The latest medical research on Kidney Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about kidney cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Serum phospholipase A2 receptor antibody is associated with thrombogenesis in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) are particularly susceptible to thromboembolism (TE). The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody (Ab) has been indicated to work as an independent risk predictor for venous TE in IMN. This study aims to further explore the predictive value of PLA2R Ab for both venous and arterial TE in IMN patients.

A total of 91 IMN patients were retrospectively selected and divided into anti-PLA2R-positive or -negative groups according to the anti-PLA2R Ab titer (cutoff: 20 RU/mL). Serum PLA2R Abs were estimated using ELISA. Anti-PLA2R-positive IMN patients were further assigned into two groups based on the presence or absence of TE.

Twelve (18.18%) IMN patients with anti-PLA2R positivity had TE, including both venous and arterial TE. No TE occurred in the anti-PLA2R-negative group. IMN patients in the anti-PLA2R-positive group had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein than those in the anti-PLA2R-negative group. No significant difference was observed in the anti-PLA2R Ab titer between patients with and without TE. Patients with TE were significantly older than those without TE.

This study demonstrates that the positive status of anti-PLA2R Abs contributes to thrombosis formation in IMN.

Skipping Breakfast and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in the General Japanese Population: the Iki City Epidemiological Study of Atherosclerosis and Chronic Kidney Disease (ISSA-CKD).

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Breakfast-skipping habits are associated with adverse health outcomes including coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. However, it remains uncertain whether skipping breakfast affects chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk. This study aimed to examine the association between skipping breakfast and progression of CKD.

We retrospectively conducted a population-based cohort study using the data from the Iki City Epidemiological Study of Atherosclerosis and Chronic Kidney Disease (ISSA-CKD). Between 2008 and 2019, we included 922 participants aged 30 years or older who had CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 and/or proteinuria) at baseline. Breakfast-skippers were defined as participants who skipped breakfast more than 3 times per week. The outcome was CKD progression defined as a decline of at least 30% in the eGFR from the baseline status. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CKD progression, adjusted for other CKD risk factors.

During a follow-up period with a mean of 5.5 years, CKD progression occurred in 60 (6.5%) participants. The incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) of CKD progression was 21.5 in the breakfast-skipping group and 10.7 in the breakfast-eating group (p=0.029), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for CKD progression was 2.60 (95% CI 1.29‒5.26) for the breakfast-skipping group (p=0.028) compared with the group eating breakfast. There were no clear differences in the association of skipping breakfast with CKD progression in subgroup analyses by sex, age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, baseline eGFR and baseline proteinuria.

Skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher risk of CKD progression in the general Japanese population.

LncRNA GABPB1-IT1 is upregulated in ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and downregulates miR-204-5p to promote hypoxia-induced human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

The present study investigated the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GABPB1-IT1 in ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).

The expression of GABPB1-IT1 in plasma of patients with ischemia-induced AKI and healthy controls was detected by RT-qPCR. GABPB1-IT1 and miR-204-5p were overexpressed in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HRPTEpCs), followed by RT-qPCR to assess the overexpression effect and the regulatory relationship between GABPB1-IT1 and miR-204-5p. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was performed to assess the promoter methylation status of miR-204-5p. Additionally, cell apoptosis assay was carried out to evaluate the correlation between miR-204-5p and GABPB1-IT1 in the context of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of HRPTEpCs.

GABPB1-IT1 was upregulated in plasma of patients with ischemia-induced AKI. In HRPTEpCs, hypoxia upregulated the expression of GABPB1-IT1. MiR-204-5p was downregulated in ischemia-induced AKI, and the expression of miR-204-5p was inversely correlated with GABPB1-IT1. In HRPTEpCs, overexpression of GABPB1-IT1 decreased the expression levels of miR-204-5p and increased miR-204-5p gene methylation. In addition, overexpression of GABPB1-IT1 reduced the inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p on the apoptosis of HRPTEpC induced by hypoxia. Furthermore, overexpression of GABPB1-IT1 promoted kidney injury, renal tissue injury scores, and the level of serum creatinine. However, miR-204-5p had the opposite effect.

GABPB1-IT1 was upregulated in ischemia-induced AKI and may induce hypoxia-induced apoptosis of HRPTEpC by methylation of miR-204-5p.

Opioid analgesic use among patients with kidney disease: a systematic review.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Opioid analgesics are often used to manage moderate to severe pain. A significant proportion of patients taking opioids have compromised kidney function. This systematic review aimed to examine the available evidence on the safety and analgesic effect of opioid use in adults with kidney disease.

We searched eight electronic databases from inception to 26th January 2023. Published original research articles in English reporting on opioid use and pharmacokinetic data among adults with reduced renal function were included. Article screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by at least two investigators independently. This review was registered prospectively on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42020159091).

There were 32 observational studies included, 14 of which reported on morphine use, three involved fentanyl use, two involved hydromorphone use and 13 articles reported on other opioids including codeine, dihydrocodeine, and buprenorphine.

There is limited and low-quality evidence to inform the safety and analgesic effect of opioid use in reduced renal function. Morphine remains the opioid for which there is the most evidence available on safety and analgesic effect in the context of renal disease. Greater caution and consideration of potential risks and benefits should be applied when using other opioids. Further high-quality studies examining clinical outcomes associated with the use of different opioids and opioid doses in renal disease are warranted.

Comprehensive analysis of ceRNA network and immune cell infiltration pattern of autophagy related genes in IgA nephropathy.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a prevalent worldwide glomerular disease with a complex pathophysiology that has significant economic implications. Despite the lack of successful research, this study aims to discover the potential competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of autophagy-associated genes in IgAN and examine their correlation with immune cell infiltration.

Autophagy-related hub genes were discovered by assessing the GSE116626 dataset and constructing a protein-protein interaction network. Nephroseq v5 analysis engine was used to analyze correlations between hub genes and proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine levels. Then, a ceRNA network construction and the CIBERSORT tool for immune cell infiltration analysis were also performed. Additionally, the differentially expressed autophagy-related genes (DEARGs) were used to predict potential targeted medications for IgAN.

1396 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in IgAN along with 25 autophagy-related differentially expressed messenger RNAs (DEmRNAs). Enrichment analysis revealed significant involvement of autophagy and apoptosis in biological processes. Next, we evaluated the top hub nodes based on their highest degrees. The ability of IgAN discrimination was confirmed in the GSE35487 and GSE37460 datasets by validating the five hub genes: SIRT1, FOS, CCL2, CDKN1A and MYC. In the Nephroseq v5 analysis engine, the clinical correlation of the five hub genes was confirmed. Furthermore, the ceRNA network identified 18 circular RNAs and 2 microRNAs associated with hub autophagy-related genes in IgAN. Our investigation identified hsa-miR-32-3p and hsa-let-7i-5p as having elevated expression levels and substantial diagnostic value. Finally, four distinctively infiltrated immune cells were found to be associated with the hub autophagy-related genes, and 67 drugs were identified as potential therapeutic options for IgAN.

This study sheds light on a novel ceRNA regulatory network mechanism associated with autophagy in IgAN development.

Pathophysiology of Physical Exercise in Kidney Patients: Unveiling New Players- The Role of Myokines.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive systemic condition characterized by numerous complications. Among these, alterations in sk...

Fitwalking: A New Frontier for Kidney Patients. A Center' s Experience.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Physical inactivity is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is an important modifiable risk factor for mortality, morbidity, and reduced quality of life. The present single-centre pilot study evaluated the possibility of performing structured physical exercise using a specific walking model, Fitwalking, in a population of patients with CKD and, according to the American College of Rheumatology guidelines, also in a population with immuno-rheumatological disease.

Patients were recruited from the nephrology, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, transplantation, and immuno-rheumatology outpatient clinics. After general and functional clinical evaluation and exercise prescription at the Department of Sports Medicine, we performed scientifically proven tests on CKD (Six-minute walk test and Sit to stand test), before and after the Fitwalking technique training course, and again after 6 and 12 months, to evaluate its effectiveness and identify any critical issues.

We enrolled 80 patients, (41 males, 51.2%), mean age 53±12 years; the clinical data showed statistically significant improvements in systolic, average, and differential blood pressure, average speed, and physical strength. Participants also adapted to muscle fatigue, experienced a reduction in BMI with stable lean mass and reduced fat mass, and reported improved perceptions of physical and mental health, and quality of life.

All enrolled patients successfully completed the process. A specific prescription was used that provided health education and allowed for the implementation of structured physical activity that could be performed safely and independently even after the training period. The activity was sustainable thanks to the training of in-house medical and nursing staff, demonstrating that it is possible to overcome this type of barrier to physical activity in CKD and in immuno-rheumatological patients.

Quantitative Abdominal Arterial Calcification Correlates with Kidney Transplant Waitlist Mortality.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

The scarcity of available organs for kidney transplantation has resulted in a substantial waiting time for patients with End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD). This prolonged wait contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Calcification of large arteries is a high-risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it is common among candidates for kidney transplant. The aim of this study is to correlate Abdominal Arterial Calcification (AAC) score value with mortality on the waitlist.

We modified the coronary calcium score and used it to quantitate the AAC. We conducted a retrospective clinical study of all adult patients who were listed for kidney transplant, between 2005 and 2015, and had abdominal computed tomography scan. Patients were divided into two groups: those who died on the waiting list (DWL group) and those who survived on the waiting list (SWL group).

Each 1000 increase in the AAC score value of the sum score of the abdominal aorta, bilateral common iliac, bilateral external iliac, and bilateral internal iliac was associated with increased risk of death (HR 1.034, 95%CI 1.013, 1.055) (p = 0.001). This association remained significant even after adjusting for various patient characteristics, including age, tobacco use, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and dialysis status.

The study highlights the potential value of the AAC score as a noninvasive Imaging biomarker for kidney transplant waitlist patients. Incorporating the AAC scoring system into routine imaging reports could facilitate improved risk assessment and personalized care for kidney transplant candidates.

Hepatic Oxygenation Changes and Symptomatic Intradialytic Hypotension.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Clinical studies on differences among changes in cerebral and hepatic oxygenation during hemodialysis (HD) in patients with and without intradialytic hypotension (IDH) are limited. We investigated changes in intradialytic cerebral and hepatic oxygenation before systolic blood pressure (SBP) reached the nadir during HD and compared these differences between patients with and without symptomatic IDH.

We analyzed data from 109 patients with (n=23) and without (n=86) symptomatic IDH who were treated with HD. Cerebral and hepatic regional oxygen saturation (rSO2), as a marker of tissue oxygenation and circulation, was monitored during HD using an INVOS 5100c oxygen saturation monitor. Changes in cerebral or hepatic rSO2 when SBP reached the nadir during HD were compared between the groups of patients.

The cerebral rSO2 before HD in patients with and without symptomatic IDH was 49.7 ± 11.2% and 51.3 ± 9.1% (p = 0.491). %Changes in cerebral rSO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups from 60 min before the SBP nadir during HD. Hepatic rSO2 before HD in patients with and without symptomatic IDH were 58.5 ± 15.4% and 57.8 ± 15.9% (p = 0.869). The %changes in hepatic rSO2 were significantly lower in patients with symptomatic IDH than in those without throughout the observational period (p < 0.001). We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and estimated cut-off values for changes in hepatic rSO2 as a symptomatic IDH predictor. The predictive ability at 5 and 40 min before symptomatic IDH onset was excellent, with AUCs and cut-off values of 0.847 and 0.841, and -10.9% and -5.0%, respectively.

Hepatic oxygenation significantly decreased more in patients with symptomatic IDH before its onset, than in those without symptomatic IDH, whereas changes in cerebral oxygenation did not differ. Evaluating changes in hepatic oxygenation during HD might help to predict symptomatic IDH.

Indoxyl sulfate aggravates podocyte damage through the TGF-β1/Smad/ROS signaling pathway.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Hyperglycaemia induces the production of a large quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activates the transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1)/Smad signalling pathway, which is the main initiating factor in the formation of diabetic nephropathy. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-binding gut-derived uraemic toxin that localizes to podocytes, induces oxidative stress and inflames podocytes. The involvement of podocyte damage in diabetic nephropathy through the TGF-β1/) signalling pathway is still unclear.

In this study, we cultured differentiated rat podocytes in vitro and measured the expression levels of nephrin, synaptopodin, CD2AP, SRGAP2a and α-SMA by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT‒PCR) and western blotting after siRNA-mediated TGF-β1 silencing, TGF-β1 overexpression and the presence of the ROS inhibitor acetylcysteine. We detected the expression levels of nephrin, synaptopodin, CD2AP, SRGAP2a, SRGAP2a in the Smad2/3, phosphorylated-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3), Smad7, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and ROS levels under high glucose (HG) and IS conditions.

The results indicated that nephrin, synaptopodin, CD2AP and SRGAP2a expressions were significantly upregulated and α-SMA expression was significantly downregulated in the presence of HG under siRNA-mediated TGF-β1 silencing or after the addition of acetylcysteine. However, in the presence of HG, the expressions of nephrin, synaptopodin, CD2AP and SRGAP2a were significantly downregulated, and the expression of α-SMA was significantly upregulated with the overexpression of TGF-β1. IS supplementation under HG conditions further significantly reduced the expressions of nephrin, synaptopodin, CD2AP and SRGAP2a; altered the expressions of Smad2/3, p-Smad2/3, Smad7 and NOX4; and increased ROS production in podocytes.

This study suggests that IS may modulate the expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, CD2AP and SRGAP2a by regulating the ROS and TGF-β1/Smad signalling pathways, providing new theoretical support for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

Construction and validation of a mutation-related model in papillary renal cell carcinoma and associated immune infiltration.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

To improve the clinical evaluation of the prognosis of papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), we screened a model to predict the survival of patients with mutations in related genes.

We downloaded RNA sequencing information from all patients with PRCC in TCGA. We first analyzed the differences in genes and the enrichment of these differences. Then, by selecting mutant genes, constructing a protein-protein interaction network, lasso regression, and multivariable Cox regression, a prognosis model was constructed. Additionally, the model was validated using external data sets. We analyzed the immune infiltration of PRCC and the correlation between the model and popular targets. Finally, we performed tissue microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry to verify the expression levels of the three genes.

We constructed a three-gene (NEK2, CENPA, and GINS2) model. The verification results indicated that the model had a good prediction effect. We also developed a visual nomogram. Enrichment analysis revealed the major pathways involved in muscle system processes. Immunoassays showed that the expression level of CENPA was positively correlated with PD-1 and CTLA4 expression levels. Immunohistochemical and tissue microarray results showed that these three genes were highly expressed in PRCC, which was consistent with the predicted results in the database.

We constructed and verified a three-gene model to predict the patient survival. The results show that the model has a good prediction effect.