The latest medical research on Kidney Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about kidney cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Renal interstitial fibrosis is reduced in high-fat diet-induced obese pigs following renal denervation from the intima and adventitia of the renal artery.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Background This study aims to compare whether two different routes of Renal denervation (RDN) from the intima and adventitia of the renal artery ca...

Health-Related Quality of Life according to Renal Function: Results from a Nationwide Health Interview and Examination Survey.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Most studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) focus on patients with end-stage kidney disease although they represent a small proportion of patients with CKD. We aimed to analyze HRQoL according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) categories in a population-based sample of adults living in Germany.

Data from the German health interview and examination survey conducted from 2008 to 2011 were used. Participants with valid interview and examination data aged 40-79 years were included (n = 5,159). Serum creatinine levels were used to calculate estimated GFR via the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. We classified kidney function in GFR categories according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Initiative (KDIGO) guidelines on CKD: G1 (high): ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2, G2 (normal): 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2, G3a (mildly decreased): 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m2, G3b (moderately decreased): 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m2, G4/5 (severely decreased/end-stage kidney disease): <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. HRQoL was evaluated with the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Different multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of HRQoL with GFR categories.

Overall, 5.9% had a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (corresponding to categories G3a, G3b, and G4/5). Compared to category G2 linear regression showed a decline in physical HRQoL in categories G3a (-2.34, p = 0.004), G3b (-5.37, p = 0.009), and G4/5 (-4.82, p = 0.117). No decline in mental HRQoL was detected with increasing GFR categories. Categories G3a to G4/5 were significantly associated with a low perceived general state of health (G3a: odds ratio [OR] = 2.03, p = 0.001; G3b: OR = 3.01, p = 0.009; G4/5: OR = 8.70, p = 0.016) when compared to category G2.

In a representative sample of adults living in Germany, both physical HRQoL and the perceived general state of health are already significantly reduced in category G3a.

Screening Novel Drug Candidates for Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma Treatment: A Study on Differentially Expressed Genes through the Connectivity Map Database.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality in renal cancer. Thus, the transcriptome data of KIRC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were analyzed and drug candidates for the treatment of KIRC were explored through the connectivity map (CMap) database.

The transcriptome data of KIRC patients were downloaded from TCGA database, and KIRC-associated hub genes were screened out through differential analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Afterward, the CMap database was used to select drug candidates for KIRC treatment, and the drug-targeted genes were obtained through the STITCH database. A PPI network was constructed by combining drug-targeted genes with hub genes that affected the pathogenesis of KIRC to obtain final hub genes. Finally, combining hub genes and KIRC-associated hub genes, the pathways affected by drugs were explored by pathway enrichment analysis.

A total of 2,312 differentially expressed genes were found in patients, which were concentrated in immune cell activity, cytokine, and chemokine secretion pathways. Drug screening disclosed 5 drug candidates for KIRC treatment: fedratinib, Ly344864, geldanamycin, AS-605240, and luminespib. Based on drug-targeted genes and KIRC-associated hub genes, 16 hub genes were screened out. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that drugs mainly affected pathways such as neuroactive ligand pathways, cell adhesion, and chemokines.

The above results indicated that fedratinib, LY 344864, geldanamycin, AS-605240, and luminespib could be used as candidates for KIRC therapy. The findings from this study will make contributions to the treatment of KIRC in the future.

Progression of Aortic Calcification in Stage 4-5 Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Transitioning to Dialysis and Transplantation.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and associated with increased mortality. Comparative data on the AAC score progression in CKD patients transitioning from conservative treatment to different modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are lacking and were examined.

150 study patients underwent lateral lumbar radiograph to study AAC in the beginning of the study before commencing RRT (AAC1) and at 3 years of follow-up (AAC2). We examined the associations between repeated laboratory tests taken every 3 months, echocardiographic and clinical variables and AAC increment per year (ΔAAC), and the association between ΔAAC and outcomes during follow-up.

At the time of AAC2 measurement, 39 patients were on hemodialysis, 39 on peritoneal dialysis, 39 had a transplant, and 33 were on conservative treatment. Median AAC1 was 4.8 (0.5-9.0) and median AAC2 8.0 (1.5-12.0) (p < 0.0001). ΔAAC was similar across the treatment groups (p = 0.19). ΔAAC was independently associated with mean left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (log LVMI: β = 0.97, p = 0.02) and mean phosphorus through follow-up (log phosphorus: β = 1.19, p = 0.02) in the multivariable model. Time to transplantation was associated with ΔAAC in transplant recipients (per month on the waiting list: β = 0.04, p = 0.001). ΔAAC was associated with mortality (HR 1.427, 95% confidence interval 1.044-1.950, p = 0.03).

AAC progresses rapidly in patients with CKD, and ΔAAC is similar across the CKD treatment groups including transplant recipients. The increment rate is associated with mortality and in transplant recipients with the time on the transplant waiting list.

Relationships between Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinases, Tissue Inhibitor TIMP-2, and Renal Function in Patients with Myocarditis.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Under physiological conditions, the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) is maintained by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). However, changes in the balance between MMPs and TIMPs can lead to pathological remodeling of the ECM, which contributes to cardiovascular and kidney diseases. The aim of our study was to assess levels of MMPs and TIMP-2 in patients with myocarditis and their relationship to renal function.

Forty five patients with myocarditis who underwent CMR were included, comprising 11 with concurrent chronic kidney disease (CKD). Blood samples were obtained to assess serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-2.

Serum MMP-2, MMP-3, and TIMP-2 levels negatively correlated with the ejection fraction in patients with myocarditis, while MMP-3 levels correlated with longitudinal deformation (p < 0.05). Serum MMP-2, MMP-3, and TIMP-2 levels also negatively correlated with renal function, as assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p < 0.05). Patients with myocarditis and concurrent CKD had higher levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 than those without kidney damage.

(1) We demonstrated that MMP-2, MMP-3, and TIMP-2 concentrations were related to left-ventricular ejection fraction, and MMP-3 levels correlated with longitudinal deformation, indicating MMPs play an important role in the post-inflammatory remodeling of the myocardium. (2) A negative correlation between the eGFR and MMP-2, MMP-3, and TIMP-2 and a positive correlation between creatinine and MMP-3 levels indicate the role of MMPs and TIMP-2 in renal dysfunction.

Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Aggravates Kidney Injury via Activation of p38/MAPK Signaling and Upregulation of HuR.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is an intestinal metabolic toxin, which is produced by gut flora via metabolizing high-choline foods. TMAO is known to increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism of TMAO aggravating kidney injury.

We used the five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)-induced CKD rats to investigate whether TMAO could aggravate kidney damage and its possible mechanisms. Six weeks after the operation, the two groups of 5/6 Nx rats were subjected to intraperitoneal injection with 2.5% glucose peritoneal dialysis fluid (2.5% PDF) and 2.5% PDF plus TMAO 20 mg/kg/day.

In this study, we provided evidence showing TMAO significantly aggravated renal failure as well as inflammatory cell infiltration and in five-sixths nephrectomy-induced CKD rats. We found that TMAO could upregulate inflammatory factors including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-18 by activating p38 phosphorylation and upregulation of human antigen R. TMAO could aggravate oxidative stress by upregulating NOX4 and downregulating SOD. The result also confirmed that TMAO promoted NLRP3 inflammasome formation as well as cleaved caspase-1 and IL-1β activation in the kidney tissue.

Taken together, the present study validates TMAO as a pro-inflammatory factor that causes renal inflammatory injury and renal function impairment. Inhibition of TMAO synthesis or promoting its clearance may be a potential therapeutic approach of CKD in the future.

Under-recognition of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery in the ICU Impedes Early Detection and Prevention.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality; therefore, prevention is important. The aim of this study was to systematically assess AKI incidence after cardiac surgery as documented in clinical routine compared to the real incidence because AKI may be under-recognized in clinical practice. Further, its postoperative management was compared to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations because recognition and adequate treatment represent the fundamental cornerstone in the prevention and management of AKI.

This retrospective single-center study included n = 100 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The coded incidence of postoperative AKI during intensive care unit stay after surgery was compared to the real AKI incidence. Furthermore, conformity of postoperative parameters with KDIGO recommendations for AKI prevention and management was reviewed.

We found a considerable discrepancy between coded and real incidence, and conformity with KDIGO recommendations was found to be relatively low. The coded incidence was significantly lower (n = 12 vs. n = 52, p < 0.05), representing a coding rate of 23.1%. Regarding postoperative management, 90% of all patients had at least 1 episode with mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg within the first 72 h. Furthermore, regarding other preventive parameters (avoiding hyperglycemia, stopping angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, avoiding contrast media, and nephrotoxic drugs), only 10 patients (20.8%) in the non-AKI group and in 5 (9.6%) subjects in the AKI group had none of all the above potential AKI-promoting factors.

AKI recognition in everyday clinical routine seems to be low, especially in lower AKI stages, and the current postoperative management still offers potential for optimization. Possibly, higher AKI awareness and stricter postoperative management could already achieve significant effects in prevention and treatment of AKI.

Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade is Associated with Exercise Capacity, Sympathetic Activity and Endothelial Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have exercise intolerance and exaggerated blood pressure reactivity during exercise that are mediated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivation and decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) increases SNS activation and reduces NO synthesis, and prior studies suggest that RAS blockade attenuates declines in physical function. We hypothesized that RAS inhibitor (RASi) use is associated with higher exercise capacity mediated by decreased SNS activity and increased NO-dependent endothelial function in CKD.

In 35 CKD patients (57 ± 7 years) and 20 controls (CON, 53 ± 8 years), we measured exercise capacity (VO2peak), muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) for NO-dependent endothelial function.

CKD patients treated with RASi (CKD+RASi, n=25) had greater VO2 peak compared to CKD patients not treated with RASi (CKD no RASi, n=10), but lower VO2 peak compared to CON (23.3 ± 5.8 vs.16.4 ± 2.9, p=0.007; vs.30.0 ± 7.7, p=0.016 ml/min/kg respectively). CKD+RASi had lower resting MSNA and greater FMD compared to CKD no RASi. Compared to CON, CKD+RASi had similar MSNA but lower FMD. VO2 peak was positively associated with FMD (r=0.417, p=0.038) and was predicted by the combination of FMD and RASi status (r2 =0.344, p=0.01) and MSNA and RASi status (r2 =0.575, p=0.040) in CKD patients.

In summary, CKD patients on RASi have higher exercise capacity compared to those not on RASi. Higher exercise capacity in RASi-treated group was associated with lower resting SNS activity and higher NO-dependent vascular endothelial function.

Pulse Wave Velocity, Central Haemodynamic Parameters, and Markers of Kidney Function in Children.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Studies in adults have demonstrated the association between mildly decreased kidney function or even normal values of markers of kidney function to pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness and a predictor of cardiovascular events. Our study aimed to evaluate associations between markers of CKD, PWV, and central haemodynamic parameters in children and adolescents at risk of subclinical kidney damage.

182 children and adolescents with hypertension, obesity, or hypercholesterolaemia (risk factors for subclinical kidney damage) were included in the study. The subjects were subdivided into 4 groups comprising children and adolescents with hypertension (group 1), obesity (group 2), hypercholesterolaemia (group 3), and a group with a combination of risk factors, such as obesity-related hypertension and metabolic syndrome (group 4). The study groups were compared to a group of healthy controls (group 5). PWV was measured by applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, SCOR-Vx, Sydney, NSW, Australia) and laboratory parameters (serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and microalbuminuria) were collected.

Pearson's correlation coefficient demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between PWV and serum creatinine in group of all subjects (r = 0.220, p = 0.002). Further subdivision showed the correlation was significant in group 4 (r = 0.370, p = 0.002). In group 2 a correlation between PWV and cystatin C was found (r = -0.535, p = 0.009). In multiple regression analysis of all subjects with PWV as the dependent variable, age and diastolic blood pressure were statistically significant. Correlations between markers of kidney function and central haemodynamic parameters also showed significant correlations between serum creatinine and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.476, p < 0.001) as well as associated parameters (augmentation index, standardized at HR 75/min, ejection duration, and subendocardial viability ratio).

Our study demonstrated a correlation between serum creatinine and PWV in children with combined risk factors for atherosclerosis and probable subclinical kidney damage. Further prospective research is needed to confirm the findings, and thus the preventive role of PWV determination in paediatric nephrology.

Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry Analysis for Metabolic Communication between Heart and Kidney in Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy Rats.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

Although the adriamycin-induced nephropathy model is frequently employed in the study of nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, the accompanying myocardial damage has always been a cause for concern. Therefore, there is a great need to study cardiorenal communication in this model.

An adriamycin-induced nephropathy model was established via tail vein injection. The levels of the biochemical indicators serum albumin, serum globulin, serum total protein, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine (SCr), urinary protein, and urinary creatinine (UCr) were measured, and histopathological changes in the heart and kidneys were assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Metabolomic changes in the heart, blood, and kidneys were analyzed using the metabolomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Compared with the control group, the model group showed significant decreases in serum protein and total protein levels, albumin/globulin ratio, and creatinine clearance rate as well as significant increases in serum cholesterol, SCr, urinary protein, and UCr levels. Significant pathological changes were observed in the renal pathology sections in the model group, including diffusely merged glomerular epithelial cells, inflammatory infiltration, and vacuolated glomerular cells. Additionally, thickened myocardial fibers, swollen nuclei, inflammatory infiltration, and partial myocardial necrosis could be seen in the cardiac pathology sections in the model group. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, a total of 20 differential metabolites associated with 15 metabolic pathways were identified in the heart, 7 differential metabolites with 7 metabolic pathways were identified in the blood, and 16 differential metabolites with 21 metabolic pathways were identified in the kidney. Moreover, 6 common metabolic pathways shared by the heart and kidney were identified: arginine and proline metabolism; arginine biosynthesis; glutathione metabolism; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; beta-alanine metabolism; and histidine metabolism. Among these metabolic pathways, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism was shared by the heart, blood, and kidney. Succinic acid was found to be the key regulatory metabolite in cardiorenal metabolic communication.

Six metabolic pathways were found to be involved in cardiorenal metabolic communication in an adriamycin-induced nephropathy model, in which alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism may be the metabolic link between the heart and kidney in the development and maintenance of oxidative stress and inflammation. Succinic acid may serve as a key regulatory metabolic switch or marker of cardiac and renal co-injury, as shown in an adriamycin-induced nephropathy model.

The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Back to the Future?

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

It is just over a century since the 1918 flu pandemic, sometimes referred to as the "mother" of pandemics. This brief retrospective of the 1918 pandemic is taken from the viewpoint of the current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic and is based on a short lecture given during the 2021 Virtual Congress of the ERA-EDTA.

This review summarizes and highlights some of the earlier pandemic's salient features, some parallels with today, and some potential learnings, bearing in mind that the flu pandemic occurred over 100 years ago at a time of major turmoil during the climax to WWl, and with limited medical expertise and knowledge, research facilities, or well-structured and resourced healthcare services. While there is little or no information on renal complications at the time, or an effective treatment, some observations in relation to COVID-19 and vaccination are included. Key Messages: Lessons are difficult to draw from 1918 other than the importance and value of non-pharmaceutical measures to limit viral transmission. While the economic impact of the 1918 pandemic was significant, as it is now with COVID-19, subsequent economic analysis has shown that protecting public health and preserving economic activity are not mutually exclusive. Both H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 viruses are neurotropic and may cause chronically debilitating neurological diseases, including conditions such as encephalitis lethargica (still debated) and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome), respectively. Although coronavirus and influenza viral infections have some similarities, they are certainly not the same, as we are realising, and future infectious pandemics may still surprise us, but being "forewarned is forearmed."

The Predialysis Serum Sodium Level Modifies the Effect of Hemodialysis Frequency on Left-Ventricular Mass: The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

The Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily and Nocturnal trials aimed to compare the effects of hemodialysis (HD) given 6 versus 3 times per week. More frequent in-center HD significantly reduced left-ventricular mass (LVM), with more pronounced effects in patients with low urine volumes. In this study, we aimed to explore another potential effect modifier: the predialysis serum sodium (SNa) and related proxies of plasma tonicity.

Using data from the FHN Daily and Nocturnal Trials, we compared the effects of frequent HD on LVM among patients stratified by SNa, dialysate-to-predialysis serum-sodium gradient (GNa), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, time-integrated sodium-adjusted fluid load (TIFL), and extracellular fluid volume estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

In 197 enrolled subjects in the FHN Daily Trial, the treatment effect of frequent HD on ∆LVM was modified by SNa. When the FHN Daily Trial participants are divided into lower and higher predialysis SNa groups (less and greater than 138 mEq/L), the LVM reduction in the lower group was substantially higher (-28.0 [95% CI -40.5 to -15.4] g) than in the higher predialysis SNa group (-2.0 [95% CI -15.5 to 11.5] g). Accounting for GNa, TIFL also showed more pronounced effects among patients with higher GNa or higher TIFL. Results in the Nocturnal Trial were similar in direction and magnitude but did not reach statistical significance.

In the FHN Daily Trial, the favorable effects of frequent HD on left-ventricular hypertrophy were more pronounced among patients with lower predialysis SNa and higher GNa and TIFL. Whether these metrics can be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from frequent HD or other dialytic or nondialytic interventions remains to be determined. Prospective, adequately powered studies studying the effect of GNa reduction on mortality and hospitalization are needed.