The latest medical research on Retrieval Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about retrieval medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Higher rates but similar causes of young out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in rural Australian patients.

Australian Journal of Rural Health

To determine whether young rural Australians have higher rates or different underlying causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Rates and underlying causes of OHCA in young rural and metropolitan Victorians.

Rates of young OHCA were higher in rural areas (OHCA 22.5 per 100 000 rural residents vs. 13.4 per 100 000 metropolitan residents, standardised incidence ratio 168 (95% CI 101-235); confirmed cardiac cause of arrest 12.1 per 100 000 rural residents versus 7.5 per 100 000 metropolitan residents, standardised incidence ratio 161 (95% CI 71-251). The underlying causation of the OHCA and cardiovascular risk factor burden did not differ between rural and metropolitan areas.

Higher rates of OHCA occur in young rural patients, with standardised incidence ratio of 168 compared to young metropolitan residents. Rural status did not influence causes of cardiac arrest or known cardiovascular risk factor burden in young patients experiencing OHCA.

Strength of cross-sector collaborations in co-designing an extended rural and remote nursing placement innovation: Focusing on student learning in preference to student churning.

Australian Journal of Rural Health

To describe the strength of a cross-sector and multi-university collaboration in co-designing an extended nursing placement innovation in rural and remote Australia.

Registered nurses are Australia's largest health workforce. Short-duration placements can limit nursing student exposure to rural and remote practice, impacting student capacity to tailor and contextualise their practice, navigate complex inequities, establish a sense of belonging and consider rural practice post-registration. Extended nursing placements have been recommended to address these challenges, but there are no guidelines governing their development and limited resources to support implementation.

Methods adopted in program development included the following: (1) collaboration establishment; (2) co-defining challenges confronting nurse education in these contexts; (3) co-developing guiding principles; (4) co-designing a new approach to nurse education, the Extended Nursing Placement Program (ENPP); and (5) the co-contribution of stakeholders to program design, implementation and evaluation. Regional stakeholders include a NSW and Victorian Local Health District/Service, three Aboriginal health services and the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. University participants include two metropolitan universities, a University Department of Rural Health and final-year Bachelor of Nursing students. Program implementation in Semester 1 of 2022 with seven final-year nursing students.

The authors propose that the adoption of collaborative approaches can contribute to re-framing student nurse education and the development of a rural-ready nursing workforce. These approaches can provide regions and universities with the opportunity to avoid student churn whilst promoting the attainment of skills required to work, live and thrive in these locations.

Challenges and opportunities in diagnosing and managing mild traumatic brain injury in rural settings.

Rural and Remote Health

There is some evidence to suggest that Americans living in rural areas are at increased risk for sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to those living in urban areas. In addition, once a TBI has been sustained, rural residents have worse outcomes, including a higher risk of death. Individuals living in rural areas tend to live farther from hospitals and have less access to TBI specialists. Aside from these factors, little is known what challenges healthcare providers practicing in rural areas face in diagnosing and managing TBI in their patients and what can be done to overcome these challenges.

Seven focus groups and one individual interview were conducted with a total of 18 healthcare providers who mostly practiced in primary care or emergency department settings in rural areas. Providers were asked about common mechanisms of TBI in patients that they treat, challenges they face in initial and follow-up care, and opportunities for improvement in their practice.

The rural healthcare providers reported that common mechanisms of injury included sports-related injuries for their pediatric and adolescent patients and work-related accidents, motor vehicle crashes, and falls among their adult patients. Most providers felt prepared to diagnose and manage their patients with TBI, but acknowledged a series of challenges they face, including pushback from parents, athletes, and coaches and lack of specialists to whom they could refer. They also noted that patients had their own barriers to overcome for timely and adequate care, including lack of access to transportation, difficulties with cost and insurance, and denial about the seriousness of the injury. Despite these challenges, the focus group participants also outlined benefits to practicing in a rural area and several ways that their practice could improve with support.

Rural healthcare providers may be comfortable diagnosing, treating, and managing their patients who present with a suspected TBI, but they also face many challenges in their practice. In this study it was continually noted that there was lack of resources and a lack of awareness, or recognition of the seriousness of TBI, among the providers' patient populations. Education about common symptoms and the need for evaluation after an injury is needed. The use of telemedicine, an increasingly common technology, may help close some gaps in access to services. People living in rural areas may be at increased risk for TBI. Healthcare providers who work in these areas face many challenges but have found ways to successfully manage the treatment of this injury in their patients.

Inhibition of Nitrosative Stress Attenuates Myocardial Injury and Improves Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.


Nitrosative stress is widely involved in cell injury via inducing the nitration modification of a variety of proteins. This study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of nitrosative stress attenuated myocardial injury and improved outcomes in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest and subsequently resuscitation. One minute after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), rats were randomized and administered the nitrosative stress inhibitor, FeTMPyP (1 or 3 mg/kg), or normal saline as a placebo. 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), mortality, electrocardiogram (ECG), left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), and levels of myocardial apoptosis were evaluated. The concentrations of lactate, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and angiotensin II (Ang II), were measured in blood samples.

3-NT level was significantly increased in the heart after ROSC. Administration of FeTMPyP (1 or 3 mg/kg) attenuated the increase of 3-NT in the myocardium. Inhibition of nitrosative stress improved survival and attenuated CA/CPR-induced reperfusion injury by maintaining the stability of MAP and HR, and reducing the accumulation of lactic acid. Post-cardiac arrest rats had higher serum CK-MB and Ang II than healthy rats, while EF and FS were lower in healthy rats. Inhibition of nitrosative stress not only alleviated ischemic heart injury but also reduced the occurrence of CA/CPR-induced of arrhythmias. Moreover, nitrosative stress mediated the upregulation of Cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation Bcl-2, which was abolished by FeTMPyP.

Inhibition of nitrosative stress is a novel molecular target to alleviate myocardial injury and improve outcomes in a rat model of CA/CPR.

Impact of diabetic retinopathy awareness training on community health workers' knowledge and referral practices in Fiji: a qualitative study.

Rural and Remote Health

Community health workers (CHWs) are effective in raising awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In Fiji, CHWs were trained in a 1-day diabetic retinopathy (DR) awareness to provide communities with adequate basic knowledge about diabetes and DR to improve awareness and enhance referrals for DR screening and treatment. This study aimed to explore the impact of this training on CHWs' knowledge of DR and their referral practices related to DR screening in Fiji 2 years post-training.

This qualitative study was conducted in 2021 across three out of the four administrative divisions of Fiji, namely the Western, Northern and Central divisions. A total of 14 CHWs from the three divisions of Fiji participated in this study. All participants had attended a 1-day DR awareness training 2 years before this study. Participants were chosen purposively and were invited to participate in focus group discussion (FGD). The FGDs were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was conducted to identify and classify recurrent themes.

CHWs indicated that their knowledge about both diabetes and DR improved significantly after the training. This boosted their confidence in talking about these issues and providing clarity regarding referrals for DR screening in their respective communities. Consequently, they have referred a significantly higher number of people for screening both in outreach and to health facilities. Challenges in referral included poverty, high transportation cost and social support needs, which hindered screening. Further, although CHWs felt some degree of integration within the health system, they thought more was needed.

Investing in scalable models such as training CHWs is an important first step in tackling diabetes and DR in communities, particularly at the grassroots level in low-resource settings by increasing the community's knowledge of DR and improving access to screening, diagnosis and treatment.

Drone Applications for Emergency and Urgent Care: A Systematic Review.

Prehosp Disaster Med

In recent years, the use of drones in health emergencies has increased. Among their main benefits are avoiding endangering rescuers, travelling long distances in a short time, or contacting victims in risky situations; but despite their multiple advantages, their use has not been fully demonstrated.

This study aims to identify the available evidence on the use of drones in emergency health care compared to traditional health care.

Systematic review of the literature was conducted. Search protocols were developed to locate studies that met the established selection criteria. Six experimental or quasi-experimental studies with high methodological quality published from the beginning of indexing until 2020 were included.

Drones covered a significantly larger area than other traditional tracking methods and were very useful for performing preliminary triage, determining needs, and knowing the scene prior to the arrival of rescuers. In addition, drones reduced the time required to locate the victim.

Drones are an element to be taken into account when attending health emergencies as they significantly improve the distance travelled to locate accident victims, have the possibility of performing triage prior to the arrival of the health care units, and improve the time and quality of the care provided.

Redox Potential Correlates With Changes in Metabolite Concentrations Attributable to Pathways Active in Oxidative Stress Response in Swine Traumatic Shock.


Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, and the redox potential (RP) that must be maintained for proper cell function, lie at the heart of physiologic processes in critical illness. Imbalance in RP reflects systemic oxidative stress, and whole blood RP measures have been shown to correlate with oxygen debt level over time in swine traumatic shock. We hypothesize that RP measures reflect changing concentrations of metabolites involved in oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we compared blood and urine RP with concentrations of multiple metabolites in a swine traumatic shock model to identify meaningful RP-metabolite relationships.

Seven swine were subjected to traumatic shock. Mixed venous (MV) RP, urine RP, and concurrent MV and urine metabolite concentrations were assessed at baseline, max O2 Debt (80 mL/kg), end resuscitation, and 2 h post-resuscitation. RP was measured at collection via open circuit potential using nanoporous gold electrodes with Ag/AgCl reference and a ParstatMC potentiostat. Metabolite concentrations were measured by quantitative 1H-NMR spectroscopy. MV and urine RP were compared with time-matched metabolites across all swine. LASSO regression with leave-one-out cross validation was used to determine meaningful RP/metabolite relationships. Metabolites had to maintain magnitude and direction of coefficients across 6 or more swine to be considered as having a meaningful relationship. KEGG IDs of these metabolites were uploaded into Metscape for pathway identification and evaluation for physiologic function.

Meaningful metabolite relationships (and mean coefficients across cross-validation folds) with MV RP included: choline (-6.27), ATP (-4.39), glycine (5.93), ADP (1.84), glucose (15.96), formate (-13.09), pyruvate (6.18), and taurine (-7.18). Relationships with urine RP were: betaine (4.81), urea (4.14), glycine (-2.97), taurine (10.32), 3-hydroxyisobutyrate (-7.67), N-phenylacetylglycine, PAG (-14.52), hippurate (12.89), and formate (-5.89). These meaningful metabolites were found to scavenge extracellular peroxide (pyruvate), inhibit ROS and activate cellular antioxidant defense (taurine), act as indicators of antioxidant mobilization against oxidative stress (glycine + PAG), and reflect renal hydroxyl radical trapping (hippurate), among other activities.

Real-time RP measures demonstrate significant relationships with metabolites attributable to metabolic pathways involved in systemic responses to oxidative stress, as well as those involved in these processes. These data support RP measures as a feasible, biologically relevant marker of oxidative stress. As a direct measure of redox state, RP may be a useful biomarker and clinical tool in guiding diagnosis and therapy in states of increased oxidative stress and may offer value as a marker for organ injury in these states as well.

Activation of The Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein (MAVS) Following Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion and Its Effect on Inflammation and Injury.


Resuscitation of trauma patients after haemorrhagic shock causes global ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) which may contribute to organ dysfunction. Oxida...

The WNK4/SPAK Pathway Stimulates Alveolar Fluid Clearance By Up-Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Channel In Mice with Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.


With-No lysine kinases (WNKs) have been newly implicated in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) serve a vital role in...

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among rural Oklahomans.

Rural and Remote Health

COVID-19 vaccination is widely recommended as a prevention strategy; however, vaccine uptake is disproportionately lower among rural Americans compared to their urban counterparts. Development of public health activities to address the rural-urban vaccine gap requires an understanding of determinants of vaccine hesitation. The present study explores perceptions of and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination among rural Oklahomans.

Between March and May 2021, 222 residents, unvaccinated for COVID-19, within rural Oklahoma counties completed a cross-sectional, online questionnaire to qualitatively assess perceptions, benefits, and concerns regarding getting vaccinated for COVID-19.

Approximately two-fifths of rural respondents in the present study were hesitant to get vaccinated, even when a vaccine was made available to them. Major factors included limited knowledge and understanding about the vaccine, including potential side-effects and long-term complications, as well as skepticism surrounding COVID-19 vaccine development and efficacy. Among the potential perceived benefits of vaccination were protecting the health of vulnerable individuals and the ability to return to normal day-to-day activities.

Increases in COVID-19 cases and deaths in rural areas are expected to continue as new variants are introduced within communities. The present findings highlight the need for the development of culturally tailored vaccine information, to be disseminated by local leaders within rural communities.

An Epidemiological Analysis of Terrorism-Related Attacks in Eastern Europe from 1970 to 2019.

Prehosp Disaster Med

Over the past five decades, Eastern Europe has seen relatively little in terms of terrorist attacks. The recent escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian conflict has, however, placed a new spotlight on the region, and new questions and concerns around war, conflict, insurgency, and terrorism are being posed. The Russian invasion and extensive combat operations, the largest in Europe since World War II, are occurring across Ukraine where there are 15 active nuclear reactors, not including the Chernobyl site, that are vulnerable to attack or sabotage. In addition, Eastern Europe has been heavily affected by COVID-19, exposing broad vulnerabilities in an otherwise fragile health care system. This raises concerns over the ability of Eastern European health care institutions to absorb surge and manage terrorist attacks or acts of violent extremism. This study provides an epidemiological description of all terrorism-related fatalities and injuries in Eastern Europe sustained from 1970 - 2019.

Data collection was performed using a retrospective database search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). The GTD was searched using the internal database functions for all terrorism events which occurred in Eastern Europe from January 1, 1970 - December 31, 2019. Years 2020 and 2021 were not yet available at the time of this study. Primary weapon type, country where the incident occurred, and number of deaths and injured were collated. Results were exported into an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Corp.; Redmond, Washington USA) for analysis.

There were 3,901 terrorism-related events in Eastern Europe between the years 1970 and 2019, inclusive. In total, the attacks resulted in 5,391 deaths and 9,538 persons injured. Explosives were the most commonly used weapon type in 59.2% of all attacks in the region, followed by firearms in 27.6%.

From 1970 through 2019, a total of 3,901 terrorist attacks occurred in Eastern Europe, inflicting 5,391 deaths and 9,538 injuries. Of those, 72.3% occurred in Russia and Ukraine. Terrorist attacks sharply declined since the peak in 2014, but there is an overall uptrend in attacks since the 1970s.

A rural community's perspective on the causes of and solutions to the opioid crisis in southern Virginia: a qualitative study.

Rural and Remote Health

Opioid use disorder is a leading public health issue in the USA, with complex drivers requiring a multi-level response. Rural communities are particularly affected by opioid misuse. Due to variability in local conditions and resources, they require community-specific responses. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of members of a rural community impacted by the opioid crisis to inform the development of local strategies to address the crisis.

Stakeholder focus groups were conducted by a participatory research team as part of a larger project using the Stakeholder Engagement in Question Development and Prioritization (SEED) Method.

Key findings from the focus groups included the importance of family dynamics and social networks as risk and resiliency factors, addressing hopelessness as a preventive strategy, the need for holistic approaches to treatment, childhood exposure resulting in intergenerational substance use, the needs of overburdened healthcare providers, the expansion of long-term rehabilitation programs, and the need for judicial reform towards those with opioid use disorder. Specific and well-defined strategies are needed for more comprehensive methods to address the complexity of opioid use disorder. Understanding factors that contribute to opioid use disorder in rural communities through a stakeholder engagement process should be the first responsive strategy in developing actions.

This study shows that rural community stakeholders provide important perspectives that can be useful in solving the drug epidemic in their neighborhoods. Their understanding of the internal dynamics of the communities' needs offers a unique roadmap in which prioritized actions can be customized and adapted for improving health outcomes.