The latest medical research on General Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Identification and Validation of a Biomarker Signature in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer via Genome-Wide Screening for Functional Genetic Variants.

JAMA Surgery

Surgery currently offers the only chance for a cure in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it carries a significant morbidity and mortality risk and results in varying oncologic outcomes. At present, to our knowledge, there are no tests available before surgical resection to identify tumors with an aggressive biological phenotype that could guide personalized treatment strategies.

Identification of noninvasive genetic biomarkers that could direct therapy in patients whose cases are amenable to pancreatic cancer resection.

This multicenter study combined a prospective European cohort of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatic resection (from University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Cantonal Hospital of Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; and University Clinic of Ulm, Ulm, Germany) with data from the Cancer Genome Atlas database in the United States, which includes prospectively registered patients with PDAC. A genome-wide screening for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect PDAC survival was conducted using the European cohort for identification and the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort for validation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to screen for high-frequency polymorphic variants that are associated with allelic differences in tumor-associated survival and either result in an altered protein structure and function or reside in known regulatory noncoding genomic regions. The false-discovery rate method was applied for multiple hypothesis-testing corrections. Data analysis occurred from November 2017 to May 2018.

Pancreatic resection.

Tumor-associated survival.

A total of 195 patients in the European cohort were included, as well as 136 patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (overall median [range] age, 66 [19-87] years; 156 [47.1%] were women, and 175 [52.9%] were men). Two SNPs in noncoding, functional regions of genes that regulate cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis were identified (CHI3L2 SNP rs684559 and CD44 SNP rs353630). These were associated with survival after PDAC resection; patients who carry the risk alleles at 1 of both SNP loci had a 2.63-fold increased risk for tumor-associated death compared with those with protective genotypes (hazard ratio for survival, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.27-0.53]; P = 1.0 × 10-8).

The identified polymorphisms may serve as a noninvasive biomarker signature of prospective survival after pancreatic resection that is readily available at the time of PDAC diagnosis. This signature can be used to identify a subset of high-risk patients with PDAC with very low survival probability who might be eligible for inclusion in clinical trials of new therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the biological knowledge about these SNPs could help guide the development of individualized genomic strategies for PDAC therapies.

Management Options for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

JAMA Surgery

Varices are one of the main clinical manifestations of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastric varices are less common than esophageal varices but are often associated with poorer prognosis, mainly because of their higher propensity to bleed.

Currently, treatments used to control and manage gastric variceal bleeding include β-blockers, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, shunt surgery, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO), and modified BRTO. In the past few decades, Western (United States and Europe) interventional radiologists have preferred transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts that aim to decompress the liver and reduce portal pressure. Conversely, Eastern radiologists (Japan and South Korea) have preferred BRTO that directly targets the gastric varices. Over the past 20 years, BRTO has evolved and procedure-related risks have decreased. Owing to its safety and efficiency in treating gastric varices, BRTO is now starting to gain popularity among Western interventional radiologists. In this review, we present a comprehensive literature review of current and emerging management options, including BRTO and modified BRTO, for the treatment of gastric varices in the setting of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration has emerged as a safe and effective alternative treatment option for gastric variceal hemorrhage. A proper training, evidence-based consensus and guideline, thorough preprocedural and postprocedural evaluation, and a multidisciplinary team approach with BRTO and modified BRTO are strongly recommended to ensure best patient care.

Association of Racial Disparities With Access to Kidney Transplant After the Implementation of the New Kidney Allocation System.

JAMA Surgery

Inactive patients on the kidney transplant wait-list have a higher mortality. The implications of this status change on transplant outcomes between racial/ethnic groups are unknown.

To determine if activity status changes differ among races/ethnicities and levels of sensitization, and if these differences are associated with transplant probability after implementation of the Kidney Allocation System.

A multistate model was constructed from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant database (December 4, 2014, to September 8, 2016). The time interval followed Kidney Allocation System implementation and provided at least 1-year follow-up for all patients. The model calculated probabilities between active and inactive status and the following competing risk outcomes: living donor transplant, deceased donor transplant, and death/other. This retrospective cohort study included 42 558 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network kidney transplant wait-list following Kidney Allocation System implementation. To rule out time-varying confounding from relisting, analysis was limited to first-time registrants. Owing to variations in listing practices, primary center listing data were used for dually listed patients. Individuals listed for another organ or pancreatic islets were excluded. Analysis began July 2017.

Probabilities were determined for transitions between active and inactive status and the following outcome states: active to living donor transplant, active to deceased donor transplant, active to death/other, inactive to living donor transplant, inactive to deceased donor transplant, and inactive to death/other.

The median (interquartile range) age at listing was 55.0 (18.0-89.0) years, and 26 535 of 42 558 (62.4%) were men. White individuals were 43.3% (n = 18 417) of wait-listed patients, while black and Hispanic individuals made up 27.8% (n = 11 837) and 19.5% (n = 8296), respectively. Patients in the calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 0% or 1% to 79% showed no statistically significant difference in transplant probability among races/ethnicities. White individuals had an advantage in transplant probability over black individuals in calculated plasma reactive antibody categories of 80% to 89% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4-2.2]) and 90% or higher (HR, 2.4 [95% CI, 2.1-2.6]), while Hispanic individuals had an advantage over black individuals in the calculated plasma reactive antibody group of 90% or higher (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.1-2.8]). Once on the inactive list, white individuals were more likely than Hispanic individuals (HR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.17-1.3]) or black individuals (HR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.4]) to resolve issues for inactivity resulting in activation.

For patients who are highly sensitized, there continues to be less access to kidney transplant in the black population after the implementation of the Kidney Allocation System. Health disparities continue after listing where individuals from minority groups have greater difficulty in resolving issues of inactivity.

The effect of time to surgery on outcomes and complication rates following total hip arthroplasty for fractured neck of femur.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Total hip arthroplasty is recommended for elderly patients with fractured neck of femur who are independently mobile, have few co-morbidities and are not cognitively impaired. Providing a daily total hip arthroplasty service is challenging for some units in the UK and considering that these patients may be physiologically distinct from the average hip fracture patient, loss of the best practice tariff as a result of surgical delay may be unjustified. The aim of this study was to determine whether time to surgical intervention for patients eligible for total hip arthroplasty had a negative impact on patient complications, length of stay and functional outcomes.

All patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for fractured neck of femur at our institution over a ten-year period were identified. Complications and functional outcomes were compared between patients receiving total hip arthroplasty before and after 36 hours.

Of 112 consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, 70 responded to a questionnaire or telephone consultation. Four patients were excluded owing to delayed presentation, the presence of advanced rheumatoid arthritis or a pathological fracture. Two-thirds (64%) of the remaining 66 patients underwent surgery within 36 hours of presentation. There were no significant differences between the groups of patients receiving surgery before or after 36 hours with regard to postoperative length of stay, complications, Oxford hip scores or visual analogue scale scores for state of health.

Delaying surgery for patients eligible for total hip arthroplasty as per the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines is justified and should not incur loss of the best practice tariff.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes with vanished thyroid gland after ablation of Graves' disease by radioactive iodine.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Primary thyroid carcinoma after thyroid ablation by radioactive iodine is rare. We present a very rare condition of lateral apparent papillary thyr...

Appendicitis due to incarceration within a laparoscopic umbilical port-site hernia secondary to a degree of intestinal malrotation.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

A 37-year-old woman presented with an incarcerated hernia at a previous umbilical laparoscopic port site. This was found to contain an ischaemic ap...

Variation between hospitals in outcomes following cardiac surgery in the UK.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

We examine the influence of variations in provision of cardiac surgery in the UK at hospital level on patient outcomes and also to assess whether there is an inequality of access and delivery of healthcare. Cardiothoracic surgery has pioneered the reporting of surgeon-specific outcomes, which other specialties have followed. We set out to identify factors other than the individual surgeon, which can affect outcomes and enable other surgical specialties to adopt a similar model.

A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patient and hospital level factors between 2013 and 2016 from 16 cardiac surgical units in the UK were analysed through the Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery of Great Britain and Ireland and the Royal College of Surgeons Research Collaborative. Patient demographic data, risks factors, postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality, as well as hospital-level factors such as number of beds and operating theatres, were collected. Correlation between outcome measures was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Associations between hospital-level factors and outcomes were assessed using univariable and multivariable regression models.

Of 50,871 patients (60.5% of UK caseload), 25% were older than 75 years and 29% were female. There was considerable variation between units in patient comorbidities, bed distribution and staffing. All hospitals had dedicated cardiothoracic intensive care beds and consultants. Median survival was 97.9% (range 96.3-98.6%). Postoperative complications included re-sternotomy for bleeding (median 4.8%; range 3.5-6.9%) and mediastinitis (0.4%; 0.1-1.0%), transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident (1.7%; range 0.3-3.0%), haemofiltration (3.7%; range 0.8-6.8%), intra-aortic balloon pump use (3.3%; range 0.4-7.4%), tracheostomy (1.6%; range 1.3-2.6%) and laparotomy (0.3%; range 0.2-0.6%). There was variation in outcomes between hospitals. Univariable analysis showed a small number of positive associations between hospital-level factors and outcomes but none remained significant in multivariable models.

Variations among hospital level factors exists in both delivery of, and outcomes, following cardiac surgery in the UK. However, there was no clear association between these factors and patient outcomes. This negative finding could be explained by differences in outcome definition, differences in risk factors between centres that are not captured by standard risk stratification scores or individual surgeon/team performance.

Unilateral visual loss resulting from orbital encroachment of an ethmoidal juvenile trabecular ossifying fibroma.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Ossifying fibromas are mainly found in the mandible and maxilla. Reports of them arising in the ethmoid sinuses and orbits are rare. We present a c...

A rare solitary fibrous tumour of the ascending mesocolon: a case report.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Solitary fibrous tumours are rare mesenchymal tumours which mostly arise from pleura. Such tumours occurring in the mesocolon are exceptionally rar...

A novel technique to remove a broken tibiotalocalcaneal intramedullary nail using Moreland hip revision instrumentation.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Hindfoot intramedullary devices are increasingly used in tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis after failed total ankle arthroplasty or as a salvage proce...

Mechanical thrombectomy for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke following pulmonary lobectomy.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Acute ischaemic stroke is a devastating postoperative complication that significantly impacts upon a patient's quality of life. Endovascular retrie...

Ex vivo model for a new bilateral antimesenteric V-modified side-to-side isoperistaltic anastomosis to prevent recurrence in ileocolic Crohn's disease.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

The high rate of recurrence following ileocaecal resection for Crohn's disease may lead to repeat surgery in 20-30% of patients at five years after surgery. Recurrence usually occurs at the anastomosis and the neoterminal ileum and the association of a strictureplasty to widen the bowel lumen in the regions immediately proximal ('anastomotic inlet') and distal ('anastomotic outlet') to the anastomosis may delay or reduce the risk of surgical recurrence.

A side to side isoperistaltic anastomosis, with an associated V-modified strictureplasty on the anti-mesenteric border at the level of the anastomosis inlet and outlet has been designed. We produced a wet lab ex vivo model of the anastomosis and, to evaluate the different calibre of the anastomotic segments, we compared it with ex vivo models of three anastomotic configurations currently used in surgery for Crohn's disease: i) side to side isoperistaltic anastomosis; ii) modified side-to-side isoperistaltic anastomosis with double Heineke-Mikulicz procedure (Sasaki anastomosis); iii) anti-mesenteric functional end-to-end handsewn anastomosis (Kono-S anastomosis).

Differences were recorded at the level of the anastomosis inlet and outlet, with a larger volume estimated in the Sasaki anastomosis and in the V-modified anastomosis. The V-modified anastomosis had a larger volume compared with the Sasaki anastomosis for a longer segment of small bowel.

We have developed an experimental animal model for a new anastomotic technique which could be applied in surgery for Crohn's disease following small-bowel or ileocolic resection.