The latest medical research on General Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about general surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Rare bowel emphysema with superior mesenteric artery syndrome after surgery.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, a rare cause of duodenal obstruction, occasionally requires surgery. Bowel emphysema might also require surger...

Reconstructive utilisation and outcomes following mastectomy surgery in women with breast cancer treated in England.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Breast cancer usually necessitates breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy, which adversely affect appearance and wellbeing. Immediate reconstruction restores the breast mound but its availability and efficacy are uncertain.

Two discrete datasets were used to evaluate mastectomies in England: Hospital Episode Statistics to measure overall activity and variation over time and by region and a national prospective audit to evaluate immediate reconstruction decision making, complication rates and patient-reported satisfaction with information, choice and outcomes.

The 2005-08 Hospital Episode Statistics analyses identified 20% breast-conserving surgery reoperation rates nationally, frequently involving mastectomy. Rates were higher with in-situ disease present (30% vs 18%) and varied across NHS trusts (10th-90th centiles 12-30%). The 2008-09 national audit examined 18,216 women. The 19% immediate reconstruction rate varied regionally (9-43%), as did 2006-09 Hospital Episode Statistics data (8-32%). A total of 48% of women were offered immediate reconstruction, again varying regionally (24-75%). Offer likelihood fell with increasing age. National immediate reconstruction rates increased from 10% to 23% from 2000 to 2014, but regional variation persisted. Despite high care satisfaction, just 65% of mastectomy patients received the right amount of reconstructive information (90% for immediate reconstruction). Women from deprived areas experienced higher complication rates. Flap-based immediate reconstruction led to greater satisfaction with breast area appearance, emotional and sexual wellbeing and overall outcome than mastectomy; implant-only immediate reconstruction scored no better.

Reconstruction is central to improving breast cancer outcomes. The differential outcomes and persistent regional inequalities identified should facilitate decision making, support improved access to all reconstructive options and inform the development of an optimal patient pathway.

Acute cholecystitis in a patient with heterotaxic anatomy and partial situs inversus.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

It is well recognised that situs inversus totalis can make surgery challenging. However, partial situs inversus with heterotaxic anatomy has rarely...

Current trends in hernia surgery in NHS England.

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Mesh is recommended for the repair of most hernias when prevention of recurrence is the primary endpoint. However, mesh may be associated with increased complications for the patient. The aim of this study was to quantify the use of mesh for abdominal wall hernia surgery in NHS England in recent years.

The NHS Digital Secondary Uses Service database for 2016/17 and 2017/18 was interrogated for numbers of patient undergoing elective primary hernia surgery. Using the specific hernia code inguinal (T201-9), umbilical (T241-9), incisional (T251-9) and other abdominal wall hernia (T271-9), the use of mesh or suture repair was determined. Recurrent and emergency hernia surgery were excluded. All data were provided by NHS RightCare.

There are almost 100,000 hernia repairs performed annually in NHS England. For every four hernias, three are repaired with mesh. The percentage repaired by mesh varies by hernia type. Mesh repairs in inguinal, umbilical and incisional hernias accounted for 95%, 50% and 82%, respectively.

Mesh repair for all hernia types is more common than suture repair. However, for umbilical and other abdominal wall hernias, a significant proportion are repaired without the use of mesh.

The Prognostic Impact of Primary Tumor Site Differs According to the KRAS Mutational Status: A Study By the International Genetic Consortium for Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

Annals of Surgery

To examine the prognostic impact of tumor laterality in colon cancer liver metastases (CLM) after stratifying by Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutational status.

Although some studies have demonstrated that patients with CLM from a right sided (RS) primary cancer fare worse, others have found equivocal outcomes of patients with CLM with RS versus left-sided (LS) primary tumors. Importantly, recent evidence from unresectable metastatic CRC suggests that tumor laterality impacts prognosis only in those with wild-type tumors.

Patients with rectal or transverse colon tumors and those with unknown KRAS mutational status were excluded from analysis. The prognostic impact of RS versus LS primary CRC was determined after stratifying by KRAS mutational status.

277 patients had a RS (38.6%) and 441 (61.4%) had a LS tumor. Approximately one-third of tumors (28.1%) harbored KRAS mutations. In the entire cohort, RS was associated with worse 5-year overall survival (OS) compared with LS (39.4% vs 50.8%, P = 0.03) and remained significantly associated with worse OS in the multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 1.45, P = 0.04). In wild-type patients, a worse 5-year OS associated with a RS tumor was evident in univariable analysis (43.7% vs 55.5%, P = 0.02) and persisted in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 1.49, P = 0.01). In contrast, among patients with KRAS mutated tumors, tumor laterality had no impact on 5-year OS, even in the univariable analysis (32.8% vs 34.0%, P = 0.38).

This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the prognostic impact of primary tumor side differs according to KRAS mutational status. RS tumors were associated with worse survival only in patients with wild-type tumors.

Patient Factors Associated with Opioid Consumption in the Month Following Major Surgery.

Annals of Surgery

The aim of this study was to determine preoperative patient characteristics associated with postoperative outpatient opioid use and assess the frequency of postoperative opioid overprescribing.

Although characteristics associated with inpatient opioid use have been described, data regarding patient factors associated with opioid use after discharge are lacking. This hampers the development of individualized approaches to postoperative prescribing.

We included opioid-naïve patients undergoing hysterectomy, thoracic surgery, and total knee and hip arthroplasty in a single-center prospective observational cohort study. Preoperative phenotyping included self-report measures to assess pain severity, fibromyalgia survey criteria score, pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, functional status, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported total opioid use in oral morphine equivalents. We constructed multivariable linear-regression models predicting opioids consumed in the first month following surgery.

We enrolled 1181 patients; 1001 had complete primary outcome data and 913 had complete phenotype data. Younger age, non-white race, lack of a college degree, higher anxiety, greater sleep disturbance, heavy alcohol use, current tobacco use, and larger initial opioid prescription size were significantly associated with increased opioid consumption. Median total oral morphine equivalents prescribed was 600 mg (equivalent to one hundred twenty 5-mg hydrocodone pills), whereas median opioid consumption was 188 mg (38 pills).

In this prospective cohort of opioid-naïve patients undergoing major surgery, we found a number of characteristics associated with greater opioid use in the first month after surgery. Future studies should address the use of non-opioid medications and behavioral therapies in the perioperative period for these higher risk patients.

Meaningful Patient-centered Outcomes 1 Year Following Cardiac Surgery.

Annals of Surgery

To evaluate meaningful, patient-centered outcomes including alive-at-home status and patient-reported quality of life 1 year after cardiac surgery.

Long-term patient-reported quality of life after cardiac surgery is not well understood. Current operative risk models and quality metrics focus on short-term outcomes.

In this combined retrospective/prospective study, cardiac surgery patients at an academic institution (2014-2015) were followed to obtain vital status, living location, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) at 1 year using the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). We assessed the impact of cardiac surgery, discharge location, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons perioperative predicted risk of morbidity or mortality on 1-year outcomes.

A total of 782 patients were enrolled; 84.1% (658/782) were alive-at-home at 1 year. One-year PROMIS scores were global physical health (GPH) = 48.8 ± 10.2, global mental health (GMH) = 51.2 ± 9.6, and physical functioning (PF) = 45.5 ± 10.2 (general population reference = 50 ± 10). All 3 PROMIS domains at 1 year were significantly higher compared with preoperative scores (GPH: 41.7 ± 8.5, GMH: 46.9 ± 7.9, PF: 39.6 ± 9.0; all P < 0.001). Eighty-two percent of patients discharged to a facility were alive-at-home at 1 year. These patients, however, had significantly lower 1-year scores (difference: GPH = -5.1, GMH = -5.1, PF = -7.9; all P < 0.001). Higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons perioperative predicted risk was associated with significantly lower PRO at 1 year (P < 0.001).

Cardiac surgery results in improved PROMIS scores at 1 year, whereas discharge to a facility and increasing perioperative risk correlate with worse long-term PRO. One-year alive-at-home status and 1-year PRO are meaningful, patient-centered metrics that help define long-term quality and the benefit of cardiac surgery.

Health-related Quality of Life Following Hybrid Minimally Invasive Versus Open Esophagectomy for Patients With Esophageal Cancer, Analysis of a Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Phase III Controlled Trial: The MIRO Trial.

Annals of Surgery

Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) has been shown to reduce major postoperative complications compared with open esophagectomy (OE) for esophageal cancer.

The aim of this study was to compare short- and long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following HMIE and OE within a randomized controlled trial.

We performed a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial at 13 study centers between 2009 and 2012. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with resectable cancers of the middle or lower third of the esophagus were randomized to undergo either transthoracic OE or HMIE. Patients were followed-up every 6 months for 3 years postoperatively and global health assessed with EORTC-QLQC30 and esophageal symptoms assessed with EORTC-OES18.

The short-term reduction in global HRQOL at 30 days specifically role functioning [-33.33 (HMIE) vs -46.3 (OE); P = 0.0407] and social functioning [-16.88 (HMIE) vs -35.74 (OE); P = 0.0003] was less substantial in the HMIE group. At 2 years, social functioning had improved following HMIE to beyond baseline (+5.37) but remained reduced in the OE group (-8.33) (P = 0.0303). At 2 years, increases in pain were similarly reduced in the HMIE compared with the OE group [+6.94 (HMIE) vs +14.05 (OE); P = 0.018]. Postoperative complications in multivariate analysis were associated with role functioning, pain, and dysphagia.

Esophagectomy has substantial effects upon short-term HRQOL. These effects for some specific parameters are, however, reduced with HMIE, with persistent differences up to 2 years, and maybe mediated by a reduction in postoperative complications.

Impact of Medicaid Expansion of the Affordable Care on the Outcomes of Lower Extremity Bypass for Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease in the Vascular Quality Initiative Database.

Annals of Surgery

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the utilization and outcomes of surgery after Medicaid Expansion (ME) for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Recent studies have demonstrated increased insurance coverage and improved care with the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) state expansion of Medicaid.

Infrainguinal bypass procedures performed due to occlusive pathology in the Vascular Quality Initiative database between 2010 and 2017 were included. Primary outcomes including postoperative mortality and major adverse limb events (MALE) at 1-year of follow-up were analyzed using interrupted time-series analysis (ITS).

Out of 26,446 infrainguinal bypass procedures, 13,955 (52.8%) were included in this analysis. ME states witnessed an annual decrease in infrainguinal surgery for acute ischemia [annual change in post vs pre-ME period (95% confidence interval): -4.3% (-7.5% to -1.0%), P = 0.02] and an increase in revascularization for claudication [3.7% (1.7%-5.6%), P = 0.01]. Among nonacute cases, elective procedures increased in ME states [3.9% (0.1%-7.7%), P = 0.05] along with a significant annual decrease in in-hospital mortality [-0.4% (-0.8 to -0.02), P = 0.04) and MALE at 1 year of follow up [-9.0% (-20.3 to 2.3), P = 0.09]. These results were statistically significant after comparing them with the annual trend changes in states which did not adopt ME.

The adoption of ME in 2014 was associated with significant increase in the use of infrainguinal bypass for nonsevere and elective cases, along with improved in-hospital mortality and MALE at 1 year. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of ME on other aspects of care and longer term outcomes of PAD patients.

Postsurgical Opioid Prescriptions and Risk of Long-term Use: An Observational Cohort Study Across the United States.

Annals of Surgery

The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in risk of long-term opioid therapy after surgery among an opioid-naive population using varying cutoffs based on days supplied (DS), total morphine milligram equivalents (MME) dispensed, and quantity of pills (QTY) dispensed.

In response to the US opioid crisis, opioid prescription (Rx) limits have been implemented on a state-by-state basis beginning in 2016. However, there is limited evidence informing appropriate prescribing limits, and the effect of these policies on long-term opioid therapy.

Using the MarketScan claims databases, we identified all opioid-naive patients undergoing outpatient surgery between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2015. We identified the initial postsurgical opioid prescribed, examining the DS, total MME, and QTY dispensed. We used Poisson to estimate adjusted risk differences and risk ratios of long-term opioid use comparing those receiving larger versus smaller volume of opioids.

We identified 5,148,485 opioid-naive surgical patients. Overall, 55.5% received an opioid for postoperative pain, with median days supply = 5 and median total MME = 240. The proportion of patients receiving prescriptions above 7 DS increased from 11% in 2006 to 19% in 2015. Among those receiving postoperative opioids, 8% had long-term opioid use, and risk of long-term use was 1.16 times [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.25] higher among those receiving >7 days compared with those receiving ≤7 days. Those receiving >400 total MME (15% of patients) were at 1.17 times (95% CI, 1.10-1.25) the risk of long-term use compared with those receiving ≤400 MME.

Between 2005 and 2015, the amounts of opioids prescribed for postoperative pain increased dramatically, and receipt of larger volume of opioids was associated with increased risk of long-term opioid therapy.

Mapping of Lymph Node Metastasis From Esophagogastric Junction Tumors: A Prospective Nationwide Multicenter Study.

Annals of Surgery

MINI: A prospective nationwide multicenter study revealed that total gastrectomy and para-aortic nodal dissection were not needed for esophagogastric junction tumors. Subtotal esophagectomy with dissection of upper mediastinal station 106recR should be selected if esophageal involvement exceeds 4.0 cm. Lower mediastinal station 110 should be dissected if esophageal involvement exceeds 2.0 cm.

The aim of the study was to determine the optimal extent of lymph node dissection for the 2 histological types of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) tumors based on the incidence of metastasis in a prospective nationwide multicenter study.

Because most previous studies were retrospective, the optimal surgical procedure for EGJ tumors has not been standardized.

Patients with cT2-T4 adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma located within 2.0 cm of the EGJ were enrolled before surgery. Surgeons dissected all lymph nodes prespecified in the protocol, using either the abdominal transhiatal or right transthoracic approach. The primary endpoint was the metastasis rate of each lymph node. Lymph nodes were classified according to metastasis rate, as follows: category-1 (strongly recommended for dissection), rate more than 10%; category-2 (weakly recommended for dissection), rate from 5% to 10%; and category-3 (not recommended for dissection), rate less than 5%.

Between 2014 and 2017, 1065 patients with EGJ tumor were screened, and 371 were enrolled. Among 358 patients who underwent surgical resection, category-1 nodes included abdominal stations 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and 11p, whereas category-2 nodes included abdominal stations 8a, 19, and lower mediastinal station 110. If esophageal involvement exceeded 2.0 cm, station 110 was assigned to category-1. Among 98 patients who had either adenocarcinoma with esophageal involvement over 3.0 cm or squamous cell carcinoma, there were no category-1 nodes in the upper/middle mediastinal field, whereas category-2 nodes included upper mediastinal station 106recR and middle mediastinal station 108. When esophageal involvement exceeded 4.0 cm, station 106recR was assigned to category-1.

The study accurately identified the distribution of lymph node metastases from EGJ tumors and the optimal extent of subsequent lymph node dissection.

Perceptions of Surgery Residents About Parental Leave During Training.

JAMA Surgery

To our knowledge, there has been little research conducted on the attitudes of residents toward their pregnant peers and parental leave.

To examine the perceptions of current surgery residents regarding parental leave.

A 36-item survey was distributed to current US general surgery residents and residents in surgical subspecialties through the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv and social media platforms. Questions were associated with general information/demographics, parental leave, having children, and respondents' knowledge regarding the current parental leave policy as set by the American Board of Surgery. The study was conducted from August to September 2018 and the data were analyzed in October 2018.

Main outcomes included the attitudes of residents toward pregnancy and parental leave, parental leave policy, and the association of parental leave with residency programs.

A total of 2188 completed responses were obtained; of these, 1049 (50.2%) were women, 1572 (75.8%) were white, 164 (7.9%) were Hispanic/Latinx, 75 (3.6%) were African American, 2 (0.1%) were American Indian or Alaskan Native, 263 (12.7%) were Asian, and 5 (0.2%) were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. From the number of residents who had/were expecting children (581 [28.6%]), 474 (81.6%) had or were going to have a child during the clinical years of residency. Many residents (247 [42.5%]) took fewer than 2 weeks of parental leave. Many residents did not feel supported in taking parental leave (177 [30.4%] did not feel supported by other residents and 190 [32.71%] did not feel supported by the faculty). Only 83 respondents (3.8%%) correctly identified the current American Board of Surgery parental leave policy. Residents who took parental leave identified a lack of a universal leave policy, strain on the residency program, a loss of education/training time, a lack of flexibility of programs, and a perceived or actual lack of support from faculty/peers as the top 5 biggest obstacles to taking leave during the clinical years of residency.

Most of the modifiable factors that inhibit residents from having children during residency are associated with policies (eg, a lack of universal leave policy and lack of flexibility) and personnel (eg, a strain on the residency program and lack of support from peers/faculty). These data suggest that policies at the level of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education or Resident Review Committee (RRC), as well as education and the normalization of pregnancy during training, may be effective interventions.