the primary analysis (118 in the ICG group and 118 in the non-ICG group). In the ICG group, the mean number of LNs retrieved was significantly higher than in the non-ICG group within the D2 dissection (48.2 vs. 38.3, P <0.001). The ICG fluorescence guidance significantly decreased the LN non-compliance rates (33.9% vs. 55.1%, P =0.001). In 165 patients without baseline measurable LNs, ICG significantly increased the number of retrieved LNs and decreased the LN non-compliance rate (P <0.05). For 71 patients with baseline measurable LNs, the quality of lymphadenectomy significantly improved in those who had a complete response (P <0.05) but not in those who did not (P >0.05). Surgical outcomes were comparable between the groups (P >0.05).

ICG can effectively improve the quality of lymphadenectomy in patients with LAGC who underwent laparoscopic radical gastrectomy after NAC.