The latest medical research on Advanced Heart Failure & Transplant Cardiology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about advanced heart failure & transplant cardiology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Defects in the Proteome and Metabolome in Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Circulation. Heart failure

Defects in energetics are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); yet, the determinants of ATP availability are not known. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the nature and extent of metabolic reprogramming in human HCM, and its potential impact on contractile function.

We conducted proteomic and targeted, quantitative metabolomic analyses on heart tissue from patients with HCM and from nonfailing control human hearts.

In the proteomic analysis, the greatest differences observed in HCM samples compared with controls were increased abundances of extracellular matrix and intermediate filament proteins and decreased abundances of muscle creatine kinase and mitochondrial proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation. These differences in protein abundance were coupled with marked reductions in acyl carnitines, byproducts of fatty acid oxidation, in HCM samples. Conversely, the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate, branched chain amino acids, and their breakdown products, were all significantly increased in HCM hearts. ATP content, phosphocreatine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its phosphate derivatives, NADP and NADPH, and acetyl CoA were also severely reduced in HCM compared with control hearts. Functional assays performed on human skinned myocardial fibers demonstrated that the magnitude of observed reduction in ATP content in the HCM samples would be expected to decrease the rate of cross-bridge detachment. Moreover, left atrial size, an indicator of diastolic compliance, was inversely correlated with ATP content in hearts from patients with HCM.

HCM hearts display profound deficits in nucleotide availability with markedly reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation and increases in ketone bodies and branched chain amino acids. These results have important therapeutic implications for the future design of metabolic modulators to treat HCM.

Management of Hypertension in Patients With Ventricular Assist Devices: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circulation. Heart failure

Mechanical circulatory support with durable continuous-flow ventricular assist devices has become an important therapeutic management strategy for ...

Proposed Cardiac End Points for Clinical Trials in Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis: Report From the Amyloidosis Forum Cardiac Working Group.

Circulation. Heart failure

Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is a rare, multisystemic, phenotypically heterogenous disease affecting cardiovascular, renal, neurological,...

Outcomes With Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor Use After Left Ventricular Assist Device: A STS-INTERMACS Analysis.

Circulation. Heart failure

Elevated right ventricular afterload following continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) may contribute to late right heart failure (LRHF). PDE5i (phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors) are used to treat pulmonary hypertension and right heart dysfunction after CF-LVAD, but their impact on outcomes is uncertain.

We queried Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support from 2012 to 2017 for adults receiving a primary CF-LVAD and surviving ≥30 days from index discharge. Patients receiving early PDE5i (ePDE5i) at 1 month were propensity-matched 1:1 with controls. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of LRHF, defined using prevailing Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support criteria; secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality and major bleeding.

Among 9627 CF-LVAD recipients analyzed, 2463 (25.6%) received ePDE5i and 1600 were propensity-matched 1:1 with controls. Before implant, ePDE5i patients had more severe RV dysfunction (13.1% versus 9.6%) and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (2.8±2.7 versus 2.2±2.4 WU), both P<0.001, but clinical factors were well-balanced after propensity-matching. In the unmatched cohort, ePDE5i patients had a higher 3-year cumulative incidence of LRHF, mortality, and major bleeding, but these differences were attenuated in the propensity-matched cohort: LRHF 40.8% versus 35.7% (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.99-1.32]; P=0.07); mortality 38.6% versus 35.8% (hazard ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.86-1.15]; P=0.93); major bleeding 51.2% versus 46.0% (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.99-1.27]; P=0.06).

Compared with propensity-matched controls, adult CF-LVAD patients receiving ePDE5i had similar rates of LRHF, mortality, and major bleeding. While intrinsic patient risk factors likely account for more adverse outcomes with ePDE5i in the unmatched cohort, there is no obvious benefit of ePDE5i in the LVAD population.

Development of Advanced Heart Failure: A Population-Based Study.

Circulation. Heart failure

Some patients with heart failure (HF) will go on to develop advanced HF, characterized by severe HF symptoms despite attempts to optimize medical therapy. The goals of this study were to examine the risk of developing advanced HF in patients with newly diagnosed HF, identify risk factors for developing advanced HF, and evaluate the impact of advanced HF on outcomes.

This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents with a new clinical diagnosis of HF between 2007 and 2017. Risk factors for the development of advanced HF (2018 European Society of Cardiology criteria) were examined using cause-specific Cox proportional hazard regression models. The associations of development of advanced HF with risks of hospitalization and mortality were examined using the Andersen-Gill and Cox models, respectively.

There were 4597 residents with incident HF from 2007 to 2017. The cumulative incidence of advanced HF was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.5%-12.5%) at 6 years after incident HF diagnosis overall and was 14.4% (95% CI, 12.3%-16.9%), 11.4% (95% CI, 8.9%-14.6%), and 11.7% (95% CI, 10.3%-13.2%) in patients with incident HF with reduced, mildly reduced, and preserved ejection fraction, respectively. Key demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic characteristics were independently associated with the development of advanced HF. Development of advanced HF was associated with increased risks of all-cause hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.7-3.4]; P<0.001), HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 10.2 [95% CI, 8.7-12.1]), all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 5.0 [95% CI, 4.5-5.6]; P<0.001), and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 7.8 [95% CI, 6.7-9.1]).

In this population-based study, development of advanced HF was common and was associated with markedly increased morbidity and mortality.

The Value of Passive Leg Raise During Right Heart Catheterization in Diagnosing Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Circulation. Heart failure

Because of limited accuracy of noninvasive tests, diastolic stress testing plays an important role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Exercise right heart catheterization is considered the gold standard and indicated when HFpEF is suspected but left ventricular filling pressures at rest are normal. However, performing exercise during right heart catheterization is not universally available. Here, we examined whether pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) during a passive leg raise (PLR) could be used as simple and accurate method to diagnose or rule out occult-HFpEF.

In our tertiary center for pulmonary hypertension and HFpEF, all patients who received a diagnostic right heart catheterization with PCWP-measurements at rest, PLR, and exercise were evaluated (2014-2020). The diagnostic value of PCWPPLR was compared with the gold standard (PCWPEXERCISE). Cut-offs derived from our cohort were subsequently validated in an external cohort (N=74).

Thirty-nine non-HFpEF, 33 occult-HFpEF, and 37 manifest-HFpEF patients were included (N=109). In patients with normal PCWPREST (<15 mmHg), PCWPPLR significantly improved diagnostic accuracy compared with PCWPREST (AUC=0.82 versus 0.69, P=0.03). PCWPPLR ≥19 mmHg (24% of cases) had a specificity of 100% for diagnosing occult-HFpEF, irrespective of diuretic use. PCWPPLR ≥11 mmHg had a 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing occult-HFpEF. Both cut-offs retained a 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in the external cohort. Absolute change in PCWPPLR or V-wave derived parameters had no incremental value in diagnosing occult-HFpEF.

PCWPPLR is a simple and powerful tool that can help to diagnose or rule out occult-HFpEF.

Targeting Preload in Heart Failure: Splanchnic Nerve Blockade and Beyond.

Circulation. Heart failure

Preload augmentation represents a critical mechanism for the cardiovascular system to increase effective circulating blood volume to increase cardi...

Combining Minimally Invasive Surgery With Ultra-Fast-Track Anesthesia in HeartMate 3 Patients: A Pilot Study.

Circulation. Heart failure

Minimally invasive surgery for left ventricular assist device implantation may have advantages over conventional sternotomy (CS). Additionally, ultra-fast-track anesthesia has been linked to better outcomes after cardiac surgery. This study summarizes our early experience of combining minimally invasive surgery with ultra-fast-track anesthesia (MIFTA) in patients receiving HeartMate 3 devices and compares the outcomes between MIFTA and CS.

From October 2015 to January 2019, 18 of 49 patients with Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profiles >1 underwent MIFTA for HeartMate 3 implantation. For bias reduction, propensity scores were calculated and used as a covariate in a regression model to analyze outcomes. Weighted parametric survival analysis was performed.

In the MIFTA group, intensive care unit stays were shorter (mean difference, 8 days [95% CI, 4-13]; P<0.001), and the incidences of pneumonia and right heart failure were lower than those in the CS group (odds ratio, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.01-1.75]; P=0.016, respectively). At 6 and 12 hours postoperatively, MIFTA patients had a better hemodynamic performance with lower pulmonary wedge pressure (mean difference, 2.23 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.41-4.06]; P=0.028) and a higher right ventricular stroke work index (mean difference, -1.49 g·m/m2 per beat [95% CI, -2.95 to -0.02]; P=0.031). CS patients had a worse right heart failure-free survival rate (hazard ratio, 2.35 [95% CI, 0.96-5.72]; P<0.01).

Compared with CS, MIFTA is a beneficial approach for non-Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support 1 HeartMate 3 patients with lower adverse event incidences, better hemodynamic performance, and preserved right heart function. Future large multicentric investigations are required to verify MIFTA's effects on outcomes.

Validating an Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Diagnosis Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: The Dilated Cardiomyopathy Precision Medicine Study.

Circulation. Heart failure

Coronary angiography to identify coronary artery disease has been foundational to distinguish the cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), including the assignment of idiopathic or ischemic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as an approach to identify myocardial scar and identify etiology.

The DCM Precision Medicine Study included patients with left ventricular dilation and dysfunction attributed to idiopathic DCM, after expert clinical review excluded ischemic or other cardiomyopathies. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was defined as coronary artery disease with >50% narrowing at angiography of ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. CMR was not required for study inclusion, but in a post hoc analysis of available CMR reports, patterns of LGE were classified as (1) no LGE, (2) ischemic-pattern LGE: subendocardial/transmural, (3) nonischemic LGE: midmyocardial/epicardial.

Of 1204 idiopathic DCM patients evaluated, 396 (32.9%) had a prior CMR study; of these, 327 (82.6% of 396) had LGE imaging (mean age 46 years; 53.2% male; 55.4% White); 178 of the 327 (54.4%) exhibited LGE, and 156 of the 178 had LGE consistent with idiopathic DCM. The remaining 22 had transmural or subendocardial LGE. Of these 22, coronary angiography was normal (13), showed luminal irregularities (3), a distant thrombus (1), coronary artery disease with <50% coronary artery narrowing (1), or was not available (4).

Of 327 probands enrolled in the DCM Precision Medicine Study cohort who had LGE-CMR data available, an ischemic-pattern of LGE was identified in 22 (6.7%), all of whom had idiopathic DCM as adjudicated by expert clinical review.

URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03037632.

Management and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction-Cardiogenic Shock in Uninsured Compared With Privately Insured Individuals.

Circulation. Heart failure

There are limited data on uninsured patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). This study sought to compare the management and outcomes of AMI-CS between uninsured and privately insured individuals.

Using the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2016), a retrospective cohort of adult (≥18 years) uninsured admissions (primary payer-self-pay or no charge) were compared with privately insured individuals. Interhospital transfers were excluded. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, temporal trends in admissions, use of cardiac procedures, do-not-resuscitate status, palliative care referrals, and resource utilization.

Of 402 182 AMI-CS admissions, 21 966 (5.4%) and 93 814 (23.3%) were uninsured and privately insured. Compared with private insured individuals, uninsured admissions were younger, male, from a lower socioeconomic status, had lower comorbidity, higher rates of acute organ failure, ST-segment elevation AMI-CS (77.3% versus 76.4%), and concomitant cardiac arrest (33.8% versus 31.9%; all P<0.001). Compared with 2000, in 2016, there were more uninsured (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.13-1.17]; P<0.001) and less privately insured admissions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.83-0.87]; P<0.001). Uninsured individuals received less frequent coronary angiography (79.5% versus 81.0%), percutaneous coronary intervention (60.8% versus 62.2%), mechanical circulatory support (54% versus 55.5%), and had higher palliative care (3.8% versus 3.2%) and do-not-resuscitate status use (4.4% versus 3.2%; all P<0.001). Uninsured admissions had higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.55-1.68]; P<0.001) and resource utilization.

Uninsured individuals have higher in-hospital mortality and lower use of guideline-directed therapies in AMI-CS compared with privately insured individuals.

Developments in Exercise Capacity Assessment in Heart Failure Clinical Trials and the Rationale for the Design of METEORIC-HF.

Circulation. Heart failure

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a highly morbid condition for which exercise intolerance is a major manifestation. However,...

Peripheral Venous Pressure-Assisted Exercise Stress Echocardiography in the Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypertension During Exercise in Patients With Suspected Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Circulation. Heart failure

Identification of elevated pulmonary artery (PA) pressures during exercise may provide diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Although widely performed, exercise stress echocardiography may underestimate true PA pressures due to the difficulty in estimating right atrial pressure (RAP) during exercise. We hypothesized that peripheral venous pressure (PVP) could allow for reliable estimation of RAP, and thus PA pressures during exercise stress echocardiography.

In protocol 1, we investigated the accuracy of PVP compared with simultaneously measured RAP at rest and during exercise right heart catheterization in 19 subjects. In protocol 2, we examined whether the addition of PVP to Doppler exercise echocardiography (tricuspid regurgitant velocity) would increase the ability to identify exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension compared with inferior vena cava-based RAP estimation in 60 patients with dyspnea.

In protocol 1, PVP was strongly correlated with simultaneously measured RAP at rest and during exercise (r=0.77 and 0.90), with little overestimation of invasively measured RAP (bias 3.4 mm Hg at rest and 1.7 mm Hg during exercise). In protocol 2, PVP increased dramatically during exercise echocardiography (14±5 mm Hg) while an increase in inferior vena cava-based RAP was modest (6±4 mm Hg). Exercise PA pressures calculated from PVP and tricuspid regurgitant velocity were significantly higher than those estimated from inferior vena cava and the use of PVP increased the proportion of patients with exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension from 40% to 68%.

PVP may prevent underestimation of PA pressures during exercise echocardiography and could be a preferred approach to identify exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in patients with suspected heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.