The latest medical research on Sexual Health Medicine

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Assessment of liver and renal functions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A mixed cohort study.

Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology

Indian data on potential hepatorenal toxic effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV/AIDS-affected persons is lacking.

To assess hepatorenal abnormalities in HIV-infected persons on HAART in a hospital-based mixed cohort study using concurrent and nonconcurrent data analysis.

Hepatorenal function tests, urinalysis and ultrasonogaphy for liver/kidneys (when applicable) were assessed in 400 (men 185; women 215) persons aged 2-84 (mean 47.8) years on HAART. Acute liver toxicity, acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease were defined depending upon abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase, urea and creatinine levels/clearance as per standard guidelines.

The duration of HAART was 1 month to 9 years (mean 3.7 years) with 284 (71%) individuals being on treatment for ≤5years. The major HAART regimens included zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine in 175 (43.8%), tenofovir + lamivudine + efavirenz in 174 (43.5%) and zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz in 20 (5%) individuals and were associated with grade-1 hepatic dysfunction in 57 (14.3%) individuals, with men aged between 31 and 45 years on antiretroviral therapy for> 5 years being mainly affected. Forty two (17.1%) of 246 individuals with anemia and 15 (9.7%) of 154 individuals without anemia showed hepatic dysfunction. None had acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease or abnormal urinalysis or ultrasonography. In contrast, the pretreatment elevated serum alanine amiotranerase in 99 (22.3%) and blood urea and/or creatinine levels in 16 (4%) individuals decreased significantly post highly active antiretroviral therapy.

The study reflects the low frequency of regimen based highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated hepatic or nephrotoxicity despite prolonged use, especially in the absence of other risk factors. Preexisting anemia appears an important risk factor for highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced hepatotoxicity (OR 1.90, Cl 95% CI 1.02-3.57, P = 0.04). Highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated nephrotoxicity was not a significant problem. Study of viral load or other risk factors and potential of each drug for hepatorenal toxicity/dysfunction in HIV affected were not part of the study. A small number of subjects and retrospective analysis of biochemical parameters were other important limitations.

Prevention of transmission of leprosy: The current scenario.

Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology

With the worldwide implementation of WHO multidrug therapy in the 1980s, the global burden of leprosy has decreased. However, the annual new case d...

HIV Prevalence and Associated Risks in a Respondent-Driven Sample of Illicit Stimulant Users in a Southern United States City.

AIDS and Behavior

Stimulant abuse is a major contributor to HIV transmission in the United States, yet HIV prevalence among persons who use illicit stimulants remain...

Detecting Depression in People Living with HIV in South Africa: The Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the South African Depression Scale (SADS).

AIDS and Behavior

Screening measures for depression developed in high-income countries have not always demonstrated strong psychometric properties in South Africa an...

HIV in Lebanon: Reasons for Testing, Engagement in Care, and Outcomes in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infections.

AIDS and Behavior

Little is known about clinical presentation and cascade of care among patients living with HIV (PLWH) in Beirut, Lebanon. The study aims to examine...

Sex Partner Behavior Variation Related to Network Position of and Residential Proximity to Sex Partners Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

AIDS and Behavior

This analysis examines how sex behaviors are influenced by a sex partner's network bridging position and the residential proximity between the two....

Stigma Related to HIV and Drug Use: Layers, Types, and Relations to Mental Health.

AIDS and Behavior

Stigma poses considerable challenges to the mental health of people living with HIV who use drugs (PLHWUD). In this study, we explored factors rela...

Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in a Context of High Accessibility: An Australian Qualitative Study.

AIDS and Behavior

We report on Australian gay and bisexual men's (GBM) perceptions of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Drawing on an online longitudinal cohort study,...

Socio-structural Factors Associated with Mental Health, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Among Black Sexual and Gender Minorities in the House and Ball Community.

AIDS and Behavior

The House and Ball Community (HBC), a tight-knit social and cultural network comprised primarily of Black sexual and gender minorities (SGM), offer...

The Effect of Depression on Adherence to HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among High-Risk South African Women in HPTN 067/ADAPT.

AIDS and Behavior

Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly efficacious but low adherence undermines effectiveness. Depression, common in African women, may be ...

Understanding Demand for PrEP and Early Experiences of PrEP Use Among Young Adults in Rural Kenya and Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

AIDS and Behavior

Few studies have sought to understand factors influencing uptake and continuation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among young adults in sub-Saha...