The latest medical research on General Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Assessment of Use of Arteriovenous Graft vs Arteriovenous Fistula for First-time Permanent Hemodialysis Access.

JAMA Surgery

Initial hemodialysis access with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is associated with superior clinical outcomes compared with arteriovenous graft (AVG) and should be the procedure of choice whenever possible. To address the national underuse of AVF in the United States, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid has established an AVF goal of 66% or greater in 2009.

To explore contemporary practice patterns and physician characteristics associated with high AVG use compared with AVF use.

This review of 100% Medicare Carrier claims between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, includes both inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims data. All patients undergoing initial permanent hemodialysis access placement with an AVF or AVG were included. All surgeons performing more than 10 hemodialysis access procedures during the study period were analyzed.

Placement of an AVF or AVG for initial permanent hemodialysis access.

A surgeon-level AVG (vs AVF) use rate was calculated for all included surgeons. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to identify patient-level and surgeon-level factors associated with AVG use.

A total of 85 320 patients (median age, 70 [range, 18-103] years; 47 370 men [55.5%]) underwent first-time hemodialysis access placement, of whom 66 489 (77.9%) had an AVF and 18 831 (22.1%) had an AVG. Among the 2397 surgeons who performed more than 10 procedures per year, the median surgeon level AVG use rate was 18.2% (range, 0.0%-96.4%). However, 498 surgeons (20.8%) had an AVG use rate greater than 34%. After accounting for patient characteristics, surgeon factors that were independently associated with AVG use included more than 30 years of clinical practice (vs 21-30 years; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75-0.96]), metropolitan setting (odds ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.02-1.54]), and vascular surgery specialty (vs general surgery; odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.69-0.86]). Surgeons in the Northeast region had the lowest rate of AVG use (vs the South; odds ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.73-0.96]). First-time hemodialysis access benchmarking reports for individual surgeons were created for potential distribution.

In this study, one-fifth of surgeons had an AVG use rate above the recommended best practices guideline of 34%. Although some of these differences may be explained by patient referral practices, sharing benchmarked performance data with surgeons could be an actionable step in achieving more high-value care in hemodialysis access surgery.

Comparison of Targeted vs Systematic Prostate Biopsy in Men Who Are Biopsy Naive: The Prospective Assessment of Image Registration in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PAIREDCAP) Study.

JAMA Surgery

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance improves the accuracy of prostate biopsy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, but the optimal use of such guidance is not yet clear.

To determine the cancer detection rate (CDR) of targeting MRI-visible lesions vs systematic prostate sampling in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in men who were biopsy naive.

This paired cohort trial, known as the Prospective Assessment of Image Registration in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PAIREDCAP) study, was conducted in an academic medical center from January 2015 to April 2018. Men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy were enrolled. Paired-cohort participants were a consecutive series of men with MRI-visible lesions (defined by a Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 score  ≥ 3), who each underwent 3 biopsy methods at the same sitting: first, a systematic biopsy; second, an MRI-lesion biopsy targeted by cognitive fusion; and third, an MRI-lesion targeted by software fusion. Another consecutive series of men without MRI-visible lesions underwent systematic biopsies to help determine the false-negative rate of MRI during the trial period.

The primary end point was the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason grade group ≥2) overall and by each biopsy method separately. The secondary end points were the effects of the Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 grade, prostate-specific antigen density, and prostate volume on the primary end point. Tertiary end points were the false-negative rate of MRI and concordance of biopsy-method results by location of detected cancers within the prostate.

A total of 300 men participated; 248 had MRI-visible lesions (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [7.7] years; 197 were white [79.4%]), and 52 were control participants (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [5.9] years; 39 were white [75%]). The overall CDR was 70% in the paired cohort group, achieved by combining systematic and targeted biopsy results. The CDR by systematic sampling was 15% in the group without MRI-visible lesions. In the paired-cohort group, CDRs varied from 47% (116 of 248 men) when using cognitive fusion biopsy alone, to approximately 60% when using systematic biopsy (149 of 248 men) or either fusion method alone (154 of 248 men), to 70% (174 of 248 men) when combining systematic and targeted biopsy. Discordance of tumor locations suggests that the different biopsy methods detect different tumors. Thus, combining targeting and systematic sampling provide greatest sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. For all biopsy methods, the Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System version 2 grade and prostate-specific antigen density were directly associated with CDRs, and prostate volume was inversely associated.

An MRI-visible lesion in men undergoing first-time prostate biopsy identifies those with a heightened risk of clinically significant prostate cancer. Combining targeted and systematic biopsy offers the best chances of detecting the cancer.

Role of Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy in Treatment of Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

Although liver metastasis develops in more than half of patients with colorectal cancer, only 15% to 20% of these patients have resectable liver metastasis at presentation. Moreover, patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis (IU-CRLM) who progress on first-line systemic chemotherapy have limited treatment options. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), in combination with systemic chemotherapy, leverages a multimodality approach to achieving control of hepatic disease and/or expanding resectability in patients with liver-only disease or liver-dominant disease.

Intra-arterial delivery of agents with high first-pass hepatic extraction (eg, floxuridine) limits systemic toxic effects and allows for administration of systemic chemotherapy at near-full doses. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy augments response rates up to 92% in patients who are chemotherapy naive, and up to 85% in pretreated patients with IU-CRLM. In turn, these responses translate into encouraging rates of conversion to resectability (CTR). Prospective trials have reported CTR rates as high as 52% in heavily pretreated patients with IU-CRLM who have an extensive hepatic disease burden. As such, CTR remains a compelling indication for liver-directed chemotherapy in this subset of patients. This review discusses the biological rationale for HAIC, evolution of rational combinations with systemic chemotherapy, contemporary evidence for CTR using HAIC and systemic chemotherapy, juxtaposition with rates of CTR using systemic chemotherapy alone, and morbidity and toxic effect profiles of HAIC.

The argument is made for consideration of earlier initiation of HAIC in patients with IU-CRLM who are chemotherapy naive and for adoption of HAIC strategies to augment rates of resectability in patients who have failed first-line systemic chemotherapy before proceeding to second-line or third-line regimens.

Resolvin D1 Attenuates the Organ Injury Associated With Experimental Hemorrhagic Shock.

Annals of Surgery

To evaluate the potential changes in the plasma levels of resolvin D1 (RvD1) in patients with trauma and hemorrhage. Having found that trauma results in a profound reduction in plasma RvD1 in patients, we have then investigated the effects of RvD1 on the organ injury and dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) in the rat.

HS is a common cause of death in trauma due to excessive systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure. RvD1 is a member of the resolvin family of pro-resolution mediators.

Blood samples were drawn from critically injured patients (n = 27, ACITII-prospective observational cohort study) within 2 hours of injury for targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. HS rats (removal of blood to reduce arterial pressure to 30 ± 2 mm Hg, 90 minutes, followed by resuscitation) were treated with RvD1 (0.3 or 1 μg/kg intravenous (i.v.)) or vehicle (n = 7). Parameters of organ injury and dysfunction were determined.

Plasma levels of RvD1 (mg/dL) were reduced in patients with trauma+HS (0.17 ± 0.08) when compared with healthy volunteers (0.76 ± 0.25) and trauma patients (0.62 ± 0.20). In rats with HS, RvD1 attenuated the kidney dysfunction, liver injury, and tissue ischemia. RvD1 also reduced activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6.

Plasma RvD1 is reduced in patients with trauma-HS. In rats with HS, administration of synthetic RvD1 on resuscitation attenuated the multiple organ failure associated with HS by a mechanism that involves inhibition of the activation of NF-κB.

Prospective Comparison of the Prognostic Relevance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Blood and Disseminated Tumor Cells in Bone Marrow of a Single Patient's Cohort With Esophageal Cancer.

Annals of Surgery

Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in 1 cohort of patients with esophageal cancer (EC).

Hematogenous tumor cell dissemination is a key event in tumor progression, and clinical significance of DTCs and CTCs are controversially discussed in the literature. However, evaluation of both biomarker in 1 patient's cohort has not been described before.

In this prospective, single-center study, 76 patients with preoperatively nonmetastatic staged EC were included. The CellSearch system was used to enumerate CTCs. Bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crest and cells were enriched by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. DTCs were immunostained with the pan-keratin antibody A45-B/B3.

Fifteen of 76 patients (19.7%) harbored CTCs, whereas in 13 of 76 patients (17.1%), DTCs could be detected. In only 3 patients (3.9%), CTCs and DTCs were detected simultaneously, whereas concordant results (DTC/CTC negative and DTC/CTC positive) were found in 54 patients (71.1%). Surprisingly, only patients with CTCs showed significant shorter overall and relapse-free survival (P = 0.038 and P = 0.004, respectively). Multivariate analyses revealed that only the CTC status was an independent predictor of overall and relapse-free survival (P = 0.007 and P < 0.001, respectively).

This is the first study analyzing CTC and DTC status in 1 cohort of nonmetastatic patients with EC. In this early disease stage, only the CTC status was an independent, prognostic marker suitable and easy to use for clinical staging of patients with EC.

Preoperative Ultrasound Assessment of Regional Lymph Nodes in Melanoma Patients Does not Provide Reliable Nodal Staging: Results from a Large Multicenter Trial.

Annals of Surgery

To assess whether preoperative ultrasound (US) assessment of regional lymph nodes in patients who present with primary cutaneous melanoma provides accurate staging.

It has been suggested that preoperative US could avoid the need for sentinel node (SN) biopsy, but in most single-institution reports, the sensitivity of preoperative US has been low.

Preoperative US data and SNB results were analyzed for patients enrolled at 20 centers participating in the screening phase of the second Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial. Excised SNs were histopathologically assessed and considered positive if any melanoma was seen.

SNs were identified and removed from 2859 patients who had preoperative US evaluation. Among those patients, 548 had SN metastases. US was positive (abnormal) in 87 patients (3.0%). Among SN-positive patients, 39 (7.1%) had an abnormal US. When analyzed by lymph node basin, 3302 basins were evaluated, and 38 were true positive (1.2%). By basin, the sensitivity of US was 6.6% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.7) and the specificity 98.0% (95% CI: 97.5-98.5). Median cross-sectional area of all SN metastases was 0.13 mm; in US true-positive nodes, it was 6.8 mm. US sensitivity increased with increasing Breslow thickness of the primary melanoma (0% for ≤1 mm thickness, 11.9% for >4 mm thickness). US sensitivity was not significantly greater with higher trial center volume or with pre-US lymphoscintigraphy.

In the MSLT-II screening phase population, SN tumor volume was usually too small to be reliably detected by US. For accurate nodal staging to guide the management of melanoma patients, US is not an effective substitute for SN biopsy.

Five-year Longitudinal Cohort Study of Reinterventions After Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

Annals of Surgery

To compare the long-term risks of reintervention following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in a large surgical cohort.

The use of SG has increased dramatically relative to RYGB for the treatment of obesity. However, long-term risks following SG compared with RYGB have not been adequately defined in a large population-based study.

A retrospective longitudinal cohort study of all adult health-plan members undergoing SG or RYGB for obesity in a multistate integrated health care system from January 2005 through September 2015. The risks of nutritional, endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical reintervention as well as the overall risk of any reinterventions at 1, 3, and 5 years were identified using diagnosis and procedure codes from comprehensive electronic medical records.

The study included 15,319 patients who underwent SG and 19,954 patients who underwent RYGB with a follow-up of 79.2%. The overall risk of any reintervention at 5 years was 21.3% for SG and 28.3% for RYGB (P < 0.0001). After adjustment, SG was associated with fewer reinterventions through 5 years than RYGB (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.84). When comparing subcategories, SG also had a lower risk of nutritional, endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical reinterventions when examined versus RYGB. The findings for risks of reinterventions were consistent across clinical subgroups.

SG has significantly lower risk of reintervention in all categories studied when compared with RYGB at 5-year follow-up. The long-term safety profile of LSG compared with RYGB should be an essential part of the discussion in patient-centered decision making when choosing between bariatric procedure options.

Survival Following Liver Transplantation for Patients With Nonresectable Liver-only Colorectal Metastases.

Annals of Surgery

To determine overall survival and disease-free survival in selected patients with nonresectable liver-only colorectal cancer receiving liver transplantation.

Patients with nonresectable colorectal cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy has a 5-year overall survival of about 10%. Liver transplantation provided an overall survival of 60% in a previous study (SECA-I). Risk factors for death were carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) >80 μg/L, progressive disease on chemotherapy, size of largest lesion>5.5 cm, and less than 2 years from resection of the primary tumor to transplantation.

In this prospective (SECA-II) study, we included colorectal cancer patients with nonresectable liver-only metastases determined by computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography scans and at least 10% response to chemotherapy. Time from diagnosis to liver transplant was required to be more than 1 year.

At a median follow-up of 36 months, Kaplan-Meier overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years were 100%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. Disease-free survival at 1, 2, and 3 years were 53%, 44%, and 35%, respectively. Overall survival from time of relapse at 1, 2, and 4 years were 100%, 73%, and 73%, respectively. Recurrence was mainly slow growing pulmonary metastases amenable to curative resection. Fong Clinical Risk Score of 1 to 2 at the time of diagnosis resulted in longer disease-free survival than score 3 to 4 (P = 0.044). Patients included in the present study had significantly better prognostic factors than the previous SECA-I study.

Liver transplantation provides the longest overall survival reported in colorectal cancer patient with nonresectable liver metastases. Improved selection criteria give patients with nonresectable colorectal liver metastases a 5-year overall survival comparable to other indications for liver transplantation.

Frailty in Older Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy: Results From the UK Observational Emergency Laparotomy and Frailty (ELF) Study.

Annals of Surgery

This study aimed to document the prevalence of frailty in older adults undergoing emergency laparotomy and to explore relationships between frailty and postoperative morbidity and mortality.

The majority of adults undergoing emergency laparotomy are older adults (≥65 y) that carry the highest mortality. Improved understanding is urgently needed to allow development of targeted interventions.

An observational multicenter (n=49) UK study was performed (March-June 2017). All older adults undergoing emergency laparotomy were included. Preoperative frailty score was calculated using the progressive Clinical Frailty Score (CFS): 1 (very fit) to 7 (severely frail). Primary outcome measures were the prevalence of frailty (CFS 5-7) and its association to mortality at 90 days postoperative. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality and morbidity, length of critical care, and overall hospital stay.

A total of 937 older adults underwent emergency laparotomy: frailty was present in 20%. Ninety-day mortality was 19.5%. After age and sex adjustment, the risk of 90-day mortality was directly associated with frailty: CFS 5 adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-8.14] and CFS 6/7 aOR 6·10 (95% CI, 2.26-16.45) compared with CFS 1. Similar associations were found for 30-day mortality. Increasing frailty was also associated with increased risk of complications, length of Intensive Care Unit, and overall hospital stay.

A fifth of older adults undergoing emergency laparotomy are frail. The presence of frailty is associated with greater risks of postoperative mortality and morbidity and is independent of age. Frailty scoring should be integrated into acute surgical assessment practice to aid decision-making and development of novel postoperative strategies.

Predicting Acute Pain After Surgery: A Multivariate Analysis.

Annals of Surgery

To identify perioperative practice patterns that predictably impact postoperative pain.

Despite significant advances in perioperative medicine, a significant portion of patients still experience severe pain after major surgery. Postoperative pain is associated with serious adverse outcomes that are costly to patients and society.

The presented analysis took advantage of a unique observational data set providing unprecedented detailed pharmacological information. The data were collected by PAIN OUT, a multinational registry project established by the European Commission to improve postoperative pain outcomes. A multivariate approach was used to derive and validate a model predictive of pain on postoperative day 1 (POD1) in 1008 patients undergoing back surgery.

The predictive and validated model was highly significant (P = 8.9E-15) and identified modifiable practice patterns. Importantly, the number of nonopioid analgesic drug classes administered during surgery predicted decreased pain on POD1. At least 2 different nonopioid analgesic drug classes (cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetaminophen, nefopam, or metamizol) were required to provide meaningful pain relief (>30%). However, only a quarter of patients received at least 2 nonanalgesic drug classes during surgery. In addition, the use of very short-acting opioids predicted increased pain on POD1, suggesting room for improvement in the perioperative management of these patients. Although the model was highly significant, it only accounted for a relatively small fraction of the observed variance.

The presented analysis offers detailed insight into current practice patterns and reveals modifications that can be implemented in today's clinical practice. Our results also suggest that parameters other than those currently studied are relevant for postoperative pain including biological and psychological variables.

Accuracy of Detecting Residual Disease After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Annals of Surgery

The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis on the accuracy of endoscopic biopsies, EUS, and 18F-FDG PET(-CT) for detecting residual disease after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for esophageal cancer.

After nCRT, one-third of patients have a pathologically complete response in the resection specimen. Before an active surveillance strategy could be offered to these patients, clinically complete responders should be accurately identified.

Embase, Medline, Cochrane, and Web-of-Science were searched until February 2018 for studies on accuracy of endoscopic biopsies, EUS, or PET(-CT) for detecting locoregional residual disease after nCRT for squamous cell- or adenocarcinoma. Pooled sensitivities and specificities were calculated using random-effect meta-analyses.

Forty-four studies were included for meta-analyses. For detecting residual disease at the primary tumor site, 12 studies evaluated endoscopic biopsies, 11 qualitative EUS, 14 qualitative PET, 8 quantitative PET using maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and 7 quantitative PET using percentage reduction of SUVmax (%ΔSUVmax). Pooled sensitivities and specificities were 33% and 95% for endoscopic biopsies, 96% and 8% for qualitative EUS, 74% and 52% for qualitative PET, 69% and 72% for PET-SUVmax, and 73% and 63% for PET-%ΔSUVmax. For detecting residual nodal disease, 11 studies evaluated qualitative EUS with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 68% and 57%, respectively. In subgroup analyses, sensitivity of PET-%ΔSUVmax and EUS for nodal disease was higher in squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma.

Current literature suggests insufficient accuracy of endoscopic biopsies, EUS, and 18F-FDG PET(-CT) as single modalities for detecting residual disease after nCRT for esophageal cancer.

An International Comparison of the Management of Gastrointestinal Surgical Emergencies in Octogenarians-England versus United States: A National Population-based Cohort Study.

Annals of Surgery

To compare the United States and England for the utilization of surgical intervention and in-hospital mortality from 5 gastrointestinal emergencies in octogenarians.

The proportion of older adults is growing and will represent a substantial challenge to clinicians in the next decade.

Between 2006 and 2012, the rate of surgical intervention and in-hospital mortality for 5 index conditions for octogenarians were compared between the United States and England: appendicitis, incarcerated/strangulated abdominal hernia, perforation of esophagus, small or large bowel, and peptic ulcer. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to adjust for underlying differences in patient demographics.

Thirty-two thousand one hundred fifty-one admissions of octogenarians in England for 5 index surgical emergencies were compared with 162,142 admissions in the USA.Surgical intervention was significantly more common in the USA than in England for all 5 conditions: appendicitis [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.21-5.09], abdominal hernia (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.97-2.15), perforated esophagus (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.31-2.24), small and large bowel perforation (OR 4.33, 95% CI 4.12-4.56), and peptic ulcer perforation (OR 4.63, 95% CI 4.27-5.02). In-hospital mortality was significantly more common in England than in the USA for all 5 conditions: appendicitis (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.73-3.78), abdominal hernia (OR 3.49, 95% CI 3.29-3.70), perforated esophagus (OR 4.06, 95% CI 3.03-5.44), small and large bowel perforation (OR 6.97, 95% CI 6.60-7.37), and peptic ulcer perforation (OR 3.67, 95% CI 3.40-3.96).

Surgery is used less commonly in England for emergency gastrointestinal conditions in octogenarians, which may be associated with a high rate of in-hospital mortality from these conditions compared with the USA.