The latest medical research on Gastroenterology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about gastroenterology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Clinical efficacy of infliximab level and anti-infliximab antibody measurement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: An audit.

Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

Infliximab (IFX) monitoring has been proposed for effective therapeutic management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is no data on infliximab levels and its antibody measurement in Indian patients. We assessed the clinical efficacy of IFX level and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) monitoring in IBD patients.

Infliximab trough level and antibody testing was done in 50 and 30 IBD patients, respectively using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The levels were correlated with the disease status, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The clinical efficacy of level-based change in patient management was evaluated.

Of 50 patients, IFX levels were therapeutic in 8, sub-therapeutic in 40, and supra-therapeutic in 2. High ATI titer was present in 8/30 patients. The IFX level did not correlate with the dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg. Based on IFX level and ATI estimation, management was changed in 35 patients: increase in dose in 7, decrease in dosing interval in 17, increase in interval in 2, surgery in 2, change in biologic in 5, and cessation of IFX in 2 patients. Therapy modification based on IFX level improved the clinical response in 25 patients, of whom 5 are in remission at a median duration of 2 years.

Most (80%) of the IBD patients had subtherapeutic IFX levels while high ATI titers were found in 27% of the patients. There was no correlation between infliximab dose and drug levels. Therapy modification based on drug level benefitted the majority. Our results suggest that measurement of IFX level assists in attaining therapeutic levels and improves clinical response.

Reply to Letter to the Editor: Use of pre-genomic HBV RNA and HBcrAg to predict cure of hepatitis B virus infection.

Hepatology

We thank Professor Chan for his interest in our paper(1). We agree that pgRNA and HBcrAg appear to be clinically informative markers of residual cc...

Maternal High Fat Diet Activates Hepatic Interleukin 4 in Rat Male Offspring Accompanied by Increased Eosinophil Infiltration.

Am J Physiol

Interleukin-4 (IL4) is activated as an immune response during infection or tissue injury. Epigenetic programming of maternal high-fat (HF) diet has...

Modulation of Pharyngeal Swallowing by Bolus Volume and Viscosity.

Am J Physiol

Oro-pharyngeal swallowing involves complex neuromodulation to accommodate changing bolus characteristics. The pressure events during deglutitive pharyngeal reconfiguration and bolus flow can be assessed quantitatively using high-resolution pharyngeal manometry (HRPM) with impedance.

An 8 French solid-state unidirectional catheter (32 pressure sensors, 16 impedance segments) was used to acquire triplicate swallows of 3- to 20- mls across 3 viscosity levels using a Standardized Bolus Medium (SBMkit) product (Trisco Pty Ltd, Australia). An online platform www.swallowgateway.com (Flinders University, South Australia) was used to semi -automate swallow analysis.

50 healthy adults (29 female, 21 male, mean age 46 years) were studied. Hypopharyngeal intrabolus pressure, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) maximum admittance, UES relaxation pressure and UES relaxation time revealed the most significant modulation effects to bolus volume and viscosity. Pharyngeal contractility and UES post swallow pressures elevated as bolus volumes increased. Bolus viscosity augmented UES preopening pressure only.

Describing swallow modulatory effects with quantitative methods in line with a core outcome set of metrics, and a unified analysis system for broad reference contributes to diagnostic frameworks for oropharyngeal dysphagia.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Reporting histologic findings in clinical practice.

Hepatology

The role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has evolved along with the increased recognition of the significance of this diseas...

Efficacies of first and second tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in refractory ulcerative colitis patients in real-world practice.

Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

Switching tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors is an important treatment option for refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who fail the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, although many questions about this option remain unanswered.

The efficacy of the second anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in refractory UC patients who failed the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy was examined using the Mayo score as a measure of disease activity at week 8. The efficacy of the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy before treatment and at weeks 8 and 52 was also evaluated in real-world practice.

There were no significant differences in remission induction and maintenance between infliximab and adalimumab as the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in UC patients. Of 123 UC patients, 21 (17.1%) switched tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. Eight (38.1%), 4 (19.0%), 7 (33.3%), and 2 (9.5%) patients switched from infliximab to adalimumab, infliximab to golimumab, adalimumab to infliximab, and adalimumab to golimumab, respectively. Three (100%) with intolerance to the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, 5 (41.7%) with loss of response to the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, and 1 (20.0%) with no improvement with the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy had clinical remission at week 8.

Switching tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors is more effective for refractory UC patients who are intolerant and lose response to the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy rather than for those showing no improvement with the first anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy. Patients with primary failure of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy should be switched to another class of drug.

The application of artificial intelligence for the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases.

Hepatology

Modern medical care produces large volumes of multi-modal patient data, which many clinicians struggle to process and synthesize into actionable kn...

Difficult-to-treat ascitic fluid infection is a predictor of transplant-free survival in childhood decompensated chronic liver disease.

Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

To study the clinico-bacteriological profile of ascitic fluid infection (AFI) and its impact on outcome in childhood chronic liver disease (CLD).

It was a retrospective study on pediatric CLD patients requiring an ascitic tap. Logistic regression was performed to study the predictive factors for AFI.

Two hundred and fifty-two (30.9%) of 814 children with CLD underwent ascitic tap on suspicion of AFI of whom 79 (31.3%) had AFI, culture negative neutrocytic ascites being the commonest. Younger age (p = 0.002), male gender (p = 0.007), new onset/rapid increase in ascites (p = 0.032), fever (p = 0.012), and blood total leukocyte count (TLC) (p = 0.001) were found to be independently associated with AFI. Twenty-three children had positive ascitic fluid culture: 15 Gram negative; 11 (52.3%) were multidrug resistant organism. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (p = 0.001), Model for End-stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease (MELD/PELD) (p < 0.0005), and difficult-to-treat AFI (p = 0.007) were found to be independently associated with death and or LT.

Children with ascites should undergo a diagnostic paracentesis in presence of fever, increasing or new-onset ascites, and/or increased TLC. Death or liver transplant are more likely due to advanced liver disease (high PELD /HE) and in those with difficult-to-treat AFI.

Prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in adult participants from a community-based study from northern part of India.

Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a cytosolic enzyme specific to hepatocytes, and its elevated level in the peripheral blood denotes liver cell inj...

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol

The increasing epidemic of obesity worldwide is linked to serious health effects, including increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardi...

Monocytes as Potential Mediators of Pathogen-Induced T-Helper 17 Differentiation in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC).

Hepatology

T cells from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) show a prominent interleukin (IL)-17 response upon stimulation with bacteria or fungi, yet the reasons for this dominant T-helper 17 (Th17) response in PSC are not clear. Here, we analyzed the potential role of monocytes in microbial recognition and in skewing the T-cell response toward Th17.

Monocytes and T cells from blood and livers of PSC patients and controls were analyzed ex vivo and in vitro using transwell experiments with cholangiocytes. Cytokine production was measured using flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RNA in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time PCR. Genetic polymorphisms were obtained from ImmunoChip analysis. Following ex vivo stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, PSC patients showed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A-producing peripheral blood CD4+ T cells compared to PBC patients and healthy controls, indicating increased Th17 differentiation in vivo. Upon stimulation with microbes, monocytes from PSC patients produced significantly more IL-1β and IL-6, cytokines known to drive Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, microbe-activated monocytes induced the secretion of Th17 and monocyte-recruiting chemokines chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-20 and CCL-2 in human primary cholangiocytes. In livers of patients with PSC cirrhosis, CD14hiCD16int and CD14loCD16hi monocytes/macrophages were increased compared to alcoholic cirrhosis, and monocytes were found to be located around bile ducts.

PSC patients show increased Th17 differentiation already in vivo. Microbe-stimulated monocytes drive Th17 differentiation in vitro and induce cholangiocytes to produce chemokines mediating recruitment of Th17 cells and more monocytes into portal tracts. Taken together, these results point to a pathogenic role of monocytes in patients with PSC.

Spinal neuron-glia-immune interaction in cross-organ sensitization.

Am J Physiol

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), historically considered as regional gastrointestinal disorders with heightened...