The latest medical research on Haematology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about haematology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Role of T Lymphocyte Activation Profile in Predicting SARS-CoV-2 Severity: Experience from Tertiary Care Centre of North India.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

Immune dysregulation plays a key role in determining COVID-19 disease severity. We aimed to analyze the T cell activation profile in COVID - 19 cases and its predictive role in disease severity and outcome.

This was a prospective observational pilot study from a tertiary care COVID-19 hospital. Peripheral blood samples obtained between the fifth and seventh day of COVID-19 illness, were subjected to lymphocyte subset analysis using multicolor flowcytometry using a single tube, 8 antibodies (CD45, CD19, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD38, HLADR, and CD56) analysis. Correlation between lymphocyte subset analysis and clinical profile was determined.

26 patients including 11 with mild disease and 15 with severe disease were enrolled. The median age was 58 years (range: 33-81), with a male: female ratio of 1.36:1. Significant lymphopenia was observed in the severe group compared to the mild group (p < 0.02). The absolute numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8 + T cells, B cells, and NK cells were significantly reduced in the severe group as compared to the mild group (p < 0.05). In patients with severe disease, the proportion of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells were significantly higher than those in patients with mild disease (p = 0.0372). Using ROC analysis, a CD4:8 T cell ratio of ≥ 2.63 and an activated (CD38 + HLA-DR+) CD8 T cell proportion of > 15.85% of the total CD8 T cell population, significantly determined the severe disease category.

Severe COVID-19 is associated with severe lymphopenia, altered CD4/CD8 ratio and markedly increased CD8 T cell activation profile.

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-022-01558-6.

Methodological Study on the Establishment of HLA/HPA Gene Bank of Platelet Donors and Its Clinical Application.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

The current study aimed at establishing a large-scale platelet donor database with known HPA and HLA genotypes in Ningbo, to provide matched platel...

Secondary Hypogammaglobulinemia in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Receiving Ibrutinib Therapy.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia (SHG) is characterized by a decrease in total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and can lead to immunodeficiency associated with recurrent and severe infections and is a common complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). SHG also increases with the treatment of CLL. Ibrutinib is one of these treatments and acts by inhibiting bruton tyrosine kinase. Twenty-seven patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL who received ibrutinib monotherapy were included. IgG levels, stage, bulky disease, previous treatments, genetics and laboratory features, overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared with and without SHG. Nine patients (33.3%) had SHG and 18 patients (66.6%) didn't have SHG. The mean IgG levels after ibrutinib treatment first, third, 6th and 12th months were 684, 531.3, 452 and 360 mg/dL respectively in SHG arm (p < 0.001) and 1156, 1058.2, 1012.8 and 886.9 mg/dL respectively in without SHG arm (p < 0.001). All patients with SHG had ibrutinib related other adverse effects(AEs) but 2 (11.1%) patients without SHG had AEs (p < 0.001). In SHG arm 7 (77.7%) had complete and partial remission but in other arm only 6 (33.3%) had (p: 0.029). There was no significant difference in OS and PFS (p values 0.95 and 0.64, respectively). IgG levels at the beginning of ibrutinib treatment is the best predicted value for SHG development in our study (p = 0.001). As a result, we reported a significant decrease in IgG values after ibrutinib monotherapy in R/R CLL patients. This decrease occurs every month after ibrutinib use, but after a maximum of 1 year.

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01466-1.

Clinico-Epidemiological Profile, Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcome of Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

Approximately 5-10% of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma are refractory to initial treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the clinico-epidemiological profile, prognostic factors and treatment outcome. A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 12 years between June 2006 and January 2018 at the oncology department of Salah Azaïz Institute. Thirty-one patients were included. The median age was 27 years with a female predominance (sex ratio = 0.93).The majority had an advanced stage (61%). IGEV regimen was the most commonly used salvage chemotherapy (n = 14). Age above 30 years was predictive of treatment failure after salvage therapy (p = 0.003). IGEV regimen showed better results than ICE protocol in terms of response to salvage therapy (p = 0.048). Seven patients had salvage radiotherapy. Four patients had autologous stem cell transplant. Progressive disease (n = 12) was the main cause of non-eligibility of autologous stem cell tansplant. Overall survival and progression free survival at 3 years were 50% and 5% respectively. The prognostic factors influencing the overall survival were age above 30 years (p = 0.001), advanced Ann Arbor stage before progression (p = 0.02), advanced Ann Arbor stage of refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (p = 0.001), histological subtype (p = 0.001), CD20 expression (p = 0.027) and non-response to salvage therapy (p = 0.004). The prognostic factor influencing progression free survival was the non-response to salvage therapy (p = 0.045). The prognosis of refractory Hodgkin lymphoma remains poor. The current standard secondary treatment consists of combination therapy, usually followed by autologous stem cell transplantat. Innovative therapies are needed to improve the prognosis of refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01463-4.

Serum Estrogen and its Soluble Receptor Levels in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Case-Control Study.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder. CML cells contain a BCR-ABL gene, not typically found in normal cells that produce a protein (BCR-ABL) causing CML cells to proliferate. CML occurs in three phases: chronic, accelerated and blast crisis. Disease staging is primarily based on percent of blasts in the blood and bone marrow. Most cases of CML are diagnosed in chronic phase (CP). The major objective in CML clinical management is to prevent progression from chronic to accelerated and blast crisis phases. While earlier treatments, such as cytoreductive chemo- and interferon therapies increased overall survival rates among patients, the advent of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the CML treatment landscape. Despite the widespread use of these therapies, there have also been associated side effects that could potentially affect its use. Also it is necessary to avoid all deaths and complications related to the treatment, by limiting as much as possible the side-effects of the treatment while ensuring the compliance of the patients. The aim of this work was to measure the serum estrogen and its soluble receptor levels in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in order to extrapolate their possible clinical significance. The present study included 40 (20 males and 20 females) healthy volunteers clinically free from any disease, 40 (20 males and 20 females) patients of newly diagnosed CML. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and the level of serum estrogen (E2) and serum soluble estrogen receptor (ER) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of serum E2 (pg/ml) in both male and female patients groups with CML was significantly higher than in control group. The level of serum ER (ng/ml) in both male and female patients groups with CML was significantly lower than in control group. Estimating the serum level of E2 and soluble ER is of informative diagnostic value. Estimation serum level of E2 and soluble ER in patients with CML is of value in deciding use of antiestrogen as therapeutic target in treatment protocol.

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01451-8.

A Multicenter Study of Clinical Presentations and Outcomes of Multiple Myeloma in Pakistan: The Real-World Analysis in a Resource-Constrained Country.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

This is the first multicenter study from Pakistan exploring the prevalence, clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of Multiple Myeloma patie...

A Pilot Study to Determine the Utility of Automated Tissue Dissociator for Flowcytometry Based Evaluation of Hematolymphoid Tumor Tissue Biopsies.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

Routine diagnostic biopsy tissue processing, conventional histology/immunohistochemistry (IHC) method is a multi-step and time consuming practice. ...

Bone Marrow Metastasis in a Suspected Case of Angiosarcoma Unravelled by Immunohistochemistry.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

A 40-year-old female presented with progressive fatigue and left upper abdominal discomfort for 1 month. CT scan revealed ill-defined hypervascular...

The Clinical Efficacy of Epoetin Alfa and Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients with Low-Risk or Intermediate-1-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Retrospective Multi-center Real-Life Study.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in the real-life setting. A total of 204 patients with low-risk or intermediate-1-risk MDS who received epoetin alfa or darbepoetin alfa were included. Hemoglobin levels and transfusion need were recorded before and during 12-month treatment. Hemoglobin levels were significantly higher at each follow up visit when compared to baseline levels in both epoetin alfa (mean ± SD 8.68 ± 1.0 g/dL at baseline vs. 9.83 ± 1.45, 9.99 ± 1.55, 10.24 ± 1.77 and 10.2 ± 1.5 g/dL, respectively) and darbepoetin alfa (8.83 ± 1.09 g/dL at baseline vs. 9.62 ± 1.37, 9.78 ± 1.49, 9.9 ± 1.39 and 10.1 ± 1.5 g/dL, respectively) groups (p < 0.001 for each). Transfusion need significantly decreased from baseline at each study visit in the epoetin alfa group (p < 0.001) and only at the 12th month visit (p < 0.001) in the darbepoetin alfa group. Hemoglobin levels or transfusion need was similar between treatment groups. Overall, 12-month response rate was 58.1% for epoetin alfa and 41.9% for darbepoetin alfa, with no significant difference between treatment groups, whereas higher response rate was noted within the first three months (62.7%) compared to next 9 months (ranged 44.4-60%) of treatment in the epoetin alfa group (p ranged 0.002 to < 0.001). This real-life retrospective study revealed similar efficacy of epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa among low risk or intermediate-1 risk MDS patients with no difference in treatment response between treatment groups, whereas a likelihood of earlier treatment response in the epoetin alfa group.

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01458-1.

Short Research Communication Anti-Spike Antibody Response to COVISHIELD™ (SII-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) Vaccine in Patients with B-Cell and Plasma Cell Malignancies and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

There is limited data on the serologic antibody responses after the ChAdOx1 vaccine in patients with hematological malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. There is no data on the safety and efficacy of the Indian COVISHIELD™ vaccine in this population.

This study reports the anti-S antibody response to the COVISHIELD™ vaccine in a prospective cohort of patients with B-cell and plasma cell malignancies and HCT recipients at a single center. The quantitative antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein receptor-binding domain in human plasma were determined by the validated Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S kit.

A total of 118 patients were included over the study period from April 2021 to August 2021. The seropositivity rate at baseline and after the first and second dose of the vaccine was 39%, 66%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The seronegative cohort had a higher median age (65 vs. 60 years, p = 0.03), were more likely to be males (81% vs. 42%, p = 0.009), had a diagnosis of B-CLPD (100% vs. 42%, p < 0.001) and were more likely to be on ibrutinib therapy (56% vs. 15%, p = 0.001).

This study confirms the safety and efficacy of the COVISHIELD™ vaccine in patients with hematological malignancies.

Bone Marrow Metastasis of Solid Tumors: A Study of 174 Cases Over 2 Decades from a Single Institution in India.

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

To analyze the pathological findings in patients with marrow metastasis from solid tumors and to compare the accuracy of the bone marrow aspirate, ...

Is it Worthwhile to Undergo the Extended Stage Assessment in Orbital and Ocular Adnexal MALT Lymphoma with Symptoms Limited to the Ocular Adnexa?

Indian Journal Hematology Blood Transfusion

Compared to ocular adnexal lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (OAML) patients with symptoms related invasion beyond the ocular adne...